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Alexandria
ALEXANDRIA (/ˌælɪɡˈzændriə/ or /ˌælɪɡˈzɑːndriə/ ; Arabic
Arabic
: الإسكندرية al-Iskandariyyah; Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
: اسكندرية‎‎ Eskendereya; Coptic : Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ, Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ Alexandria, Rakotə) is the second largest city and a major economic centre in Egypt
Egypt
, extending about 32 km (20 mi) along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country. Its low elevation on the Nile delta makes it highly vulnerable to rising sea levels. Alexandria
Alexandria
is an important industrial center because of its natural gas and oil pipelines from Suez . Alexandria
Alexandria
is also an important tourist destination. Alexandria
Alexandria
was founded around a small, ancient Egyptian town c
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Arabic
ARABIC ( Arabic
Arabic
: العَرَبِيَّة‎, al-ʻarabiyyah ( listen ) or Arabic
Arabic
: عَرَبِيّ‎ ʻarabī ( listen ) or ) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world
Arab world
. It is named after the Arabs
Arabs
, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula . The modern written language ( Modern Standard Arabic ) is derived from Classical Arabic . It is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media
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Telephone Numbering Plan
A TELEPHONE NUMBERING PLAN is a type of numbering scheme used in telecommunication to assign telephone numbers to subscriber telephones or other telephony endpoints. Telephone numbers are the addresses of participants in a telephone network, reachable by a system of destination code routing. Telephone numbering plans are defined in each of administrative regions of the public switched telephone network (PSTN) and they are also present in private telephone networks. For public number systems, geographic location plays a role in the sequence of numbers assigned to each telephone subscriber. Numbering plans may follow a variety of design strategies which have often arisen from the historical evolution of individual telephone networks and local requirements. A broad division is commonly recognized, distinguishing open numbering plans and closed numbering plans
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UTC+2
UTC+02:00 is an identifier for a time offset from UTC of +02. In ISO 8601 the associated time would be written as 2017-08-09T10:11:53+02:00
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Natural Gas
NATURAL GAS is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane , but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes , and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide , nitrogen , hydrogen sulfide , or helium . It is formed when layers of decomposing plant and animal matter are exposed to intense heat and pressure under the surface of the Earth over millions of years. The energy that the plants originally obtained from the sun is stored in the form of chemical bonds in the gas. Natural gas
Natural gas
is a fossil fuel used as a source of energy for heating, cooking, and electricity generation. It is also used as fuel for vehicles and as a chemical feedstock in the manufacture of plastics and other commercially important organic chemicals . Fossil fuel based natural gas is a non-renewable resource
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Rome
ROME (/roʊm/ ROHM ; Italian : Roma ( listen ), Latin
Latin
: Rōma) is the capital of Italy
Italy
and a special comune (named Comune
Comune
di Roma Capitale). Rome
Rome
also serves as the capital of the Lazio region . With 2,876,051 residents in 1,285 km2 (496.1 sq mi), it is also the country's most populated comune. It is the fourth-most populous city in the European Union
European Union
by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome , which has a population of 4.3 million residents. Rome
Rome
is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
, within Lazio (Latium), along the shores of the Tiber
Tiber

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Egyptian Hieroglyphs
EGYPTIAN HIEROGLYPHS (/ˈhaɪrəˌɡlɪf, -roʊ-/ ) were the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
. It combined logographic , syllabic and alphabetic elements, with a total of some 1,000 distinct characters. Cursive hieroglyphs were used for religious literature on papyrus and wood. The later hieratic and demotic Egyptian scripts are derived from hieroglyphic writing; Meroitic was a late derivation from demotic. Use of hieroglyphic writing arises from proto-literate symbol systems in the Early Bronze Age , around the 32nd century BC ( Naqada III
Naqada III
), with the first decipherable sentence written in the Egyptian language dating to the Second Dynasty (28th century BC)
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Egyptian Cotton
GOSSYPIUM BARBADENSE, also known as EXTRA-LONG STAPLE (ELS) COTTON, is a species of cotton plant that has been cultivated to have extra-long staple fibers - longer than 34 mm (1 3/8"), that are associated with high quality products. Varieties of ELS cotton include WISICA Sea Island, American Pima, Egyptian ELS Gizas, Indian Suvin, and Chinese xinjiang. It is a tropical, frost-sensitive perennial plant that produces yellow flowers and has black seeds. It grows as a small, bushy tree and yields cotton with unusually long, silky fibers. To grow, it requires full sun and high humidity and rainfall. This plant contains the chemical gossypol , which reduces its susceptibility to insect and fungal damage
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Red Sea
The RED SEA (also the ERYTHRAEAN SEA) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
, lying between Africa
Africa
and Asia
Asia
