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Ales Adamovich
Ales Adamovich (Belarusian: Алесь Адамовіч, Russian: Алесь Адамович, full name: Александр Михайлович Адамович; September 3, 1927 in Hlusha Minsk Voblast, Belarus, USSR
USSR
– January 26, 1994 in Moscow, Russia) was a Belarusian Soviet writer and a critic, Professor and Corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Doctor of Philosophy in philology, Doctorate
Doctorate
in 1962 (a degree in Russia corresponding to Habilitation); member of the Supreme Soviet (1989–92)
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Belarusian Language
 Belarus   Poland
Poland
(in Gmina Orla, Gmina Narewka, Gmina Czyże, Gmina Hajnówka
Hajnówka
and town of Hajnówka)Collective Security Treaty OrganizationRecognised minority language in Czech Republic[3]  Ukraine[4][5]  Lithuania[citation needed]Regulated by National Academy of Sciences of BelarusLanguage codesISO 639-1 beISO 639-2 belISO 639-3 belGlottolog bela1254[6]Linguasphere 53-AAA-eb < 53-AAA-e (varieties: 53-AAA-eba to 53-AAA-ebg)Belarusian-speaking world Legend: Dark blue - territory, where Belarusian language
Belarusian language
is used chiefly; Light blue - historical range[7]This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters
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Chingiz Aitmatov
Chyngyz Aitmatov (Kyrgyz: Чыңгыз Айтматов, Çıñğız Aytmatov, چىڭعىز ايتماتوۋ [tʃɯŋˈʁɯs ɑjtˈmɑtəf]; Russian: Чинги́з Тореку́лович Айтма́тов, Chingiz Torekulovich Aytmatov) (12 December 1928 – 10 June 2008) was a Soviet and Kyrgyz author who wrote in both Russian and Kyrgyz. He is one of the best known figure in Kyrgyzstan's literature.Contents1 Life 2 Work 3 Diplomatic career 4 Major works 5 References 6 Secondary sources 7 External linksLife[edit] He was born to a Kyrgyz father and Tatar mother. Aitmatov's parents were civil servants in Sheker. In 1937 his father was charged with "bourgeois nationalism" in Moscow, arrested and executed in 1938.[1] Aitmatov lived at a time when Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
was being transformed from one of the most remote lands of the Russian Empire to a republic of the USSR. The future author studied at a Soviet school in Sheker
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Vasil Bykaŭ
Vasíl Uładzímiravič Býkaŭ (often spelled Vasil Bykov, Belarusian: Васі́ль Уладзі́міравіч Бы́каў, Russian: Василь Влади́мирович Быков) (June 19, 1924 – June 22, 2003) was a prolific author of novels and novellas about World War II
World War II
and a significant figure in Belarusian literature and civic thought. His work earned him endorsements for the Nobel Prize nomination from, among others, Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
laureates Joseph Brodsky and Czesław Miłosz.Contents1 Life and career 2 Awards 3 See also 4 References 5 Bibliography 6 External linksLife and career[edit] Vasil Bykaŭ
Vasil Bykaŭ
was born in the village Byčki, not far from Viciebsk in 1924. In 1941 he was in Ukraine when Germany
Germany
attacked the USSR. At first seventeen-year-old Bykaŭ dug trenches – then he volunteered for the Red Army
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Nobel Prize In Literature
The Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature
Literature
(Swedish: Nobelpriset i litteratur) has been awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning).[2][3] Though individual works are sometimes cited as being particularly noteworthy, here "work" refers to an author's work as a whole. The Swedish Academy decides who, if anyone, will receive the prize in any given year. The academy announces the name of the chosen laureate in early October
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Order Of The Patriotic War
US-sized ribbon of the Order of the Patriotic War, 1st class US-sized ribbon of the Order of the Patriotic War, 2nd classThe Order of the Patriotic War
Order of the Patriotic War
(Russian: Орден Отечественной войны) is a Soviet military decoration that was awarded to all soldiers in the Soviet armed forces, security troops, and to partisans for heroic deeds during the German-Soviet War, known by the former- Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as the Great Patriotic War.Contents1 History 2 Design 3 References 4 External linksHistory[edit] The Order was established on 20 May 1942 and came in first class and second class depending upon the merit of the deed. It was the first Soviet order established during the war, and the first Soviet order divided into classes. Its statute precisely defined, which deeds are awarded with the order, e.g
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Order Of The Red Banner Of Labour
The Order of the Red Banner
Order of the Red Banner
of Labour (Russian: Орден Трудового Красного Знамени, translit. Orden Trudovogo Krasnogo Znameni) was an order of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
established to honour great deeds and services to the Soviet
Soviet
state and society in the fields of production, science, culture, literature, the arts, education, health, social and other spheres of labour activities. It is the labour counterpart of the military Order of the Red Banner. A few institutions and factories, being the pride of Soviet
Soviet
Union, also received the order. The Order of the Red Banner of Labour began solely as an award of the Russian SFSR on December 28, 1920
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Order Of The Badge Of Honour
Honour
Honour
(British English) or honor (American English; see spelling differences) is an abstract concept entailing a perceived quality of worthiness and respectability that affects both the social standing and the self-evaluation of an individual or institution such as a family, school, regiment or nation. Accordingly, individuals (or institutions) are assigned worth and stature based on the harmony of their actions with a specific code of honour, and the moral code of the society at large. Samuel Johnson, in his A Dictionary of the English Language
