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Alectura
The AUSTRALIAN BRUSHTURKEY or AUSTRALIAN BRUSH-TURKEY (Alectura lathami), also frequently called the SCRUB TURKEY or BUSH TURKEY, is a common, widespread species of mound-building bird from the family Megapodiidae found in eastern Australia from Far North Queensland
Far North Queensland
to Illawarra
Illawarra
in New South Wales. The Australian brushturkey has also been introduced to Kangaroo Island
Kangaroo Island
in South Australia. It is the largest extant representative of the family Megapodiidae and is one of three species to inhabit Australia. Despite its name and their superficial similarities, the bird is not closely related to American turkeys , nor to the Australian bustard
Australian bustard
, which is also known as the bush turkey. Its closest relatives are the wattled brushturkey , Waigeo brushturkey and malleefowl
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Rainforest
RAINFORESTS are forests characterized by high rainfall , with annual rainfall in the case of tropical rainforests between 250 and 450 centimetres (98 and 177 in), and definitions varying by region for temperate rainforests . The monsoon trough , alternatively known as the intertropical convergence zone , plays a significant role in creating the climatic conditions necessary for the Earth
Earth
's tropical rainforests. Around 40% to 75% of all biotic species are indigenous to the rainforests. It has been estimated that there may be many millions of species of plants, insects and microorganisms still undiscovered in tropical rainforests. Tropical rainforests have been called the "jewels of the Earth" and the "world\'s largest pharmacy ", because over one quarter of natural medicines have been discovered there
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Mulch
A MULCH is a layer of material applied to the surface of soil . Reasons for applying mulch include conservation of soil moisture, improving fertility and health of the soil, reducing weed growth and enhancing the visual appeal of the area. A mulch is usually, but not exclusively, organic in nature. It may be permanent (e.g. plastic sheeting) or temporary (e.g. bark chips ). It may be applied to bare soil or around existing plants. Mulches of manure or compost will be incorporated naturally into the soil by the activity of worms and other organisms. The process is used both in commercial crop production and in gardening, and when applied correctly, can dramatically improve soil productivity
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Sclerophyll
SCLEROPHYLL is a type of vegetation that has hard leaves , short internodes (the distance between leaves along the stem) and leaf orientation parallel or oblique to direct sunlight. The word comes from the Greek sklēros (hard) and phyllon (leaf). Sclerophyllous plants occur in many parts of the world, but are most typical in the chaparral biomes . They are prominent throughout western ( Perth
Perth
region), eastern ( Sydney
Sydney
region) and southern (Adelaide region) parts of Australia , in the Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub biomes that cover the Mediterranean Basin , Californian chaparral and woodlands , Chilean Matorral
Chilean Matorral
, and the Cape Province
Cape Province
of South Africa
South Africa
. The sclerophyll leaves have three leaf stress traits used to cope with hot and dry summer. 1
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Brisbane
BRISBANE (/ˈbrɪzbən/ ( listen )) is the capital of and most populous city in the Australian state of Queensland
Queensland
, and the third most populous city in Australia. Brisbane's metropolitan area has a population of 2.4 million, and the South East Queensland
Queensland
region, centred on Brisbane, encompasses a population of more than 3.5 million. The Brisbane central business district stands on the original European settlement and is situated inside a bend of the Brisbane River , about 15 kilometres (9 miles) from its mouth at Moreton Bay
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Sydney
SYDNEY (/ˈsɪdni/ ( listen )) is the state capital of New South Wales
Wales
and the most populous city in Australia
Australia
and Oceania
Oceania
. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds the world\'s largest natural harbour and sprawls about 70 km (43.5 mi) on its periphery towards the Blue Mountains to the west , Hawkesbury to the north and Macarthur to the south . Sydney
Sydney
is made up of 658 suburbs , 40 local government areas and 15 contiguous regions . Residents of the city are known as "Sydneysiders". As at June 2016 Sydney's estimated population was 5,029,768. The Sydney
Sydney
area has been inhabited by indigenous Australians for at least 30,000 years
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Aboriginal Australians
ABORIGINAL AUSTRALIANS are legally defined as people who are members "of the Aboriginal race of Australia" (indigenous to mainland Australia or to the island of Tasmania
Tasmania
)
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Dingo
Canis
Canis
dingo (Meyer , 1793) The DINGO ( Canis
Canis
dingo or Canis
Canis
lupus dingo ) is a wild canine found in Australia whose taxonomic status as a distinct species remains debated. The dingo is the largest terrestrial predator in Australia, and plays an important role as an apex predator . However, the dingo is seen as a pest by livestock farmers due to attacks on animals. Conversely, their predation on rabbits , kangaroos and rats may be of benefit to graziers . For some Australians, the dingo is a cultural icon . The introduction of the dingo is seen by many as being responsible for thylacine extinction on the Australian mainland about two thousand years ago, although a recent study challenges this view
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Reptiles
See text for extinct groups. Global reptile distributionREPTILES are tetrapod (four-limbed vertebrate) animals in the class REPTILIA, comprising today's turtles , crocodilians , snakes , amphisbaenians , lizards , tuatara , and their extinct relatives. The study of these traditional reptile orders , historically combined with that of modern amphibians , is called herpetology . Because some reptiles are more closely related to birds than they are to other reptiles (e.g., crocodiles are more closely related to birds than they are to lizards), the traditional groups of "reptiles" listed above do not together constitute a monophyletic grouping (or clade ). For this reason, many modern scientists prefer to consider the birds part of Reptilia as well, thereby making Reptilia a monophyletic class