. The connection to the ocean is in the south through the Bab el Mandeb strait and the Gulf of Aden
Aden
. To the north lie the Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
, the Gulf of Aqaba , and the Gulf of Suez (leading to the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
). The Red Sea
Red Sea
is a Global 200 ecoregion . The sea is underlain by the Red Sea Rift which is part of the Great Rift Valley . The Red Sea
Red Sea
has a surface area of roughly 438,000 km2 (169,100 mi2), is about 2250 km (1398 mi) long and, at its widest point, 355 km (220.6 mi) wide
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Time Zone
A TIME ZONE is a region of the globe that observes a uniform standard time for legal , commercial , and social purposes. Time
Time
zones tend to follow the boundaries of countries and their subdivisions because it is convenient for areas in close commercial or other communication to keep the same time . Most of the time zones on land are offset from Coordinated Universal Time
Time
(UTC) by a whole number of hours ( UTC−12 to UTC+14), but a few zones are offset by 30 or 45 minutes (e.g. Newfoundland Standard Time is UTC−03:30, Nepal
Nepal
Standard Time
Time
is UTC+05:45, and Indian Standard Time
Time
is UTC+05:30). Some higher latitude and temperate zone countries use daylight saving time for part of the year, typically by adjusting local clock time by an hour. Many land time zones are skewed toward the west of the corresponding nautical time zones
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Pipeline Transport
PIPELINE TRANSPORT is the transportation of goods or material through a pipe . The latest data, in 2014, gives a total of slightly less than 2,175,000 miles (3,500,000 km) of pipeline in 120 countries of the world. The United States had 65%, Russia had 8%, and Canada had 3%, thus 75% of all pipeline were in three countries. Pipeline and Gas Journal’s worldwide survey figures indicate that 118,623 miles (190,905 km) of pipelines are planned and under construction. Of these, 88,976 miles (143,193 km) represent projects in the planning and design phase; 29,647 miles (47,712 km) reflect pipelines in various stages of construction. Liquids and gases are transported in pipelines and any chemically stable substance can be sent through a pipeline
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Metropolis
A METROPOLIS (/mᵻˈtrɒpəlɪs, -plɪs/ ) is a large city or conurbation which is a significant economic , political , and cultural center for a country or region , and an important hub for regional or international connections, commerce, and communications. The term is Greek (Greek : μητρόπολη) and means the "mother city" of a colony (in the ancient sense), that is, the city which sent out settlers. This was later generalized to a city regarded as a center of a specified activity, or any large, important city in a nation. A big city belonging to a larger urban agglomeration, but which is not the core of that agglomeration, is not generally considered a metropolis but a part of it. The plural of the word is metropolises, although the Latin plural is "metropoles", from the Greek "metropoleis" (Greek : μητρoπόλεις)
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Nile
The NILE ( Arabic
Arabic
: النيل‎‎, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; Coptic : ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian : Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew : היאור, Ha-Ye'or or השיחור, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa . It is generally regarded as the longest river in the world, however other conflicting sources cite a 2007 study that gave the title to the Amazon River
River
in South America
South America

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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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Naucratis
NAUCRATIS or NAUKRATIS (Greek : Ναύκρατις, "Naval Victory"; Egyptian : Piemro; Arabic : ‎‎Kom Gieif) was a city of Ancient Egypt
Egypt
, on the Canopic branch of the Nile
Nile
river, and 45 mi (72 km) southeast of the open sea and Alexandria
Alexandria
. It was the first and, for much of its early history, the only permanent Greek colony in Egypt; it was a symbiotic nexus for the interchange of Greek and Egyptian art and culture. The modern site of the city has become an archaeological find of the highest significance and the source of not only many beautiful objects of art now gracing the museums of the world but also an important source of some of the earliest Greek writing in existence, from the inscriptions on its pottery. The sister port of Naucratis
Naucratis
was the harbour town of Thonis/ Heracleion
Heracleion
, which was undiscovered until 2000
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Maritime Archaeology
MARITIME ARCHAEOLOGY (also known as MARINE ARCHAEOLOGY) is a discipline within archaeology as a whole that specifically studies human interaction with the sea , lakes and rivers through the study of associated physical remains, be they vessels, shore side facilities, port-related structures, cargoes, human remains and submerged landscapes. A specialty within maritime archaeology is nautical archaeology, which studies vessel construction and use. As with archaeology as a whole, maritime archaeology can be practised within the historical, industrial, or prehistoric periods. An associated discipline, and again one that lies within archaeology itself, is underwater archaeology , which studies the past through any submerged remains be they of maritime interest or not. An example from the prehistoric era would be the remains of submerged settlements or deposits now lying under water despite having been dry land when sea levels were lower
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