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Alexander Cobbe
General Sir Alexander Stanhope Cobbe VC, GCB, KCSI, DSO (6 June 1870 – 29 June 1931) was a senior British Indian Army
British Indian Army
officer and a recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.Contents1 Early life 2 Military career2.1 Ashanti War 2.2 Somaliland Campaign2.2.1 Victoria Cross2.3 Further campaigning 2.4 First World War3 Later career 4 Family life 5 Legacy 6 The medal 7 References 8 External linksEarly life[edit] Alexander Stanhope Cobbe was born on 5 June 1870
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Naini Tal
Nainital  pronunciation (help·info) is a popular hill station in the Indian state of Uttarakhand and headquarters of Nainital district in the Kumaon foothills of the outer Himalayas. Situated at an altitude of 2,084 metres (6,837 ft) above sea level, Nainital is set in a valley containing a mango-shaped lake, approximately two miles in circumference, and surrounded by mountains, of which the highest are Naina (2,615 m (8,579 ft)) on the north, Deopatha (2,438 m (7,999 ft)) on the west, and Ayarpatha (2,278 m (7,474 ft)) on the south
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Charles John Melliss
Major General Sir Charles John Melliss, VC, KCB, KCMG (12 September 1862 – 6 June 1936) was a British Army officer of the late 19th and early 20th centuries and a recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. A staff officer in the Mesopotamian Campaign of the First World War, he was captured after the Siege of Kut.Contents1 Early life 2 Military career2.1 First World War3 Later life 4 ReferencesEarly life[edit] Melliss was born in Mhow, British India, on 12 September 1862, the son of Lieutenant General George Julius Mellis of the Indian Staff Corps. He was educated at Wellington College, Berkshire and the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, being commissioned into the East Yorkshire Regiment in September 1882. Military career[edit] Melliss transferred to the Indian Army in 1884
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Indian Army
The Indian Army
Army
is the land-based branch and the largest component of the Indian Armed Forces. The President of India
India
is the Supreme Commander
Commander
of the Indian Army,[6] and it is commanded by the Chief of Army
Army
Staff (COAS), who is a four-star general. Two officers have been conferred with the rank of field marshal, a five-star rank, which is a ceremonial position of great honour. The Indian Army
Army
originated from the armies of the East India
India
Company, which eventually became the British Indian Army, and the armies of the princely states, which finally became the national army after independence
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India Medal
The India Medal
India Medal
was a campaign medal approved in 1896[1] for issue to officers and men of the British and Indian armies. The India Medal
India Medal
was awarded for various minor military campaigns in India, chiefly for service on the North-West Frontier during 1895 to 1902. This medal replaced the India General Service Medal (1854). Each campaign was represented by a clasp on the ribbon; seven were sanctioned.[2] The medal was awarded in silver to soldiers of the British and Indian armies, and in bronze to native bearers and servants.[3] The obverse shows the profile of Queen Victoria or, for those awarded the medal with the Waziristan 1901–02 clasp, King Edward VII
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Chitral Expedition
The Chitral
Chitral
Expedition (Urdu:چترال فوجی مہم) was a military expedition in 1895 sent by the British authorities to relieve the fort at Chitral
Chitral
which was under siege after a local coup. After the death of the old ruler power changed hands several times. An intervening British force of about 400 men was besieged in the fort until it was relieved by two expeditions, a small one from Gilgit
Gilgit
and a larger one from Peshawar.Contents1 Background to the conflict 2 Siege
Siege
of Chitral 3 Relief 4 Aftermath 5 Appraisal 6 See also 7 Notes 8 Sources 9 External links 10 Further readingBackground to the conflict[edit] In the last phase of the Great Game attention turned to the unclaimed mountainous area north of British India
British India
along the later Sino-Soviet border
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North-West Frontier (military History)
The North-West Frontier (present-day Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) region of the British Indian Empire
British Indian Empire
was the most difficult area to conquer in South Asia, strategically and militarily.[citation needed] It remains the western frontier of present-day Pakistan, extending from the Pamir Knot in the north to the Koh-i-Malik Siah in the west,[1] and separating the modern Pakistani frontier regions of North-West Frontier Province (renamed as Khyber Pakhtunkhwa), Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Balochistan from neighbouring Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in the west. The borderline between is officially known as the Durand Line
Durand Line
and divides Pashtun inhabitants of these provinces from Pashtuns
Pashtuns
in eastern Afghanistan. The two main gateways on the North West Frontier are the Khyber and Bolan Passes
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Central Africa Medal
The Central Africa Medal
Central Africa Medal
was awarded for service from 1891–1894 in Eastern and Central Africa, for the 1895 Unyoro Expedition, and from 1894–1898 for service in British Central Africa. Criteria[edit] Award of the Central Africa Medal
Central Africa Medal
was announced as being approved by the Queen in Army Order No. 66, 1 April 1895. The initial award was for various military expeditions from July 1891 to June 1894. It was subsequently authorized for the participants in the Unyoro Expedition in 1895.[3] It was later authorised for service in British Central Africa from 1895–1898 Appearance[edit] The medal uses the same medal design as the Ashantee Medal