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Statistical Significance
In statistical hypothesis testing , a result has STATISTICAL SIGNIFICANCE when it is very unlikely to have occurred given the null hypothesis . More precisely, the significance level defined for a study, α, is the probability of the study rejecting the null hypothesis, given that it were true; and the p-value of a result, p, is the probability of obtaining a result at least as extreme, given that the null hypothesis were true. The result is STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT, by the standards of the study, when p < α. The significance level for a study is chosen before data collection, and typically set to 5% or much lower , depending on the field of study. In any experiment or observation that involves drawing a sample from a population , there is always the possibility that an observed effect would have occurred due to sampling error alone
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MHNT
The MUSéUM DE TOULOUSE, sometimes known as MHNT or MUSéUM D\'HISTOIRE NATURELLE DE LA VILLE DE TOULOUSE, is a museum of natural history in Toulouse, France . It is located in the Busca-Montplaisir , and houses a collection of more than 2.5 million items. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Permanent exhibitions * 3 Collections * 3.1 Prehistory
Prehistory
* 3.2 Botany * 3.3 Entomology * 3.3.1 Coleoptera
Coleoptera
* 3.3.2 Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
* 3.3.3 Orthoptera * 3.4 Mineralogy
Mineralogy
* 3.5 Ornithology * 3.6 Osteology * 3.7 Paleontology * 3.7.1 Invertebrates * 3.7.2 Vertebrates * 4 Henri Gaussen Botanical Garden * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORY THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION
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Goanna
See text. A GOANNA is any of several Australian monitor lizards of the genus Varanus
Varanus
, as well as certain species from Southeast Asia. Around 30 species of goanna are known, 25 of which are found in Australia. This varied group of carnivorous reptiles ranges greatly in size and fills several ecological niches . The goanna features prominently in Aboriginal mythology and Australian folklore . Being predatory lizards, goannas are often quite large, or at least bulky, with sharp teeth and claws. The largest is the perentie (V. giganteus), which can grow over 2.5 m (8.2 ft) in length. A goanna in Toowoomba , Darling Downs
Darling Downs
, Queensland Not all goannas are gargantuan. Pygmy goannas may be smaller than a man's arm. The smallest of these, the short-tailed monitor (Varanus brevicuda) reaches only 20 cm (8 inches) in length. They survive on smaller prey, such as insects and mice
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Insects
See text . INSECTS or INSECTA (from Latin
Latin
insectum, a calque of Greek ἔντομον , "cut into sections") are by far the largest group of hexapod invertebrates within the arthropod phylum . Definitions and circumscriptions vary; in one approach insects comprise a class within the Phylum
Phylum
Arthopoda. As the term is used here, it is synonymous with ECTOGNATHA. Insects
Insects
have a chitinous exoskeleton , a three-part body (head , thorax and abdomen ), three pairs of jointed legs , compound eyes and one pair of antennae . They are the most diverse group of animals on the planet, including more than a million described species and representing more than half of all known living organisms . The number of extant species is estimated at between six and ten million, and potentially represent over 90% of the differing animal life forms on Earth
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Cooktown
COOKTOWN is a small town and locality in the Shire of Cook
Shire of Cook
, Queensland
Queensland
, Australia
Australia
. Cooktown is located about 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi) north of Brisbane
Brisbane
and 328 kilometres (204 mi) north of Cairns, by road. At the time of the 2011 census , Cooktown had a population of 2,339. Cooktown is at the mouth of the Endeavour River , on Cape York Peninsula in Far North Queensland
Queensland
where James Cook
James Cook
beached his ship, the Endeavour , for repairs in 1770. Both the town and Mount Cook (431 metres or 1,415 feet) which rises up behind the town were named after James Cook. Cooktown is one of the few large towns in the Cape York Peninsula
Cape York Peninsula
and was founded on 25 October 1873 as a supply port for the goldfields along the Palmer River
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Australian Broadcasting Corporation
The AUSTRALIAN BROADCASTING CORPORATION (ABC) is Australia
Australia
's national public broadcaster , owned and funded by the government. The ABC plays a leading role in the history of broadcasting in Australia
Australia
. With a total annual budget of A$1.22 billion, the corporation provides television, radio, online and mobile services throughout metropolitan and regional Australia, as well as overseas through the Australia
Australia
Network and Radio Australia
Australia
. Founded in 1929 as the Australian Broadcasting Company , it was subsequently made a state-owned corporation on 1 July 1932 as the AUSTRALIAN BROADCASTING COMMISSION. The Australian Broadcasting Corporation Act 1983 changed the name of the organisation to the Australian Broadcasting Corporation, effective 1 July 1983
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PubMed Identifier
PUBMED is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval . From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries . PubMed, first released in January 1996, ushered in the era of private, free, home- and office-based MEDLINE searching. The PubMed
PubMed
system was offered free to the public in June 1997, when MEDLINE searches via the Web were demonstrated, in a ceremony, by Vice President Al Gore
Al Gore

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