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Albinism
Albinism
Albinism
in humans is a congenital disorder characterized by the complete or partial absence of pigment in the skin, hair and eyes. Albinism
Albinism
is associated with a number of vision defects, such as photophobia, nystagmus, and amblyopia. Lack of skin pigmentation makes for more susceptibility to sunburn and skin cancers. In rare cases such as Chédiak–Higashi syndrome, albinism may be associated with deficiencies in the transportation of melanin granules. This also affects essential granules present in immune cells leading to increased susceptibility to infection.[4] Albinism
Albinism
results from inheritance of recessive gene alleles and is known to affect all vertebrates, including humans. It is due to absence or defect of tyrosinase, a copper-containing enzyme involved in the production of melanin. It is the opposite of melanism
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List Of Cutaneous Conditions Associated With Increased Risk Of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer
There are several conditions of or affecting the human integumentary system that are associated with an increased risk of developing nonmelanoma skin cancer (i.e
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Sunburn
Sunburn
Sunburn
is a form of radiation burn that affects living tissue, such as skin, that results from an overexposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, commonly from the sun. Common symptoms in humans and other animals include red or reddish skin that is hot to the touch, pain, general fatigue, and mild dizziness. An excess of UV radiation can be life-threatening in extreme cases. Excessive UV radiation is the leading cause of primarily non-malignant skin tumors.[1][2] Sunburn
Sunburn
is an inflammatory response in the skin triggered by direct DNA damage by UVR. When the skin cells' DNA is overly damaged by UV radiation, type I cell-death is triggered and the skin is replaced.[3] Sun
Sun
protective measures including sunscreen and sun protective clothing is widely accepted to prevent sunburn and some types of skin cancer
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Ultraviolet
Ultraviolet
Ultraviolet
(UV) is an electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 100 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays. UV radiation is present in sunlight constituting about 10% of the total light output of the Sun. It is also produced by electric arcs and specialized lights, such as mercury-vapor lamps, tanning lamps, and black lights. Although long-wavelength ultraviolet is not considered an ionizing radiation because its photons lack the energy to ionize atoms, it can cause chemical reactions and causes many substances to glow or fluoresce. Consequently, the chemical and biological effects of UV are greater than simple heating effects, and many practical applications of UV radiation derive from its interactions with organic molecules. Suntan and sunburn are familiar effects of over-exposure of the skin to UV, along with higher risk of skin cancer
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Retina
The retina is the third and inner coat of the eye which is a light-sensitive layer of tissue. The optics of the eye create an image of the visual world on the retina (through the cornea and lens), which serves much the same function as the film in a camera. Light striking the retina initiates a cascade of chemical and electrical events that ultimately trigger nerve impulses. These are sent to various visual centres of the brain through the fibres of the optic nerve
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Chromosome
A chromosome (from ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA
DNA
molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism. Most eukaryotic chromosomes include packaging proteins which, aided by chaperone proteins, bind to and condense the DNA
DNA
molecule to prevent it from becoming an unmanageable tangle.[1][2] Chromosomes are normally visible under a light microscope only when the cell is undergoing the metaphase of cell division (where all chromosomes are aligned in the center of the cell in their condensed form).[3] Before this happens, every chromosome is copied once (S phase), and the copy is joined to the original by a centromere, resulting either in an X-shaped structure (pictured to the right) if the centromere is located in the middle of the chromosome or a two-arm structure if the centromere is located near one of the ends
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Papua New Guinea
Coordinates: 6°S 147°E / 6°S 147°E / -6; 147Independent State of Papua New GuineaIndependen Stet bilong Papua Niugini Papua Niu GiniFlagNational emblemMotto: "Unity in diversity"[1]Anthem: O Arise, All You Sons [2]Location of  Papua New Guinea  (green)Capital and largest city Port Moresby 9°30′S 147°07′E / 9.500°S 147.117°E / -9.500; 147.117Official languages[3][4]Hiri Motu Tok Pisin PNG Sign Language EnglishDemonym Papua New GuineanGovernment Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy• MonarchElizabeth II• Governor-GeneralBob Dadae• Prime MinisterPeter O'NeillLegislature National ParliamentIndependence from Australia• Papua and
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Latin
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Photosensitivity
Photosensitivity is the amount to which an object reacts upon receiving photons, especially visible light. In medicine, the term is principally used for abnormal reactions of the skin, and two types are distinguished, photoallergy and phototoxicity.[1][2] The photosensitive ganglion cells in the mammalian eye are a separate class of light-detecting cells from the photoreceptor cells that function in vision.Contents1 Skin