A Dictionary of the English Language
(1755), defined honour as having several senses, the first of which was "nobility of soul, magnanimity, and a scorn of meanness." This sort of honour derives from the perceived virtuous conduct and personal integrity of the person endowed with it
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Medal "For The Victory Over Germany In The Great Patriotic War 1941–1945"
The Medal "For the Victory Over Germany in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945" (Russian: медаль «За победу над Германией в Великой Отечественной войне 1941—1945 гг.») was a military decoration of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
established on May 9, 1945, by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR[1] to denote military participation in the victory of the Soviet armed forces over Nazi Germany
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Dmitry Likhachev
Dmitry Sergeyevich Likhachov (Russian: Дми́трий Серге́евич Лихачёв, also Dmitri Likhachev or Likhachyov; 28 November [O.S. 15 November] 1906 – 30 September 1999) was an outstanding Russian medievalist, linguist, and concentration camp survivor. During his lifetime, Likhachov was considered the world's foremost scholar of the Old Russian language and its literature. He was revered as "the last of old St Petersburgers", and as "a guardian of national culture". Due to his high profile as a Soviet dissident during his later life, Likhachov was often referred to as "Russia's conscience".Contents1 Life and career 2 Family 3 Legacy 4 Honours4.1 Medals5 Main works 6 References 7 External linksLife and career[edit] Dmitry Likhachov
Dmitry Likhachov
was born in Saint Petersburg
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Victor Astafiev
Viktor Petrovich Astafyev also spelled Astafiev or Astaf'ev (Russian: Ви́ктор Петро́вич Аста́фьев; 1 May 1924 – 29 November 2001), was a prominent Soviet and Russian writer.Contents1 Biography1.1 The War years 1.2 Literary career2 Controversy 3 Legacy 4 Honours and awards 5 English translations 6 Bibliography 7 Notes 8 References 9 External linksBiography[edit] Viktor Astafyev was born in the village of Ovsyanka (then Krasnoyarsk Uyezd, Yeniseysk Governorate, Russian SFSR) on the bank of the Yenisei river.[1] His father, Pyotr Pavlovich Astafyev, was a son of a relatively rich mill-owner (a part-time hunter who most of his time though spent at home), mother Lydia Ilyinichna Astafyeva (née Potylitsyna) came from a peasant family
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Fazil Iskander
Fazil Abdulovich Iskander (Russian: Фази́ль Абду́лович Исканде́р; Abkhazian: Фазиль Абдул-иҧа Искандер; 6 March 1929 – 31 July 2016) was a Soviet and Russian[1] writer and poet known in the former Soviet Union for his descriptions of Caucasian life
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Soviet Elite
The nomenklatura (Russian: номенклату́ра, IPA: [nəmʲɪnklɐˈturə]; Latin: nomenclatura) were a category of people within the Soviet Union and other Eastern Bloc countries who held various key administrative positions in the bureaucracy, running all spheres of those countries' activity: government, industry, agriculture, education, etc., whose positions were granted only with approval by the communist party of each country or region. Virtually all members of the nomenklatura were members of the Communist Party.[1] Critics of Stalin, such as Milovan Đilas, critically defined them as a new class.[2] Trotsky used the term caste rather than class, because he saw the Soviet Union as a degenerated workers' state, not a new class society. Later developments of Trotsky's theories, such as Tony Cliff's theory of state capitalism, did refer to the nomenklatura as a new class
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Boris Slutsky
Boris Slutsky (Russian: Бори́с Абра́мович Слу́цкий; 7 May 1919 in Slovyansk, Ukraine — 23 February 1986 in Tula) was a Soviet poet of the Russian language. During his childhood and youth he lived in Kharkov. In 1937 he entered the Law Institute of Moscow, and also studied at the Maxim Gorky Institute of Literature from 1939 till 1941. He joined a group of young poets including M. Kulchitzki, Pavel Kogan, S. Narovchatov, David Samoilov and others who became acquainted in autumn 1939 at the seminary of Ilya Selvinsky at the State Literary Publishing House, Goslitizdat and called themselves "the Generation of 1940". Between 1941-1945 he served in the Red Army as a politruk of an infantry platoon
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Bulat Okudzhava
Bulat Shalvovich Okudzhava (Russian: Була́т Ша́лвович Окуджа́ва; Georgian: ბულატ ოკუჯავა) (May 9, 1924 – June 12, 1997) was a Soviet and Russian poet, writer, musician, novelist, and singer-songwriter of Georgian-Armenian ancestry. He was one of the founders of the Soviet genre called "author song" (авторская песня, avtorskaya pesnya), or "guitar song", and the author of about 200 songs, set to his own poetry. His songs are a mixture of Russian poetic and folksong traditions and the French chansonnier style represented by such contemporaries of Okudzhava as Georges Brassens
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Elem Klimov
Elem Germanovich Klimov (Russian: Эле́м Ге́рманович Кли́мов; 9 July 1933 – 26 October 2003) was a Soviet Russian film director. He studied at VGIK, and was married to film director Larisa Shepitko. Klimov is best known in the West for his final film, 1985's Come and See
Come and See
(Иди и смотри), which follows a teenage boy in German-occupied Belarus
Belarus
during the German-Soviet War
German-Soviet War
and is often considered one of the greatest war films ever made
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