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Albert Gleizes
ALBERT GLEIZES (French: ; 8 December 1881 – 23 June 1953) was a French artist, theoretician, philosopher, a self-proclaimed founder of Cubism
Cubism
and an influence on the School of Paris
Paris
. Albert Gleizes
Albert Gleizes
and Jean Metzinger wrote the first major treatise on Cubism, Du "Cubisme" , 1912. Gleizes was a founding member of the Section d\'Or group of artists. He was also a member of Der Sturm , and his many theoretical writings were originally most appreciated in Germany, where especially at the Bauhaus
Bauhaus
his ideas were given thoughtful consideration. Gleizes spent four crucial years in New York, and played an important role in making America aware of modern art . He was a member of the Society of Independent Artists , founder of the Ernest-Renan Association, and both a founder and participant in the Abbaye de Créteil
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Camille Pissarro
CAMILLE PISSARRO (French: ; 10 July 1830 – 13 November 1903) was a Danish-French Impressionist and Neo- Impressionist painter born on the island of St Thomas (now in the US Virgin Islands , but then in the Danish West Indies
Danish West Indies
). His importance resides in his contributions to both Impressionism and Post- Impressionism . Pissarro studied from great forerunners, including Gustave Courbet
Gustave Courbet
and Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot . He later studied and worked alongside Georges Seurat
Georges Seurat
and Paul Signac when he took on the Neo- Impressionist style at the age of 54. In 1873 he helped establish a collective society of fifteen aspiring artists, becoming the "pivotal" figure in holding the group together and encouraging the other members
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Naturalism (visual Art)
REALISM in the arts is the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, implausible, exotic and supernatural elements. Realism has been prevalent in the arts at many periods, and is in large part a matter of technique and training, and the avoidance of stylization. In the visual arts, illusionistic realism is the accurate depiction of lifeforms, perspective, and the details of light and colour. Realist works of art may emphasize the mundane, ugly or sordid, such as works of social realism , regionalism , or kitchen sink realism . There have been various realism movements in the arts, such as the opera style of verismo , literary realism , theatrical realism and Italian neorealist cinema . The realism art movement in painting began in France in the 1850s, after the 1848 Revolution
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Alfred Sisley
ALFRED SISLEY (/ˈsɪsli/ ; French: ; 30 October 1839 – 29 January 1899) was an Impressionist landscape painter who was born and spent most of his life in France, but retained British citizenship. He was the most consistent of the Impressionists in his dedication to painting landscape en plein air (i.e., outdoors). He deviated into figure painting only rarely and, unlike Renoir and Pissarro , found that Impressionism fulfilled his artistic needs. Among his important works are a series of paintings of the River Thames , mostly around Hampton Court
Hampton Court
, executed in 1874, and landscapes depicting places in or near Moret-sur-Loing . The notable paintings of the Seine
Seine
and its bridges in the former suburbs of Paris are like many of his landscapes, characterized by tranquillity, in pale shades of green, pink, purple, dusty blue and cream
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Jean-Antoine Gleizes
JEAN-ANTOINE GLEIZES (1773–1843) was a French writer and advocate of vegetarianism . He was extremely popular and influential at his time. His most famous work is Thalysie: the New Existence (1840, vol. 1; 1841, vol. 2; 1842, vol. 3). REFERENCES * Reinhold Grimm and Jost Hermand, Re-reading Wagner , University of Wisconsin Press, 1993, pp
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Prix De Rome
The PRIX DE ROME (pronounced ) or GRAND PRIX DE ROME was a French scholarship for arts students, initially for painters and sculptors, that was established in 1663 during the reign of Louis XIV of France
Louis XIV of France
. Winners were awarded a bursary that allowed them to stay in Rome for three to five years at the expense of the state. The prize was extended to architecture in 1720, music in 1803, and engraving in 1804. The prestigious award was abolished in 1968 by André Malraux
André Malraux
, the Minister of Culture
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Montmartre
MONTMARTRE (French pronunciation: ​ ) is a large hill in Paris
Paris
's 18th arrondissement . It is 130 m (430 ft) high and gives its name to the surrounding district, part of the Right Bank in the northern section of the city. The historic district established by the City of Paris
Paris
in 1995 is bordered by rue Caulaincourt and rue Custine on the north, rue de Clignancourt on the east, and boulevard de Clichy and boulevard de Rochechouart to the south, containing 60 ha (150 acres). Montmartre
Montmartre
is primarily known for its artistic history, the white-domed Basilica of the Sacré-Cœur on its summit, and as a nightclub district. The other, older, church on the hill is Saint Pierre de Montmartre
Montmartre
, which claims to be the location at which the Jesuit
Jesuit
order of priests was founded
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Moscow
MOSCOW (/ˈmɒskoʊ/ or /ˈmɒskaʊ/ ; Russian : Москва́, tr. Moskva, IPA: ( listen )) is the capital and most populous city of Russia
Russia
, with 12.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area . Moscow
Moscow
has the status of a Russian federal city . Moscow
Moscow
is a major political, economic, cultural, and scientific centre of Russia
Russia
and Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
, as well as the largest city entirely on the European continent . By broader definitions Moscow
Moscow
