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Alexanderson Alternator
An ALEXANDERSON ALTERNATOR is a rotating machine invented by Ernst Alexanderson in 1904 for the generation of high-frequency alternating current for use as a radio transmitter . It was one of the first devices capable of generating the continuous radio waves needed for transmission of amplitude modulation (sound) by radio. It was used from about 1910 in a few "superpower" longwave radiotelegraphy stations to transmit transoceanic message traffic by Morse code
Morse code
to similar stations all over the world. Although obsolete by the early 1920s due to the development of vacuum-tube transmitters, the Alexanderson alternator
Alexanderson alternator
continued to be used until World War 2. It is on the list of IEEE Milestones as a key achievement in electrical engineering
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New Brunswick, New Jersey
NEW BRUNSWICK is a city in Middlesex County , New Jersey
New Jersey
, United States. It is the county seat of Middlesex County, and the home of Rutgers University
Rutgers University
. The city is located on the Northeast Corridor rail line, 27 miles (43 km) southwest of Manhattan
Manhattan
, on the southern bank of the Raritan River . At the 2010 United States
United States
Census , the population of New Brunswick was 55,181, reflecting an increase of 6,608 (+13.6%) from the 48,573 counted in the 2000 Census , which had in turn increased by 6,862 (+16.5%) from the 41,711 counted in the 1990 Census
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Vacuum-tube
In electronics , a VACUUM TUBE, an ELECTRON TUBE, or just a TUBE (North America), or VALVE (Britain and some other regions), is a device that controls electric current between electrodes in an evacuated container. Vacuum
Vacuum
tubes mostly rely on thermionic emission of electrons from a hot filament or a cathode heated by the filament. This type is called a THERMIONIC TUBE or THERMIONIC VALVE. A phototube , however, achieves electron emission through the photoelectric effect . Not all electronic circuit valves/electron tubes are vacuum tubes (evacuated); gas-filled tubes are similar devices containing a gas, typically at low pressure, which exploit phenomena related to electric discharge in gases , usually without a heater. The simplest vacuum tube, the diode , contains only a heater, a heated electron-emitting cathode (the filament itself acts as the cathode in some diodes), and a plate (anode)
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Electronic Oscillator
An ELECTRONIC OSCILLATOR is an electronic circuit that produces a periodic, oscillating electronic signal, often a sine wave or a square wave . Oscillators convert direct current (DC) from a power supply to an alternating current (AC) signal. They are widely used in many electronic devices. Common examples of signals generated by oscillators include signals broadcast by radio and television transmitters , clock signals that regulate computers and quartz clocks , and the sounds produced by electronic beepers and video games . Oscillators are often characterized by the frequency of their output signal: * A low-frequency oscillator (LFO) is an electronic oscillator that generates a frequency below approximately 20 Hz. This term is typically used in the field of audio synthesizers , to distinguish it from an audio frequency oscillator. * An audio oscillator produces frequencies in the audio range, about 16 Hz to 20 kHz
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Armstrong Oscillator
The ARMSTRONG OSCILLATOR (also known as the MEISSNER OSCILLATOR ) is an LC electronic oscillator circuit which uses an inductor and capacitor to generate an oscillation. It is the earliest oscillator circuit, invented by US engineer Edwin Armstrong in 1912 and independently by Austrian engineer Alexander Meissner
Alexander Meissner
in 1913, and was used in the first vacuum tube radio transmitters . It is sometimes called a TICKLER OSCILLATOR because its distinguishing feature is that the feedback signal needed to produce oscillations is magnetically coupled into the tank inductor in the input circuit by a "tickler coil" (L2, right) in the output circuit
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Gloucester, Massachusetts
GLOUCESTER /ˈɡlɒstər/ is a city on Cape Ann
Cape Ann
in Essex County, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
, in the United States. It is part of Massachusetts\' North Shore . The population was 28,789 at the 2010 U.S. Census. An important center of the fishing industry and a popular summer destination, Gloucester
Gloucester
consists of an urban core on the north side of the harbor and the outlying neighborhoods of Annisquam , Bay View, Lanesville, Folly Cove, Magnolia , Riverdale, East Gloucester, and West Gloucester
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John Hays Hammond, Jr.
