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Alborz
ALBORZ ( listen (help ·info ) Persian : البرز‎‎), also spelled as ALBURZ, ELBURZ or ELBORZ, is a mountain range in northern Iran
Iran
that stretches from the border of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
along the western and entire southern coast of the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
and finally runs northeast and merges into the Aladagh Mountains in the northern parts of Khorasan . This mountain range is divided into Western, Central, and Eastern Alborz
Alborz
Mountains. The Western Alborz
Alborz
Range (usually called the Talish Mountains ) runs south-southeastward almost along the western coast of the Caspian Sea
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Granite
GRANITE ( /ˈɡrænᵻt/ ) is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture. Granites can be predominantly white, pink, or gray in color, depending on their mineralogy. The word "granite" comes from the Latin
Latin
granum, a grain, in reference to the coarse-grained structure of such a holocrystalline rock. Strictly speaking, granite is an igneous rock with between 20% and 60% quartz by volume, and at least 35% of the total feldspar consisting of alkali feldspar , although commonly the term "granite" is used to refer to a wider range of coarse grained igneous rocks containing quartz and feldspar. The term "granitic" means granite-like and is applied to granite and a group of intrusive igneous rocks with similar textures and slight variations in composition and origin
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Sandstone
SANDSTONE is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized (0.0625 to 2 mm) mineral particles or rock fragments . Most sandstone is composed of quartz or feldspar because they are the most resistant minerals to weathering processes at the Earth's surface, as seen in Bowen\'s reaction series . Like uncemented sand , sandstone may be any color due to impurities within the minerals, but the most common colors are tan, brown, yellow, red, grey, pink, white, and black. Since sandstone beds often form highly visible cliffs and other topographic features, certain colors of sandstone have been strongly identified with certain regions. Rock formations that are primarily composed of sandstone usually allow the percolation of water and other fluids and are porous enough to store large quantities, making them valuable aquifers and petroleum reservoirs
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Shale
SHALE is a fine-grained, clastic sedimentary rock composed of mud that is a mix of flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments (silt -sized particles) of other minerals, especially quartz and calcite . The ratio of clay to other minerals is variable. Shale
Shale
is characterized by breaks along thin laminae or parallel layering or bedding less than one centimeter in thickness, called fissility . Mudstones , on the other hand, are similar in composition but do not show the fissility. CONTENTS * 1 Historical mining terminology * 2 Texture * 3 Composition and color * 4 Formation * 5 See also * 6 References HISTORICAL MINING TERMINOLOGYBefore the mid 19th century, the terms slate , shale and schist were not sharply distinguished. In the context of underground coal mining , shale was frequently referred to as slate well into the 20th century
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Carboniferous
The CARBONIFEROUS is a geologic period and system that spans 60 million years from the end of the Devonian
Devonian
Period 358.9 million years ago (Mya ), to the beginning of the Permian Period, 298.9 Mya. The name Carboniferous
Carboniferous
means "coal-bearing" and derives from the Latin words carbō ("coal ") and ferō ("I bear, I carry"), and was coined by geologists William Conybeare and William Phillips in 1822. Based on a study of the British rock succession, it was the first of the modern 'system' names to be employed, and reflects the fact that many coal beds were formed globally during that time. The Carboniferous
Carboniferous
is often treated in North America as two geological periods, the earlier Mississippian and the later Pennsylvanian . Terrestrial life was well established by the Carboniferous
Carboniferous
period
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Limestone
LIMESTONE is a sedimentary rock , composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral , forams and molluscs . Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite , which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). About 10% of sedimentary rocks are limestones. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes, in which water erodes the limestone over thousands to millions of years. Most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. Limestone
Limestone
has numerous uses: as a building material , an essential component of concrete ( Portland cement
Portland cement
), as aggregate for the base of roads, as white pigment or filler in products such as toothpaste or paints , as a chemical feedstock for the production of lime , as a soil conditioner , or as a popular decorative addition to rock gardens
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Jurassic
The JURASSIC ( /dʒʊˈræsɪk/ ; from Jura Mountains
Jura Mountains
) was a geologic period and system that spanned 56 million years from the end of the Triassic
Triassic
Period 201.3 million years ago (Mya ) to the beginning of the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
Period 145 Mya. The Jurassic
Jurassic
constituted the middle period of the Mesozoic Era , also known as the Age of Reptiles. The start of the period was marked by the major Triassic–Jurassic extinction event . Two other extinction events occurred during the period: the Pliensbachian/ Toarcian event in the Early Jurassic, and the Tithonian event at the end; however, neither event ranks among the "Big Five" mass extinctions
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Milad Tower
MILAD TOWER (Persian : برج میلاد‎‎ Borj e Milād), also known as the TEHRAN TOWER (برج تهران Borj e Tehrān), is a multi-purpose tower in Tehran
Tehran
, Iran
Iran
. It is the sixth-tallest tower and the 24th-tallest freestanding structure in the world. It is located between Qarb Town and the district of Gisha , standing at 435 meters from the base to the tip of the antenna. The head consists of a large pod with 12 floors, the roof of which is at 315 meters. The tower is a part of the International Trade and Convention Center of Tehran, which also includes a five-star hotel, a convention center, a world trade center and an IT park