is among the world\'s largest cities , being the 14th largest metro area , the 18th largest agglomeration , the 15th largest urban area , and the 11th largest by population within city limits worldwide
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André Salmon
ANDRé SALMON (4 October 1881, Paris
Paris
– 12 March 1969, Sanary-sur-Mer ) was a French poet, art critic and writer. He was one of the early defenders of Cubism
Cubism
, with Guillaume Apollinaire and Maurice Raynal . CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Works * 2.1 Poetry * 2.2 Books and short stories * 2.3 Critiques, essays, memoirs * 2.4 Theatre * 3 References * 4 Sources * 5 External links BIOGRAPHYAndre Salmon was born in Paris, fourth child of Émile-Frédéric Salmon, a sculptor and etcher, and Sophie-Julie Cattiaux, daughter of a founder of the Radical Socialist party. They were secular Republicans, frequently in financial difficulty, and moved several times. Salmon's education was neglected, although he received some tuition from the Parnassian poet Gaston de Raisme, a friend of François Coppée
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Pierre-Jean Jouve
PIERRE JEAN JOUVE (11 October 1887 – 8 January 1976) was a French writer, novelist and poet. He was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature five times. WORKS * Paulina 1880, 1925 * Vagadu, 1931 * Noces, 1931 * Sueur de sang, 1935 * Matière céleste, 1937 * La Vierge de Paris, 1946 * Tombeau de Baudelaire, 1958REFERENCES * ^ Michael Sheringham, 'Jouve, Pierre-Jean', Oxford Companion to French Literature. Online at answers.com * ^ "Nomination Database". www.nobelprize.org
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Paul Fort
PAUL FORT (1 February 1872 – 20 April 1960) was a French poet associated with the Symbolist movement . At the age of 18, reacting against the Naturalistic theatre, Fort founded the Théâtre d'Art (1890–93). He also founded and edited the literary reviews Livre d'Art with Alfred Jarry
Alfred Jarry
and Vers et Prose (1905–14) with poet Guillaume Apollinaire , which published the work of Paul Valéry and other important Symbolist writers. Fort is notable for his enormous volume of poetry, having published more than thirty volumes of ballads and, according to Amy Lowell for creating the polyphonic prose form in his 'Ballades francaises'
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Pont-Aven School
PONT-AVEN SCHOOL (French: École de Pont-Aven, Breton: Skol Pont Aven) encompasses works of art influenced by Pont-Aven and its surroundings. Originally the term applied to works created in the artists' colony at Pont-Aven which started to emerge in the 1850s and lasted until the beginning of the 20th century. Many of the artists were inspired by the works of Paul Gauguin
Paul Gauguin
who spent extended periods in the area in the late 1880s and early 1890s. Their work is frequently characterised by the bold use of pure colour and their Symbolist choice of subject matter
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Bauhaus
STAATLICHES BAUHAUS (German: ( listen )), commonly known simply as BAUHAUS, was a German art school operational from 1919 to 1933 that combined crafts and the fine arts, and was famous for the approach to design that it publicised and taught. The Bauhaus
Bauhaus
was founded by Walter Gropius in Weimar
Weimar
. The German term Bauhaus—literally "construction house"—was understood as meaning "School of Building", but in spite of its name and the fact that its founder was an architect , the Bauhaus
Bauhaus
did not have an architecture department during its first years of existence. Nonetheless, it was founded with the idea of creating a "total" work of art ( Gesamtkunstwerk ) in which all arts, including architecture, would eventually be brought together
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Cimetière De Montmartre
MONTMARTRE CEMETERY (French: Cimetière de Montmartre) is a cemetery in the 18th arrondissement of Paris
18th arrondissement of Paris
, France, that dates to the early 19th century. Officially known as the CIMITIèRE DU NORD, it is the third largest necropolis in Paris, after the Père Lachaise cemetery and the Montparnasse cemetery
Montparnasse cemetery
. HISTORYIn the mid-18th century, overcrowding in the cemeteries of Paris had created numerous problems, from impossibly high funeral costs to unsanitary living conditions in the surrounding neighborhoods
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Saint-Rémy-de-Provence
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting : residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. SAINT-RéMY-DE-PROVENCE (Provençal Occitan
Occitan
: Sant Romieg de Provença in classical and Sant Roumié de Prouvènço in Mistralian norms) is a commune in the Bouches-du-Rhône
Bouches-du-Rhône
department in southern France
France
. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Geography * 3 Transportation * 4 Climate * 5 The Mistral * 6 Population * 7 Sights * 8 Notable people * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 External links HISTORY THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (November 2015)The town is named after Saint Remigius
Saint Remigius

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Symbolism (arts)
SYMBOLISM was a late nineteenth-century art movement of French , Russian and Belgian origin in poetry and other arts. In literature, the style originates with the 1857 publication of Charles Baudelaire
Charles Baudelaire
's Les Fleurs du mal . The works of Edgar Allan Poe , which Baudelaire admired greatly and translated into French, were a significant influence and the source of many stock tropes and images. The aesthetic was developed by Stéphane Mallarmé and Paul Verlaine during the 1860s and 1870s. In the 1880s, the aesthetic was articulated by a series of manifestos and attracted a generation of writers. The name "symbolist" itself was first applied by the critic Jean Moréas , who invented the term to distinguish the Symbolists from the related Decadents of literature and of art
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