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Alchemy
Alchemy
Alchemy
is a philosophical and protoscientific tradition practiced throughout Europe, Africa
Africa
and Asia. It aimed to purify, mature, and perfect certain objects.[1][2][n 1] Common aims were chrysopoeia, the transmutation of "base metals" (e.g., lead) into "noble metals" (particularly gold); the creation of an elixir of immortality; the creation of panaceas able to cure any disease; and the development of an alkahest, a universal solvent.[3] The perfection of the human body and soul was thought to permit or result from the alchemical magnum opus and, in the Hellenistic and western tradition, the achievement of gnosis.[2] In Europe, the creation of a philosopher's stone was variously connected with all of these projects. In English, the term is often limited to descriptions of European alchemy, but similar practices existed in the Far East, the Indian subcontinent, and the Muslim world
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12th-century Renaissance
The Renaissance
Renaissance
of the 12th century was a period of many changes at the outset of the high Middle Ages. It included social, political and economic transformations, and an intellectual revitalization of Western Europe
Western Europe
with strong philosophical and scientific roots
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Mythology
Mythology
Mythology
refers variously to the collected myths of a group of people[1] or to the study of such myths.[2] A folklore genre, myth is a feature of every culture. Many sources for myths have been proposed, ranging from personification of nature or personification of natural phenomena, to truthful or hyperbolic accounts of historical events to explanations of existing rituals. A culture's collective mythology helps convey belonging, shared and religious experiences, behavioral models, and moral and practical lessons. The study of myth began in ancient history. Rival classes of the Greek myths by Euhemerus, Plato
Plato
and Sallustius were developed by the Neoplatonists
Neoplatonists
and later revived by Renaissance
Renaissance
mythographers
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Experimental Method
An experiment is a procedure carried out to support, refute, or validate a hypothesis. Experiments provide insight into cause-and-effect by demonstrating what outcome occurs when a particular factor is manipulated. Experiments vary greatly in goal and scale, but always rely on repeatable procedure and logical analysis of the results. There also exists natural experimental studies. A child may carry out basic experiments to understand gravity, while teams of scientists may take years of systematic investigation to advance their understanding of a phenomenon. Experiments and other types of hands-on activities are very important to student learning in the science classroom. Experiments can raise test scores and help a student become more engaged and interested in the material they are learning, especially when used over time.[1] Experiments can vary from personal and informal natural comparisons (e.g. tasting a range of chocolates to find a favorite), to highly controlled (e.g
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Soul
In many religious, philosophical and mythological traditions, there is a belief in the incorporeal essence of a living being called the soul.[1] Soul
Soul
or psyche (Greek: "psychē", of "psychein", "to breathe") are the mental abilities of a living being: reason, character, feeling, consciousness, memory, perception, thinking, etc. Depending on the philosophical system, a soul can either be mortal or immortal.[2] In Judeo-Christianity, only human beings have immortal souls (although immortality is disputed within Judaism
Judaism
and may have been influenced by Plato[3]). For example, the Catholic theologian Thomas Aquinas
Thomas Aquinas
attributed "soul" (anima) to all organisms but argued that only human souls are immortal.[4] Other religions (most notably Hinduism
Hinduism
and Jainism) hold that all biological organisms have souls (atman, jiva) and a 'vital principle' (prana), as did Aristotle
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Human Body
The human body is the entire structure of a human being. It is composed of many different types of cells that together create tissues and subsequently organ systems. They ensure homeostasis and the viability of the human body. It comprises a head, neck, trunk (which includes the thorax and abdomen), arms and hands, legs and feet. The study of the human body involves anatomy, physiology, histology and embryology. The body varies anatomically in known ways. Physiology focuses on the systems and organs of the human body and their functions
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Solvent
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution. A solvent is usually a liquid but can also be a solid, a gas, or a supercritical fluid. The quantity of solute that can dissolve in a specific volume of solvent varies with temperature. Common uses for organic solvents are in dry cleaning (e.g. tetrachloroethylene), as paint thinners (e.g. toluene, turpentine), as nail polish removers and glue solvents (acetone, methyl acetate, ethyl acetate), in spot removers (e.g. hexane, petrol ether), in detergents (citrus terpenes) and in perfumes (ethanol). Water is a solvent for polar molecules and the most common solvent used by living things; all the ions and proteins in a cell are dissolved in water within a cell
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Classical Antiquity
Classical antiquity
Classical antiquity
(also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world. It is the period in which Greek and Roman society flourished and wielded great influence throughout Europe, North Africa
North Africa
and Western Asia. Conventionally, it is taken to begin with the earliest-recorded Epic Greek poetry of Homer
Homer
(8th–7th century BC), and continues through the emergence of Christianity
Christianity
and the decline of the Roman Empire (5th century AD)
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History Of Cryptography
Cryptography, the use of codes and ciphers to protect secrets, began thousands of years ago. Until recent decades, it has been the story of what might be called classic cryptography — that is, of methods of encryption that use pen and paper, or perhaps simple mechanical aids. In the early 20th century, the invention of complex mechanical and electromechanical machines, such as the Enigma rotor machine, provided more sophisticated and efficient means of encryption; and the subsequent introduction of electronics and computing has allowed elaborate schemes of still greater complexity, most of which are entirely unsuited to pen and paper. The development of cryptography has been paralleled by the development of cryptanalysis — the "breaking" of codes and ciphers. The discovery and application, early on, of frequency analysis to the reading of encrypted communications has, on occasion, altered the course of history
