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Alaska Peninsula
The ALASKA PENINSULA is a peninsula extending about 800 km (497 mi) to the southwest from the mainland of Alaska
Alaska
and ending in the Aleutian Islands
Aleutian Islands
. The peninsula separates the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
from Bristol Bay , an arm of the Bering Sea . In literature (especially Russian) the term ‘ Alaska
Alaska
Peninsula’ was used to denote the entire northwestern protrusion of the North American continent , or all of what is now the state of Alaska
Alaska
, exclusive of its panhandle and islands. The Lake and Peninsula
Peninsula
borough , the Alaskan equivalent of a county , is named after the peninsula
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Gray Wolf
Numerous and disputed, see Subspecies of Canis
Canis
lupus Historical (red) and modern (green) range of wild subspecies of C. lupusThe GRAY WOLF or GREY WOLF ( Canis
Canis
lupus), also known as the TIMBER WOLF or WESTERN WOLF, is a canine native to the wilderness and remote areas of Eurasia
Eurasia
and North America
North America
. It is the largest extant member of its family, with males averaging 43–45 kg (95–99 lb) and females 36–38.5 kg (79–85 lb). Like the red wolf , it is distinguished from other Canis
Canis
species by its larger size and less pointed features, particularly on the ears and muzzle. Its winter fur is long and bushy and predominantly a mottled gray in color, although nearly pure white, red, and brown to black also occur. As of 2005, 37 subspecies of C. lupus are recognised by MSW3
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Sockeye Salmon
SOCKEYE SALMON ( Oncorhynchus
Oncorhynchus
nerka), also called RED SALMON, KOKANEE SALMON, or BLUEBACK SALMON, is an anadromous species of salmon found in the Northern Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
and rivers discharging into it. This species is a Pacific salmon that is primarily red in hue during spawning. They can grow up to 84 cm (2 ft 9 in) in length and weigh 2.3 to 7 kg (5.1–15.4 lb). Juveniles remain in freshwater until they are ready to migrate to the ocean , over distances of up to 1,600 km (990 mi). Their diet consists primarily of zooplankton . Sockeye salmon are semelparous , dying after they spawn . Some populations, referred to as kokanee, do not migrate to the ocean and live their entire lives in freshwater
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Mountain Range
A MOUNTAIN RANGE or HILL RANGE is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A MOUNTAIN SYSTEM or MOUNTAIN BELT is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form, structure and alignment that have arisen from the same cause, usually an orogeny . Mountain
Mountain
ranges are formed by a variety of geological processes, but most of the significant ones on Earth
Earth
are the result of plate tectonics . Mountain
Mountain
ranges are also found on many planetary mass objects in the Solar System
Solar System
and are likely a feature of most terrestrial planets . Mountain
Mountain
ranges are usually segmented by highlands or mountain passes and valleys . Individual mountains within the same mountain range do not necessarily have the same geologic structure or petrology
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Volcano
A VOLCANO is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object , such as Earth
Earth
, that allows hot lava , volcanic ash , and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface. Earth's volcanoes occur because its crust is broken into 17 major, rigid tectonic plates that float on a hotter, softer layer in its mantle. Therefore, on Earth, volcanoes are generally found where tectonic plates are diverging or converging , and most are found underwater. For example, a mid-oceanic ridge , such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge , has volcanoes caused by divergent tectonic plates whereas the Pacific Ring of Fire
Pacific Ring of Fire
has volcanoes caused by convergent tectonic plates. Volcanoes can also form where there is stretching and thinning of the crust's plates, e.g., in the East African Rift and the Wells Gray-Clearwater volcanic field and Rio Grande Rift in North America
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Moose
The MOOSE (North America) or ELK (Eurasia), Alces alces, is the largest extant species in the deer family . Moose
Moose
are distinguished by the broad, flat (or palmate) antlers of the males; other members of the family have antlers with a dendritic ("twig-like") configuration. Moose
Moose
typically inhabit boreal forests and temperate broadleaf and mixed forests of the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
in temperate to subarctic climates . Hunting
Hunting
and other human activities have caused a reduction in the size of the moose's range over time. Moose
Moose
have been reintroduced to some of their former habitats
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Caribou
Also see text Approximate range of barren-ground caribou. Overlap with other subspecies of caribou is possible for contiguous range. 1.Rangifer tarandus caribou subdivided into ecotypes: boreal woodland ; migratory woodland ; montane woodland; 2. Queen Charlotte Islands (extinct 1907); 3. Porcupine ; 4. barren-ground ; 5. Peary SYNONYMS reindeer in Europe and Eurasia A CARIBOU (Rangifer tarandus caribou, and other trinomials under Rangifer tarandus) is any of several North American subspecies , ecotypes, populations, and herds of the species Rangifer tarandus , or reindeer. In North America caribou vary in size from the smallest, the Peary caribou
Peary caribou
, to the largest, the boreal woodland caribou
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Seismic
SEISMOLOGY ( /saɪzˈmɒlədʒi/ ; from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
σεισμός (seismós) meaning "earthquake" and -λογία (-logía) meaning "study of") is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth
Earth
or through other planet-like bodies. The field also includes studies of earthquake environmental effects such as tsunamis as well as diverse seismic sources such as volcanic, tectonic, oceanic, atmospheric, and artificial processes such as explosions. A related field that uses geology to infer information regarding past earthquakes is paleoseismology . A recording of earth motion as a function of time is called a seismogram . A seismologist is a scientist who does research in seismology
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Erosion
