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Alexander Stepanovich Popov
ALEXANDER STEPANOVICH POPOV (sometimes spelled POPOFF; Russian : Алекса́ндр Степа́нович Попо́в; March 16 1859 – January 13 1906) was a Russian physicist who is acclaimed in his homeland and some eastern European countries as the inventor of radio . Popov's work as a teacher at a Russian naval school led him to explore high frequency electrical phenomena. On May 7, 1895 he presented a paper on a wireless lightning detector he had built that worked via using a coherer to detect radio noise from lightning strikes. This day is celebrated in the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
as Radio
Radio
Day . In a March 24, 1896 demonstration he used radio waves to transmit a message between different campus buildings in St Petersburg
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World's Columbian Exposition
The WORLD\'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION (the official shortened name for the WORLD\'S FAIR: COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION, also known as the CHICAGO WORLD\'S FAIR and CHICAGO COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION) was a world\'s fair held in Chicago
Chicago
in 1893
1893
to celebrate the 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
's arrival in the New World
New World
in 1492. The centerpiece of the Fair, the large water pool, represented the long voyage Columbus took to the New World. Chicago
Chicago
bested New York City
New York City
; Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
; and St. Louis
St. Louis
for the honor of hosting the fair. The Exposition was an influential social and cultural event and had a profound effect on architecture , sanitation, the arts, Chicago's self-image, and American industrial optimism
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United States
Coordinates : 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of America Flag Great Seal MOTTO: " In God We Trust " Other traditional mottos * " E pluribus unum
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Heinrich Hertz
HEINRICH RUDOLF HERTZ (German: ; 22 February 1857 – 1 January 1894) was a German physicist who first conclusively proved the existence of the electromagnetic waves theorized by James Clerk Maxwell 's electromagnetic theory of light . The unit of frequency — cycle per second — was named the "hertz " in his honor. CONTENTS* 1 Biography * 1.1 Death * 2 Scientific work * 2.1 Meteorology * 2.2 Contact mechanics
Contact mechanics
* 2.3 Electromagnetic waves * 2.4 Cathode rays * 3 Nazi
Nazi
persecution * 4 Legacy and honors * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links BIOGRAPHYHeinrich Rudolf Hertz
Hertz
was born in 1857 in Hamburg
Hamburg
, then a sovereign state of the German Confederation
German Confederation
, into a prosperous and cultured Hanseatic family
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Mirror Galvanometer
A MIRROR GALVANOMETER is an electromechanical instrument that indicates that it has sensed an electric current by deflecting a light beam with a mirror . The beam of light projected on a scale acts as a long massless pointer. In 1826, Johann Christian Poggendorff developed the mirror galvanometer for detecting electric currents. The apparatus is also known as a spot galvanometer after the spot of light produced in some models. Mirror
Mirror
galvanometers were used extensively in scientific instruments before reliable, stable electronic amplifiers were available. The most common uses were as recording equipment for seismometers and submarine cables used for telegraphy. In modern times, the term mirror galvanometer is also used for devices that move laser beams by rotating a mirror through a galvanometer set-up. The name is often abbreviated as galvo
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Radio Waves
RADIO WAVES are a type of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum longer than infrared light. Radio waves have frequencies as high as 300 GHz
GHz
to as low as 3 kHz , though some definitions describe waves above 1 or 3 GHz
GHz
as microwaves , or include waves of any lower frequency. At 300 GHz, the corresponding wavelength is 1 mm (0.039 in), and at 3 kHz is 100 km (62 mi). Like all other electromagnetic waves, they travel at the speed of light . Naturally occurring radio waves are generated by lightning , or by astronomical objects . Artificially generated radio waves are used for fixed and mobile radio communication , broadcasting , radar and other navigation systems, communications satellites , computer networks and innumerable other applications. Radio waves
Radio waves
are generated by radio transmitters and received by radio receivers
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Oscillation
OSCILLATION is the repetitive variation, typically in time , of some measure about a central value (often a point of equilibrium ) or between two or more different states. The term vibration is precisely used to describe mechanical oscillation. Familiar examples of oscillation include a swinging pendulum and alternating current power. Oscillations occur not only in mechanical systems but also in dynamic systems in virtually every area of science: for example the beating human heart , business cycles in economics , predator–prey population cycles in ecology , geothermal geysers in geology , vibrating strings in musical instruments , periodic firing of nerve cells in the brain, and the periodic swelling of Cepheid variable stars in astronomy
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Yekaterinburg
YEKATERINBURG (Russian : Екатеринбу́рг; IPA: ), alternatively romanised as EKATERINBURG, is Russia\'s fourth-largest city after Moscow
Moscow
, Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
, and Novosibirsk
Novosibirsk
, with a population of 1,349,772 as of 2010. Yekaterinburg
Yekaterinburg
is the administrative centre of Sverdlovsk Oblast located in the middle of the Eurasian continent, on the border of Europe
Europe
and Asia
Asia