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Magic (paranormal)
Magic represents a category used in the study of religion and the social sciences to define various practices and ideas considered separate to both religion and science. The category developed in Western culture although has since been applied to practices in other societies, particularly those regarded as being non-modern and Other. Various different definitions of magic have been proposed, with much contemporary scholarship regarding the concept to be so problematic that it is better to reject it altogether as a useful analytic construct. The concept of magic has been an issue of debate among academics in various disciplines. Scholars have defined magic in different ways and used the term to refer to different things. One approach, associated with the anthropologists Edward Tylor
Edward Tylor
and James G. Frazer, suggests that magic and science are opposites, with the former based on hidden sympathies between objects that allow one to influence the other
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History Of Medicine
The history of medicine, as practiced by trained professionals, shows how societies have changed in their approach to illness and disease from ancient times to the present. Early medical traditions include those of Babylon, China, Egypt and India. The Greeks introduced the concepts of medical diagnosis, prognosis, and advanced medical ethics. The Hippocratic Oath
Hippocratic Oath
was written in ancient Greece in the 5th century BCE, and is a direct inspiration for oaths of office that physicians swear upon entry into the profession today. In the medieval age, surgical practices inherited from the ancient masters were improved and then systematized in Rogerius's The Practice of Surgery. Universities began systematic training of physicians around the years 1220 in Italy. During the Renaissance, understanding of anatomy improved, and the microscope was invented. The germ theory of disease in the 19th century led to cures for many infectious diseases
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Noble Metal
In chemistry, the noble metals are metals that are resistant to corrosion and oxidation in moist air (unlike most base metals). The short list of chemically noble metals (those elements upon which almost all chemists agree) comprises ruthenium (Ru), rhodium (Rh), palladium (Pd), silver (Ag), osmium (Os), iridium (Ir), platinum (Pt), and gold (Au).[1] More inclusive lists include one or more of mercury (Hg),[2][3][4] rhenium (Re)[5] and copper (Cu) as noble metals. On the other hand, titanium (Ti), niobium (Nb), and tantalum (Ta) are not included as noble metals although they are very resistant to corrosion.A collection of the noble metals, including copper, rhenium and mercury, which are included by some definitions
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Base Metal
A base metal is a common and inexpensive metal, as opposed to a precious metal such as gold or silver.[1] A long-time goal of alchemists was the transmutation of a base (low grade) metal into a precious metal. In numismatics, coins often derived their value from the precious metal content; however, base metals have been also used in coins in the past and today.Contents1 Specific definitions 2 Other uses 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksSpecific definitions[edit] In contrast to noble metals, base metals may be distinguished by oxidizing or corroding relatively easily and reacting variably with diluted hydrochloric acid (HCl) to form hydrogen. Examples include iron, nickel, lead and zinc. Copper
Copper
is also considered a base metal because it oxidizes relatively easily, although it does not react with HCl. In mining and economics, the term base metals refers to industrial non-ferrous metals excluding precious metals
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Gnosis
WesternRevelation Divine illumination Divine lightIslamicTa'wil Irfan Nūr Sufism IsmāʿīlīsmEasternJnana Bodhi PrajnaBuddhism HinduismGnostic sectsList of Gnostic sectsSyrian-EgypticSethianismSamaritan Baptist sectsDositheos Simon Magus
Simon Magus
(Simonians) Menander Basilides
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Religion
There is no scholarly consensus over what precisely constitutes a religion.[1][2] It may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophesies, ethics, or organizations, that relate humanity to the supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual. Different religions may or may not contain various elements ranging from the divine,[3] sacred things,[4] faith,[5] a supernatural being or supernatural beings[6] or "some sort of ultimacy and transcendence that will provide norms and power for the rest of life".[7] Religious practices may include rituals, sermons, commemoration or veneration (of deities), sacrifices, festivals, feasts, trances, initiations, funerary services, matrimonial services, meditation, prayer, music, art, dance, public service, or other aspects of human culture. Religions have sacred histories and narratives, which may be preserved in sacred scriptures, and symbols and holy places, that aim mostly to give a
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Exoteric
Exoteric refers to knowledge that is outside, and independent from, a person's experience and can be ascertained by anyone (related to common sense). The word is derived from the comparative form of Greek ἔξω eksô, "from, out of, outside". It signifies anything which is public, without limits, or universal. It is distinguished from internal esoteric knowledge. "Exoteric" relates to external reality as opposed to a person's thoughts or feelings. It is knowledge that is public as opposed to secret or cabalistic. It is not required that exoteric knowledge come easily or automatically, but it should be referenceable or reproducible.Contents1 Philosophical context 2 Religious context 3 Government 4 Societies 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksPhilosophical context[edit] Most philosophical and religious belief systems presume that reality must be independent of what an individual makes of it
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