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Alexander Stepanovich Popov
Alexander Stepanovich Popov
Alexander Stepanovich Popov
(sometimes spelled Popoff; Russian: Алекса́ндр Степа́нович Попо́в; March 16 [O.S. March 4] 1859 – January 13 [O.S. December 31, 1905] 1906) was a Russian physicist who is acclaimed in his homeland and some eastern European countries as the inventor of radio.[1][2][3] Popov's work as a teacher at a Russian naval school led him to explore high frequency electrical phenomena. On May 7, 1895 he presented a paper on a wireless lightning detector he had built that worked via using a coherer to detect radio noise from lightning strikes. This day is celebrated in the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
as Radio
Radio
Day. In a March 24, 1896 demonstration he used radio waves to transmit a message between different campus buildings in St Petersburg
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Perm Governorate
Coat of armsCapital PermHistory •  Established 1781 •  Disestablished November 3, 1923Area •  (1897) 332,052 km2 (128,206 sq mi)Population •  (1897) 2,994,302 Density 9 /km2  (23.4 /sq mi)Political subdivisions uezds: 12Map of the governoratePerm Governorate (Russian: Пермская губерния) – an administrative unit of the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union in 1781–1923. Located on both slopes of the Ural Mountains
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Relay
A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to mechanically operate a switch, but other operating principles are also used, such as solid-state relays. Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a separate low-power signal, or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal. The first relays were used in long distance telegraph circuits as amplifiers: they repeated the signal coming in from one circuit and re-transmitted it on another circuit. Relays were used extensively in telephone exchanges and early computers to perform logical operations. A type of relay that can handle the high power required to directly control an electric motor or other loads is called a contactor. Solid-state relays control power circuits with no moving parts, instead using a semiconductor device to perform switching
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Kotlin Island
Kotlin (or Kettle, Finnish: Retusaari, Swedish: Reitskär) is a Russian island, located near the head of the Gulf of Finland, 32 kilometres (20 mi) west of Saint Petersburg[2] in the Baltic Sea. Kotlin separates the Neva Bay
Neva Bay
from the rest of the gulf. The fortified town of Kronstadt
Kronstadt
is located on the island
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Electrical Resonance
Electrical resonance
Electrical resonance
occurs in an electric circuit at a particular resonant frequency when the imaginary parts of impedances or admittances of circuit elements cancel each other. In some circuits, this happens when the impedance between the input and output of the circuit is almost zero and the transfer function is close to one.[1] Resonant circuits exhibit ringing and can generate higher voltages and currents than are fed into them
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Oscillation
Oscillation
Oscillation
is the repetitive variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of equilibrium) or between two or more different states. The term vibration is precisely used to describe mechanical oscillation
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Radio Waves
Radio waves are a type of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum longer than infrared light. Radio waves have frequencies as high as 300 GHz to as low as 3 kHz, though some definitions[1][2] describe waves above 300 MHz or 3 GHz as microwaves, or include waves of any lower frequency. At 300 GHz, the corresponding wavelength is 1 mm (0.039 in), and at 3 kHz is 100 km (62 mi). Like all other electromagnetic waves, they travel at the speed of light. Naturally occurring radio waves are generated by lightning, or by astronomical objects. Artificially generated radio waves are used for fixed and mobile radio communication, broadcasting, radar and other navigation systems, communications satellites, computer networks and many other applications. Radio waves are generated by radio transmitters and received by radio receivers
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World's Columbian Exposition
The World's Columbian Exposition
World's Columbian Exposition
(the official shortened name for the World's Fair: Columbian Exposition,[1] also known as the Chicago World's Fair and Chicago
Chicago
Columbian Exposition) was a world's fair held in Chicago
Chicago
in 1893
1893
to celebrate the 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbus's arrival in the New World
New World
in 1492.[2] The centerpiece of the Fair, the large water pool, represented the long voyage Columbus took to the New World. Chicago
Chicago
bested New York City; Washington, D.C.; and St. Louis
St. Louis
for the honor of hosting the fair
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United States
Coordinates: 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of AmericaFlagGreat SealMotto:  "In God
God
We Trust"[1][fn 1]Other traditional mottos  "E pluribus unum" (Latin) (de facto) "Out of many, one" "Annuit cœptis" (Latin) "H
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Heinrich Hertz
Heinrich Rudolf Hertz
Hertz