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Eurasian Plate
The EURASIAN PLATE is a tectonic plate which includes most of the continent of Eurasia
Eurasia
(a landmass consisting of the traditional continents of Europe
Europe
and Asia
Asia
), with the notable exceptions of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
, the Arabian subcontinent , and the area east of the Chersky Range in East Siberia
Siberia
. It also includes oceanic crust extending westward to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and northward to the Gakkel Ridge . The eastern side is a boundary with the North American Plate to the north and a boundary with the Philippine Sea Plate
Philippine Sea Plate
to the south, and possibly with the Okhotsk Plate and the Amurian Plate
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Devonian
The DEVONIAN is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic , spanning 60 million years from the end of the Silurian
Silurian
, 419.2 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Carboniferous , 358.9 Mya. It is named after Devon
Devon
, England
England
, where rocks from this period were first studied. The first significant adaptive radiation of life on dry land occurred during the Devonian. Free-sporing vascular plants began to spread across dry land , forming extensive forests which covered the continents . By the middle of the Devonian, several groups of plants had evolved leaves and true roots, and by the end of the period the first seed-bearing plants appeared. Various terrestrial arthropods also became well-established
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Oligocene
The OLIGOCENE ( /ˈɒlᵻɡoʊsiːn/ ) is a geologic epoch of the Paleogene Period and extends from about 33.9 million to 23 million years before the present (7001339000000000000♠33.9±0.1 to 7014726771528000000♠23.03±0.05 Ma ). As with other older geologic periods, the rock beds that define the epoch are well identified but the exact dates of the start and end of the epoch are slightly uncertain. The name Oligocene
Oligocene
comes from the Ancient Greek ὀλίγος (oligos, "few") and καινός (kainos, "new"), and refers to the sparsity of extant forms of molluscs . The Oligocene
Oligocene
is preceded by the Eocene
Eocene
Epoch and is followed by the Miocene
Miocene
Epoch. The Oligocene
Oligocene
is the third and final epoch of the Paleogene Period
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Permian
The PERMIAN is a geologic period and system which spans 46.7 million years from the end of the Carboniferous
Carboniferous
Period 298.9 million years ago (Mya ), to the beginning of the Triassic
Triassic
period 251.902 Mya. It is the last period of the Paleozoic era; the following Triassic
Triassic
period belongs to the Mesozoic era. The concept of the Permian
Permian
was introduced in 1841 by geologist Sir Roderick Murchison , who named it after the city of Perm
Perm
. The Permian
Permian
witnessed the diversification of the early amniotes into the ancestral groups of the mammals , turtles , lepidosaurs , and archosaurs
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Mesozoic
The MESOZOIC ERA ( /ˌmɛsəˈzoʊɪk, ˌmiː-, -soʊ-/ or /ˌmɛzəˈzoʊɪk, ˌmiː-, -soʊ-/ ) is an interval of geological time from about 252 to 66 million years ago. It is also called the AGE OF REPTILES, a phrase introduced by the 19th century paleontologist Gideon Mantell who viewed it as dominated by diapsids such as Iguanodon , Megalosaurus , Plesiosaurus and Pterodactylus . This Era is also called from a paleobotanist view the AGE OF CONIFERS. Mesozoic
Mesozoic
means "middle life", deriving from the Greek prefix meso-/μεσο- for "between" and zōon/ζῷον meaning "animal " or "living being". It is one of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic Eon , preceded by the Paleozoic ("ancient life") and succeeded by the Cenozoic
Cenozoic
("new life")
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Tuff
TUFF (from the Italian tufo) is a type of rock made of volcanic ash ejected from a vent during a volcanic eruption . Following ejection and deposition, the ash is compacted into a solid rock in a process called consolidation . Tuff
Tuff
is sometimes called TUFA, particularly when used as construction material, although tufa also refers to a quite different rock. Rock that contains greater than 50% tuff is considered tuffaceous. Tuff
Tuff
is a relatively soft rock, so it has been used for construction since ancient times. Since it is common in Italy
Italy
the Romans used it often for construction. The Rapa Nui
Rapa Nui
people used it to make most of the moai statues in Easter Island
Easter Island
. Tuff
Tuff
can be classified as either sedimentary or igneous rocks
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Lava
LAVA is the molten rock expelled by a volcano during an eruption . The resulting rock after solidification and cooling is also called lava. The molten rock is formed in the interior of some planets , including Earth
Earth
, and some of their satellites . The source of the heat that melts the rock within the earth is geothermal energy . When first erupted from a volcanic vent, lava is a liquid usually at temperatures from 700 to 1,200 °C (1,292 to 2,192 °F). A LAVA FLOW is a moving outpouring of lava, which is created during a non-explosive effusive eruption . When it has stopped moving, lava solidifies to form igneous rock . The term lava flow is commonly shortened to lava. Although lava can be up to 100,000 times more viscous than water, lava can flow great distances before cooling and solidifying because of its thixotropic and shear thinning properties
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Upper Cretaceous
The LATE CRETACEOUS (100.5–66 Ma ) is the younger of two epochs into which the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
period is divided in the geologic timescale . Rock strata from this epoch form the UPPER CRETACEOUS series . The Cretaceous
Cretaceous
is named after the white limestone known as chalk which occurs widely in northern France and is seen in the white cliffs of south-eastern England, and which dates from this time. CONTENTS * 1 Climate
Climate
* 2 Geography * 3 Vertebrate fauna * 3.1 Dinosaurs * 3.2 Pterosaurs * 3.3 Mammals
Mammals
* 3.4 Marine life * 4 Flora * 5 Cretaceous– Paleogene mass extinction * 6 See also * 7 References CLIMATEDuring the Late Cretaceous, the climate was warmer than present, although throughout the period a cooling trend is evident
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