In earth science , EROSION is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind ) that removes soil , rock , or dissolved material from one location on the Earth\'s crust , and then transport it away to another location (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement). The particulate breakdown of rock or soil into clastic sediment is referred to as physical or mechanical erosion; this contrasts with chemical erosion, where soil or rock material is removed from an area by its dissolving into a solvent (typically water), followed by the flow away of that solution. Eroded sediment or solutes may be transported just a few millimetres, or for thousands of kilometres
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North American Plate
The NORTH AMERICAN PLATE is a tectonic plate covering most of North America , Greenland
Greenland
, Cuba
Cuba
, the Bahamas
Bahamas
, extreme northeastern Asia
Asia
, and parts of Iceland
Iceland
and the Azores
Azores
. It extends eastward to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge
Mid-Atlantic Ridge
and westward to the Chersky Range in eastern Siberia. The plate includes both continental and oceanic crust . The interior of the main continental landmass includes an extensive granitic core called a craton . Along most of the edges of this craton are fragments of crustal material called terranes , accreted to the craton by tectonic actions over the long span of geologic time. It is thought that much of North America
North America
west of the Rocky Mountains is composed of such terranes
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Pacific Plate
The PACIFIC PLATE is an oceanic tectonic plate that lies beneath the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
. At 103 million square kilometres (40,000,000 sq mi), it is the largest tectonic plate. The Pacific Plate
Pacific Plate
contains an interior hot spot forming the Hawaiian Islands . Hillis and Müller are reported to consider the Bird\'s Head Plate to be moving in unison with the Pacific Plate. Bird considers them to be unconnected. CONTENTS * 1 Boundaries * 2 Paleo-geology of the Pacific Plate
Pacific Plate
* 3 References * 4 External links BOUNDARIESThe north-eastern side is a divergent boundary with the Explorer Plate , the Juan de Fuca Plate and the Gorda Plate forming respectively the Explorer Ridge , the Juan de Fuca Ridge and the Gorda Ridge
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County (united States)
In the United States
United States
, an administrative or political subdivision of a state is a COUNTY , which is a region having specific boundaries and usually some level of governmental authority. The term "county" is used in 48 U.S. states, while Louisiana
Louisiana
and Alaska
Alaska
have functionally equivalent subdivisions called parishes and boroughs respectively. Most counties have subdivisions which may include municipalities and unincorporated areas . Others have no further divisions, or may serve as a consolidated city-county . Some municipalities are in multiple counties ; New York City
New York City
is uniquely partitioned into multiple counties/boroughs. The U.S. federal government uses the term "county equivalent" to describe non-county administrative or statistical areas that are comparable to counties
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Kodiak Archipelago
The KODIAK ARCHIPELAGO is an archipelago , or group of islands , south of the main land mass of the state of Alaska ( United States
United States
), about 405 km (252 mi) by air south of Anchorage in the Gulf of Alaska . The largest island in the archipelago is Kodiak Island
Island
, the second largest island in the United States
United States
. The archipelago is about 285 km (177 mi) long and 108 km (67 mi) across, from the Barren Islands on the north to Chirikof Island
Island
and the Semidi Islands group on the south. The Archipelago
Archipelago
contains 13,890 km2 (5,360 sq mi) of land. The Kodiak Archipelago
Archipelago
contains about 40 small glaciers , numerous streams and many species of land and marine animals. Much of its land is forested
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Ecoregion
An ECOREGION (ECOLOGICAL REGION) is an ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion , which in turn is smaller than an ecozone . All three of these are either less or greater than an ecosystem . Ecoregions cover relatively large areas of land or water, and contain characteristic, geographically distinct assemblages of natural communities and species . The biodiversity of flora , fauna and ecosystems that characterise an ecoregion tends to be distinct from that of other ecoregions. In theory, biodiversity or conservation ecoregions are relatively large areas of land or water where the probability of encountering different species and communities at any given point remains relatively constant, within an acceptable range of variation (largely undefined at this point). Three caveats are appropriate for all bio-geographic mapping approaches. Firstly, no single bio-geographic framework is optimal for all taxa
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Chignik Lagoon, Alaska
CHIGNIK LAGOON (Alutiiq : Nanwarnaq) is a census-designated place (CDP) in Lake and Peninsula Borough , Alaska , United States . At the 2010 census the population was 78. GEOGRAPHYChignik Lagoon is at 56°18′27″N 158°32′6″W / 56.30750°N 158.53500°W / 56.30750; -158.53500 (56.307535, -158.535023). According to the United States Census Bureau , the CDP has an area of 13.1 square miles (34 km2), all of it land. In 2009 the Marines of 4th Combat Engineer Battalion , 4th Marine Division , began work on an inter-village road system to link Chignik Lake to Chignik Lagoon. This is the first phase of potentially creating road links between Chignik Lake, Chignik Lake and Chignik . DEMOGRAPHICS HISTORICAL POPULATION CENSUS POP. %± 1960 108 — 1980 48 — 1990 53 10.4% 2000 103 94.3% 2010 78 −24.3% U.S. Decennial Census Chignik Lagoon first appeared on the 1960 U.S
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Valley Of 10,000 Smokes
The VALLEY OF TEN THOUSAND SMOKES is a valley within Katmai National Park and Preserve in Alaska
Alaska
which is filled with ash flow from the eruption of Novarupta on June 6–8, 1912. Following the eruption, thousands of fumaroles vented steam from the ash. Robert F. Griggs , who explored the volcano 's aftermath for the National Geographic Society in 1916, gave the valley its name, saying that "the whole valley as far as the eye could reach was full of hundreds, no thousands—literally, tens of thousands—of smokes curling up from its fissured floor." The 1912 eruption was the largest eruption by volume in the 20th century, erupting about 13 cubic kilometers (3.1 cu mi) of material. Novarupta generated as many as 14 major earthquakes with magnitudes between M6 and M7 , a level of energy release virtually unprecedented during volcanic eruptions in modern memory, and over 100 earthquakes greater than M5
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