(German: [hɛɐʦ]; 22 February 1857 – 1 January 1894) was a German physicist who first conclusively proved the existence of the electromagnetic waves theorized by James Clerk Maxwell's electromagnetic theory of light. The unit of frequency — cycle per second — was named the "hertz" in his honor.[1]Contents1 Biography1.1 Death2 Scientific work2.1 Meteorology 2.2 Contact mechanics 2.3 Electromagnetic waves 2.4 Cathode rays3 Nazi
Nazi
persecution 4 Legacy and honors 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksBiography[edit] Heinrich Rudolf Hertz
Hertz
was born in 1857 in Hamburg, then a sovereign state of the German Confederation, into a prosperous and cultured Hanseatic family
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Mirror Galvanometer
A mirror galvanometer is an electromechanical instrument that indicates that it has sensed an electric current by deflecting a light beam with a mirror. The beam of light projected on a scale acts as a long massless pointer. In 1826, Johann Christian Poggendorff
Johann Christian Poggendorff
developed the mirror galvanometer for detecting electric currents. The apparatus is also known as a spot galvanometer after the spot of light produced in some models. Mirror
Mirror
galvanometers were used extensively in scientific instruments before reliable, stable electronic amplifiers were available. The most common uses were as recording equipment for seismometers and submarine cables used for telegraphy. In modern times, the term mirror galvanometer is also used for devices that move laser beams by rotating a mirror through a galvanometer set-up
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Electric Bell
An electric bell is a mechanical bell that functions by means of an electromagnet. When an electric current is applied, it produces a repetitive buzzing or clanging sound. Electric bells have been widely used at railroad crossings, in telephones, fire and burglar alarms, as school bells, doorbells, and alarms in industrial plants, since the late 1800s, but they are now being widely replaced with electronic sounders. It consists of coils of insulated wire wound round iron rods. When an electric current flows through the coils, the rods became magnetic and attract a piece of iron attached to a clapper
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Yekaterinburg
Yekaterinburg
Yekaterinburg
(Russian: Екатеринбу́рг, IPA: [jɪkətʲɪrʲɪnˈburk]), alternatively romanized Ekaterinburg, is the fourth-largest city in Russia
Russia
and the administrative center of Sverdlovsk Oblast, located on the Iset River east of the Ural Mountains, in the middle of the Eurasian continent, on the border of Europe
Europe
and Asia.[14][15] It is the main cultural and industrial center of the oblast. At the 2010 Census, it had a population of 1,349,772.[7] Yekaterinburg's urban area is the fourth largest in Russia, as well as one of the three most developed post-industrial urban areas of the country
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Choke (electronics)
In electronics, a choke is an inductor used to block higher-frequency alternating current (AC) in an electrical circuit, while passing lower-frequency or direct current (DC). A choke usually consists of a coil of insulated wire often wound on a magnetic core, although some consist of a doughnut-shaped "bead" of ferrite material strung on a wire. The choke's impedance increases with frequency. Its low electrical resistance passes both AC and DC with little power loss, but it can limit the amount of AC due to its reactance. The name comes from blocking—"choking"—high frequencies while passing low frequencies. It is a functional name; the name "choke" is used if an inductor is used for blocking or decoupling higher frequencies, but is simply called an "inductor" if used in electronic filters or tuned circuits
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Lightning Rod
A lightning rod (US, AUS) or lightning conductor (UK) is a metal rod mounted on a structure and intended to protect the structure from a lightning strike. If lightning hits the structure, it will preferentially strike the rod and be conducted to ground through a wire, instead of passing through the structure, where it could start a fire or cause electrocution. Lightning
Lightning
rods are also called finials, air terminals or strike termination devices. In a lightning protection system, a lightning rod is a single component of the system. The lightning rod requires a connection to earth to perform its protective function. Lightning
Lightning
rods come in many different forms, including hollow, solid, pointed, rounded, flat strips or even bristle brush-like. The main attribute common to all lightning rods is that they are all made of conductive materials, such as copper and aluminum
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Patent
A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state or intergovernmental organization to an inventor or assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for detailed public disclosure of an invention. An invention is a solution to a specific technological problem and is a product or a process.[1]:17 Patents are a form of intellectual property. The procedure for granting patents, requirements placed on the patentee, and the extent of the exclusive rights vary widely between countries according to national laws and international agreements. Typically, however, a granted patent application must include one or more claims that define the invention. A patent may include many claims, each of which defines a specific property right. These claims must meet relevant patentability requirements, such as novelty, usefulness, and non-obviousness
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