Skin
reactions1.1 Human medicine 1.2 Veterinary medicine2 See also 3 Notes 4 External links Skin
Skin
reactions[edit] Human medicine[edit] Main article: Photosensitivity in humans See also: phototoxicity Sensitivity of the skin to a light source can take various forms. People with particular skin types are more sensitive to sunburn. Particular medications make the skin more sensitive to sunlight; these include most of the tetracycline antibiotics, heart drugs amiodarone, and sulfonamides
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Mali
Coordinates: 17°N 4°W / 17°N 4°W / 17; -4Republic of MaliRépublique du Mali  (French) Mali
Mali
ka Fasojamana  (Bambara)FlagCoat of armsMotto: "Un peuple, un but, une foi" (French) "One people, one goal, one faith"Anthem: Le Mali  (French)[1]Location of  Mali  (green)Capital and largest city Bamako 12°39′N 8°0′W / 12.650°N 8.000°W / 12.650; -8.000Official languages FrenchNational languagesBambara Bomu Tieyaxo BozoToro So DogonMaasina F
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Mandinka People
The Mandinka (also known as Mandenka, Mandinko, Mandingo, Manding or Malinke)[9] are an African ethnic group with an estimated global population of 11 million (the other three largest ethnic groups in Africa
Africa
being the unrelated Fula, Hausa and Songhai peoples). The Mandinka are the descendants of the Mali
Mali
Empire, which rose to power in the 13th century under the rule of the Malinké/Maninka king Sundiata Keita. The Mandinka are one ethnic group within the larger linguistic family of the Mandé
Mandé
peoples, who account for more than 90 million people. (Other Mande peoples include the Dyula, Bozo, Bissa and Bambara). Originally from Mali, the Mandinka gained their independence from previous empires in the 13th century and founded an empire which stretched across Africa
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Decussation
Decussation
Decussation
is used in biological contexts to describe a crossing (Latin: the roman numeral for ten, deca, is an uppercase 'X'). (In Latin anatomical terms the form decussatio is used, e.g. decussatio pyramidum.) Similarly, the anatomical term chiasma is named after the Greek uppercase 'Χ', chi). Examples include:In the brain, where nerve fibers obliquely cross from one lateral part to the other, that is to say they cross at a level other than their origin. See for examples Decussation of pyramids
Decussation of pyramids
and sensory decussation. Decussation
Decussation
describes the point where the nerves cross from one side of the brain to the other, and typically the nerves from the left side of the body decussate to the right side of the brain and the nerves from the right side of the body decussate to the left brain, however depending on the function of the nerves the level of decussation is variable
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Visual Acuity
Visual acuity
Visual acuity
(VA) commonly refers to the clarity of vision. Visual acuity is dependent on optical and neural factors, i.e., (i) the sharpness of the retinal focus within the eye, (ii) the health and functioning of the retina, and (iii) the sensitivity of the interpretative faculty of the brain.[1] A common cause of low visual acuity is refractive error (ametropia), or errors in how the light is refracted in the eyeball. Causes of refractive errors include aberrations in the shape of the eyeball, the shape of the cornea, and reduced flexibility of the lens. Too high or too low refractive error (in relation to the length of the eyeball) is the cause of nearsightedness (myopia) or farsightedness (hyperopia) (normal refractive status is referred to as emmetropia). Other optical causes are astigmatism or more complex corneal irregularities
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Vertebrate
Fire salamander
Fire salamander
(Amphibia), saltwater crocodile (Reptilia), southern cassowary (Aves), black-and-rufous giant elephant shrew (Mammalia), ocean sunfish (Osteichthyes)Scientific classification Kingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: ChordataClade: CraniataSubphylum: Vertebrata J-B
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Strabismus
Strabismus, also known as crossed eyes, is a condition in which the eyes do not properly align with each other when looking at an object.[2] The eye which is focused on an object can alternate.[3] The condition may be present occasionally or constantly.[3] If present during a large part of childhood, it may result in amblyopia or loss of depth perception.[3] If onset is during adulthood, it is more likely to result in double vision.[3] Strabismus
Strabismus
can occur due to muscle dysfunction, farsightedness, problems in the brain, trauma, or infections.[3] Risk factors i
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Optic Nerve Hypoplasia
Optic nerve
Optic nerve
hypoplasia (ONH) is a medical condition arising from the underdevelopment of the optic nerve(s). This condition is the most common congenital optic nerve anomaly. The optic disc appears abnormally small, because not all the optic nerve axons have developed properly.[1] It is often associated with endocrinopathies (hormone deficiencies), developmental delay, and brain malformations.[2] The optic nerve, which is responsible for transmitting visual signals from the retina to the brain, has approximately 1.2 million nerve fibers in the average person
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