Ashantee Medal
and the East and West Africa Medal. The obverse depict the left facing effigy of Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
wearing a diadem with a veil behind
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Africa General Service Medal
The Africa General Service Medal, established in 1902, was a campaign medal of the United Kingdom. It was awarded for minor campaigns that took place in tropical Africa between 1900 and 1956, with a total of forty five clasps issued. The medal is never seen without a clasp and some are very rare.[1] Most medals were granted to British led local forces, including the King's African Rifles
King's African Rifles
and the West African Frontier Force
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Ghana
Coordinates: 7°49′N 1°03′W / 7.817°N 1.050°W / 7.817; -1.050 Republic
Republic
of GhanaFlagCoat of armsMotto: "Freedom and Justice"Anthem: God Bless Our Homeland Ghana[1]Capital and largest city Accra 5°33′N 0°12′W / 5.550°N 0.200°W / 5.550; -0.200Official languages English[2][3]National languagesAsante Twi, Akuapem Twi, Bono, Dagaare, Dagbani, Dangme, Ewe, Ga, Gonja, Kasem, Fante, Nzema, Wasa, Talensi, Frafra, Hausa, Ghanaian Sign LanguageEthnic groups (2010[3][4])47.5% Akans (11.5 mln) 16.6% Dagbani
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Ashanti Wars
 British Empire British-allied African states  Ashanti EmpireCommanders and leaders King George IV King William IV Queen Victoria Alexander Gordon Laing Sir Charles MacCarthy  † Field Marshal Garnet Wolseley Osei Bonsu Osei Yaw Akoto Kwaku Dua I Panyin Kofi Karikari Mensa Bonsu Kwaku Dua II Prempeh I  (POW)Strength 11,000 (1st) 2,500 (3rd) 2,200 (4th) 2,500 (5th) 20,000 (1st)  Ashanti Empire ~12,000 (5th)Casualties and losses unknown (1st) 18 killed and 185 wounded (3rd) 0 (4th) 1,007 (5th) over 2,000 (1st) unknown (3rd) 0 (4th)  Ashanti Empire ~2,000 (5th)v t eScramble for AfricaBoer War (1880) Tunisia (1881) Sudan (1881) Egypt (1882) Wassoulou (1883) Eritrea (1887) Dahomey (1890) Mashonaland (1890) Dahomey (1892) Matabeleland (1893) Wassoulou (1894) Ashanti (1895) Ethiopia (1895) Matabeleland (1896) Zanzibar (1896) Benin (1897) Wassoulou (1898) Chad (1898) (Kousséri) Fashoda (189
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Kumasi
Kumasi
Kumasi
(historically spelled Comassie or Coomassie and usually spelled Kumase in Twi)[3] is a city in Ashanti Region, and is among the largest metropolitan areas in Ghana. Kumasi
Kumasi
is near Lake Bosomtwe, in a rain forest region, and is the commercial, industrial and cultural capital of Asanteman. Kumasi
Kumasi
is approximately 500 kilometres (300 mi) north of the Equator and 200 kilometres (100 mi) north of the Gulf of Guinea. Kumasi
Kumasi
is alternatively known as "The Garden City" because of its many beautiful species of flowers and plants. It is also called Oseikrom (Osei Tutu's town)
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Mohammed Abdullah Hassan
Hajji
Hajji
Hafiz Sayyid
Sayyid
Muhammad `Abd Allāh al-Hasan (Somali: Sayid Maxamed Cabdille Xasan, Arabic: محمّد عبد اللّه حسن‎;
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British India
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India
India
and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent. Collectively, they were called British India. In one form or another, they existed between 1612 and 1947, conventionally divided into three historical periods:During 1612–1757, the East India Company
East India Company
set up "factories" (trading posts) in several locations, mostly in coastal India, with the consent of the Mughal emperors
Mughal emperors
or local rulers. Its rivals were the merchant trading companies of Holland and France. By the mid-18th century, three "Presidency towns": Madras, Bombay, and Calcutta
Calcutta
had grown in size. During the period of Company rule in India, 1757–1858, the Company gradually acquired sovereignty over large parts of India, now called "Presidencies"
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Maxim Gun
The Maxim gun
Maxim gun
was a weapon invented by American-British inventor Hiram Stevens Maxim in 1883: it was the first recoil-operated machine gun.[1] It has been called "the weapon most associated with the British imperial conquest",[2] and likewise was used in colonial wars by other countries between 1886–1914.Contents1 Functionality 2 Production company 3 History3.1 Development (1883–1884) 3.2 Use in colonial warfare (1886–1914)3.2.1 Adoption by European armies and navies3.3 Russo-Japanese War 3.4 World War I
World War I
(1914–1918) 3.5 American use4 Variants and derivatives 5 See also 6 References 7 Sources 8 External linksFunctionality[edit]Illustration of the Maxim Gun in Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic DictionaryThe mechanism of the Maxim gun
Maxim gun
employed one of the earliest recoil-operated firing systems in history
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Somali Campaign
British VictoryCollapse of the Dervish state Consolidation of British Somaliland Consolidation of Italian SomalilandBelligerents British Empire  Ethiopian Empire (1900-1904)  Italian Empire Dervish State Supported by:  Ottoman Empire  German Empire  Ethiopian Empire (1915-1916)Commanders and leaders Eric John Eagles Swayne Richard Corfield † Robert Gordon George Rolland † Herbert Augustine Carter † Menelik II Sayyid Mohammed Abdullah Hassan Haji Sudi † Sultan Nur Iyasu V (1915-1916)v t eTheatres of World War IEuropeanWestern Front Eastern Front Italian Front BalkansMiddle EasternCaucasus Persia Gallipoli Mesopotamia Sinai and Palestine Arab Revolt South ArabiaAfricanSouth-West Africa Togoland Cameroon East Africa North AfricaAsian and Pacific theatreNaval theatersU-boat Atlantic Ocean Mediterraneanv t
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