JOHN HAYS HAMMOND JR. (April 13, 1888 – February 12, 1965) was an American inventor known as "The Father of Radio Control ". Hammond’s pioneering developments in electronic remote control are the foundation for all modern radio remote control devices, including modern missile guidance systems, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), and the unmanned combat aerial vehicle (UCAVs). Of Hammond’s many individual inventions, the inventions which have seen the most significant application are the variable pitch or controlled pitch propellers and single dial radio tuning. He was the son of mining engineer John Hays Hammond, Sr. . CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 In popular culture * 3 Inventions * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links BIOGRAPHYBorn in San Francisco, California, his family moved to South Africa and the Transvaal in 1893
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Nikola Tesla
NIKOLA TESLA (Serbian Cyrillic : Никола Тесла; 10 July 1856 – 7 January 1943) was a Serbian-American inventor, electrical engineer , mechanical engineer , physicist , and futurist who is best known for his contributions to the design of the modern alternating current (AC) electricity supply system. Born and raised in the Austrian Empire, Tesla
Tesla
received an advanced education in engineering and physics in the 1870s and gained practical experience in the early 1880s working in telephony and at Continental Edison in the new electric power industry . He emigrated to the United States in 1884, where he would become a naturalized citizen. He worked for a short time at the Edison Machine Works
Edison Machine Works
in New York City
New York City
before he struck out on his own
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General Electric
GENERAL ELECTRIC (GE) is an American multinational conglomerate corporation incorporated in New York and headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
. As of 2016, the company operates through the following segments: Aviation , Current , Digital, Energy
Energy
Connections, Global Research , Healthcare , Lighting
Lighting
, Oil
Oil
and Gas , Power , Renewable Energy, Transportation , and Capital which cater to the needs of Financial services
Financial services
, Medical devices , Life Sciences
Life Sciences
, Pharmaceutical
Pharmaceutical
, Automotive
Automotive
, Software
Software
Development and Engineering industries. As of 2017, General Electric
General Electric
has the most patent assignments of all US-based corporations
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Brant Rock, Massachusetts
OCEAN BLUFF-BRANT ROCK is a census-designated place (CDP) in Plymouth County , Massachusetts
Massachusetts
, United States
United States
, composed of the neighborhoods of Ocean Bluff, Brant Rock, Fieldston, and Rexhame in the town of Marshfield . The population of the CDP was 4,970 at the 2010 census . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Geography * 3 Demographics * 4 References HISTORYBrant Rock and Ocean Bluff were originally inhabited by Native Americans, including members of the Wampanoag tribe of the Algonquian peoples . Native American artifacts have been found extensively in the area. The main road through the area, known today as Ocean Street, is a Native American road, likely very ancient. The area at the end of Brant Rock village, known as Blackman's Point, was a Native American campground. In the 1630s, the government of the Pilgrim settlers at Plymouth began to give out land grants in the area
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Radio
RADIO is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude , frequency , phase , or pulse width . When radio waves strike an electrical conductor , the oscillating fields induce an alternating current in the conductor. The information in the waves can be extracted and transformed back into its original form. Radio
Radio
systems need a transmitter to modulate (change) some property of the energy produced to impress a signal on it, for example using amplitude modulation or angle modulation (which can be frequency modulation or phase modulation ). Radio
Radio
systems also need an antenna to convert electric currents into radio waves , and radio waves into an electric current. An antenna can be used for both transmitting and receiving
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Rocky Point, New York
ROCKY POINT is a hamlet and census-designated place (CDP) in Suffolk County , New York , on the North Shore , of Long Island
Long Island
. As of the 2010 United States Census
2010 United States Census
, the CDP population was 14,014. Rocky Point is a community in the Town of Brookhaven . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Geography * 3 Demographics of the CDP * 4 References HISTORYRocky Point is home to the site where American radio company RCA
RCA
once operated a very large transmitting and transmitter research facility, known as Radio Central
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Radio-frequency
RADIO FREQUENCY (RF) is any of the electromagnetic wave frequencies that lie in the range extending from around 7003300000000000000♠3 kHz to 7011300000000000000♠300 GHz , which include those frequencies used for communications or radar signals. RF usually refers to electrical rather than mechanical oscillations. However, mechanical RF systems do exist (see mechanical filter and RF MEMS ). Although radio frequency is a rate of oscillation, the term "radio frequency" or its abbreviation "RF" are used as a synonym for radio – i.e., to describe the use of wireless communication, as opposed to communication via electric wires
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Transformer
A TRANSFORMER is an electrical device that transfers electrical energy between two or more circuits through electromagnetic induction . A varying current in one coil of the transformer produces a varying magnetic field, which in turn induces a varying electromotive force (emf) or "voltage " in a second coil. Power can be transferred between the two coils through the magnetic field, without a metallic connection between the two circuits. Faraday\'s law of induction discovered in 1831 described this effect. Transformers
Transformers
are used to increase or decrease the alternating voltages in electric power applications. Since the invention of the first constant-potential transformer in 1885, transformers have become essential for the transmission , distribution , and utilization of alternating current electrical energy. A wide range of transformer designs is encountered in electronic and electric power applications
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Telegraphy
TELEGRAPHY (from Greek : τῆλε têle, "at a distance" and γράφειν gráphein, "to write") is the long-distance transmission of textual or symbolic (as opposed to verbal or audio) messages without the physical exchange of an object bearing the message. Thus semaphore is a method of telegraphy, whereas pigeon post is not. Telegraphy
Telegraphy
requires that the method used for encoding the message be known to both sender and receiver. Many methods are designed according to the limits of the signalling medium used. The use of smoke signals , beacons , reflected light signals, and flag semaphore signals are early examples. In the 19th century, the harnessing of electricity led to the invention of electrical telegraphy . The advent of radio in the early 20th century brought about radiotelegraphy and other forms of wireless telegraphy
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Hertz (unit)
The HERTZ (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI) and is defined as one cycle per second . It is named for Heinrich Rudolf Hertz
Hertz
, the first person to provide conclusive proof of the existence of electromagnetic waves . Hertz
Hertz
are commonly expressed in multiples : kilohertz (103 Hz, kHz), megahertz (106 Hz, MHz), gigahertz (109 Hz, GHz), and terahertz (1012 Hz, THz). Some of the unit's most common uses are in the description of sine waves and musical tones , particularly those used in radio - and audio-related applications. It is also used to describe the speeds at which computers and other electronics are driven
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