. Situated on the Iset River
Iset River
, the city was built in November 18, 1723, and named after Russian emperor Peter the Great\'s wife, Yekaterina, who later became Catherine I after Peter's death. In 1924, the city was named SVERDLOVSK (Russian : Свердло́вск) after the Communist party leader Yakov Sverdlov , and in 1991 back to Yekaterinburg
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Perm Governorate
Coat of arms CAPITAL Perm
Perm
HISTORY • Established 1781 • Disestablished November 3, 1923 AREA • (1897 ) 332,052 km2 (128,206 sq mi) POPULATION • (1897 ) 2,994,302 Density 9 /km2 (23.4 /sq mi) POLITICAL SUBDIVISIONS uezds : 12 Map of the governorate PERM GOVERNORATE (Russian : Пермская губерния) – an administrative unit of the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1781–1923. Located on both slopes of the Ural Mountains
Ural Mountains
. The administrative center of the province was the city Perm
Perm

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Kotlin Island
KOTLIN (or Kettle; Finnish : Retusaari) is a Russian island , located near the head of the Gulf of Finland
Gulf of Finland
, 32 kilometres (20 mi) west of Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
in the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
. Kotlin separates the Neva Bay from the rest of the gulf. The fortified town of Kronstadt
Kronstadt
is located on the island. The island serves as a gateway to Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
and as such has been the site of several military engagements. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Geography * 3 Pollution * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYThe town of Kronstadt
Kronstadt
was founded by Peter the Great
Peter the Great
, who took the island of Kotlin from the Swedes in 1703
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Electrical Resonance
ELECTRICAL RESONANCE occurs in an electric circuit at a particular resonant frequency when the imaginary parts of impedances or admittances of circuit elements cancel each other. In some circuits this happens when the impedance between the input and output of the circuit is almost zero and the transfer function is close to one. Resonant circuits exhibit ringing and can generate higher voltages and currents than are fed into them. They are widely used in wireless (radio ) transmission for both transmission and reception
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Relay
A RELAY is an electrically operated switch . Many relays use an electromagnet to mechanically operate a switch, but other operating principles are also used, such as solid-state relays . Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a separate low-power signal, or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal. The first relays were used in long distance telegraph circuits as amplifiers: they repeated the signal coming in from one circuit and re-transmitted it on another circuit. Relays were used extensively in telephone exchanges and early computers to perform logical operations. A type of relay that can handle the high power required to directly control an electric motor or other loads is called a contactor . Solid-state relays control power circuits with no moving parts , instead using a semiconductor device to perform switching
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Electric Bell
An ELECTRIC BELL is a mechanical bell that functions by means of an electromagnet . When an electric current is applied, it produces a repetitive buzzing or clanging sound. Electric bells have been widely used at railroad crossings , in telephones , fire and burglar alarms , as school bells , doorbells , and alarms in industrial plants, since the late 1800s, but they are now being widely replaced with electronic sounders. It consists of coils of insulated wire wound round iron rods. When an electric current flows through the coils, the rods became magnetic and attract a piece of iron attached to a clapper. The clapper hits the bell and makes it ring. CONTENTS* 1 Types * 1.1 Interrupter bells * 1.1.1 How it works * 1.2 Buzzers * 1.3 Single-stroke bells * 1.4 Telephones * 1.5 Fire alarms * 2 Power sources * 3 History * 4 See also * 5 References TYPESINTERRUPTER BELLS How an interrupter-type electric bell works
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Information Appliance
An INFORMATION APPLIANCE (IA) is an appliance that is designed to easily perform a specific electronic function such as playing music , photography , or editing text . Typical examples are smartphones and personal digital assistants (PDAs ). Information appliances partially overlap in definition with, or are sometimes referred to as smart devices, embedded systems , mobile devices or wireless devices. CONTENTS * 1 Appliance vs computer * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links APPLIANCE VS COMPUTERThe term information appliance was coined by Jef Raskin
Jef Raskin
around 1979
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Gulf Of Finland
The GULF OF FINLAND (Finnish : Suomenlahti; Estonian : Soome laht; Russian : Фи́нский зали́в, tr. Finskiy zaliv; IPA: ; Swedish : Finska viken) is the easternmost arm of the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
. It extends between Finland
Finland
(to the north) and Estonia
Estonia
(to the south) all the way to Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
in Russia
Russia
, where the river Neva
Neva
drains into it. Other major cities around the gulf include Helsinki
Helsinki
and Tallinn
Tallinn
. The eastern parts of the Gulf of Finland
Finland
belong to Russia, and some of Russia's most important oil harbours are located farthest in, near Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
(including Primorsk )
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Kymi, Finland
KYMI was a rural municipality in Finland
Finland
, located in Kymenlaakso on the coast, about 100 km east of Helsinki. Kymi is now part of Kotka
Kotka
. Its population in 1939 was 21,241 and in 1944 20,924
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