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Alara Of Nubia
Alara was a King of Kush who is generally regarded as the founder of the Napatan royal dynasty by his 25th Dynasty Nubian successors and was the first recorded prince of Nubia. He unified all of Upper Nubia from Meroë
Meroë
to the Third Cataract
Third Cataract
and is possibly attested at the Temple of Amun
Amun
at Kawa. Alara also established Napata
Napata
as the religious capital of Nubia. Alara himself was not a 25th dynasty Nubian king since he never controlled any region of Egypt during his reign compared to his two immediate successors: Kashta
Kashta
and Piye respectively. Nubian literature credits him with a substantial reign since future Nubian kings requested that they might enjoy a reign as long as Alara's
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List Of Monarchs Of Kush
This is an incomplete list for rulers with the title of Qore (king) or Kandake
Kandake
(queen) of the Kingdom of Kush. Some of the dates are only rough estimates. While the chronological list is well known only a few monarchs have definite dates. These include those leaders who also ruled Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
and those who ruled during famous invasions or famous trade expeditions. The others are based on estimates made by Fritz Hintze. The estimates are based on the average length of the reigns, which were then shortened or lengthened based on the size and splendour of the monarch's tomb. The assumption being that monarchs who reigned longer had more time and resources to build their burial sites
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Aryamani
Aryamani
Aryamani
was a Nubian king.Contents1 Titles 2 Monuments and inscriptions 3 Date of reign 4 Burial 5 References 6 LiteratureTitles[edit]Horus name: Kanakht Meryre ("Mighty Bull, beloved of Re") Prenomen: Usermaatre Setepenre ("Re is one whose equity is mighty, chosen one of Re") Nomen: Son of Amun Aryamani
Aryamani
(Sa-en-Amun Iry-Amun) with epithet Meryamun ("Beloved of Amun") [1]Monuments and inscriptions[edit]Aryamani in hieroglyphsHe is attested by one stela found at Kawa.[2] The stela provides a text in poor Egyptian language and is, therefore, for the most part, not fully understandable. However, it provides a Year 9 date from his reign. At Kawa, a second stela[3] was also found dated to Year 24 of a king whose name is destroyed
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Kushite
The Kingdom of Kush
Kingdom of Kush
or Kush (/kʊʃ, kʌʃ/) was an ancient kingdom in Nubia, located at the confluences of the Blue Nile, White Nile
White Nile
and River Atbara
River Atbara
in what are now Sudan
Sudan
and South Sudan. The Kushite era of rule in Nubia
Nubia
was established after the Bronze Age collapse and the disintegration of the New Kingdom of Egypt. Kush was centered at Napata
Napata
during its early phase. After King Kashta
Kashta
("the Kushite") invaded Egypt
Egypt
in the 8th century BC, the Kushite emperors ruled for a century as pharaohs of the Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt, until they were expelled by the Assyrians under the rule of Esarhaddon. During classical antiquity, the Kushite imperial capital was located at Meroe
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Special
Special
Special
or the specials or variation, may refer to:.mw-parser-output .tocright float:right;clear:right;width:auto;background:none;padding:.5em 0 .8em 1.4em;margin-bottom:.5em .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-left clear:left .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-both clear:both .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-none clear:none Contents1 Policing 2 Literature 3 Film and television 4 Music4.1 Albums 4.2 Songs5 Computing 6 Other uses 7 See alsoPolicing[edit] Specials, Ulster
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International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique.[a][b] Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each separate edition and variation (except reprintings) of a publication. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book will each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is ten digits long if assigned before 2007, and thirteen digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-specific and varies between countries, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book
Book
Numbering (SBN) created in 1966
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Uraeus
The Uraeus
Uraeus
(/jʊˈriːəs/;[1] plural Uraei or Uraeuses; from the Greek οὐραῖος, ouraîos, "on its tail"; from Egyptian jʿr.t (iaret), "rearing cobra") is the stylized, upright form of an Egyptian cobra (asp, serpent, or snake), used as a symbol of sovereignty, royalty, deity and divine authority in ancient Egypt.Contents1 Symbolism 2 Golden Uraeus
Uraeus
of Senusret II 3 As a hieroglyph 4 The Blue Crown 5 See also 6 References 7 SourcesSymbolism[edit] The Uraeus
Uraeus
is a symbol for the goddess Wadjet.[2] She was one of the earliest Egyptian deities and was often depicted as a cobra, as she is the serpent goddess
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Egyptian Soul
The ancient Egyptians believed that a human soul was made up of five parts: the Ren, the Ba, the Ka, the Sheut, and the Ib. In addition to these components of the soul there was the human body (called the ha, occasionally a plural haw, meaning approximately sum of bodily parts).Contents1 Ib (heart) 2 Sheut (shadow) 3 Ren (name) 4 Bâ (personality) 5 Ka (vital spark) 6 Akh 7 Relationships 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 Further readingIb (heart)[edit]jb (F34) "heart" in hieroglyphsAn important part of the Egyptian soul was thought to be the jb (jib), or heart. The heart[1] was believed to be formed from one drop of blood from the heart of the mother's child, taken at conception.[2] To ancient Egyptians, the heart was the seat of emotion, thought, will and intention. This is evidenced by the many expressions in the Egyptian language
Egyptian language
which incorporate the word jb. In Egyptian religion, the heart was the key to the afterlife
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El-Kurru
El-Kurru
El-Kurru
was one of the royal cemeteries used by the Nubian royal family. Reisner excavated the royal pyramids. Most of the pyramids date to the early part of the Kushite period, from Alara of Nubia (795–752 BC) to King Nastasen
Nastasen
(335–315 BC).[1] The area is divided into three parts by two wadis. The central section seems to be the oldest and contains several tumulus type tombs that predate the Kingdom of Napata. Reisner thought that the earliest tomb, Tum.1, dated back to the time of Pharaoh Sheshonq I
Sheshonq I
of Ancient Egypt (c. 850 BC) and predates the Kingdom of Napata
Napata
by some 200 years. At the present scholars (Kendall, Hakem, Totok) think the early cemetery stretches back to the Ramesside period and date the earliest burials to the end of the Twentieth Dynasty
Twentieth Dynasty
of Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
(c
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Thebes, Egypt
Thebes (Ancient Greek: Θῆβαι, Thēbai), known to the ancient Egyptians as Waset, was an ancient Egyptian city located east of the Nile
Nile
about 800 kilometers (500 mi) south of the Mediterranean. Its ruins lie within the modern Egyptian city of Luxor. Thebes was the main city of the fourth Upper Egyptian nome (Sceptre nome) and was the capital of Egypt
Egypt
mainly during the Middle Kingdom and the New Kingdom. It was close to Nubia
Nubia
and the Eastern Desert, with its valuable mineral resources and trade routes. It was a cult center and the most venerated city of ancient Egypt
Egypt
during its heyday
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Elephantine
Elephantine
Elephantine
(/ˌɛlɪfænˈtaɪniː, -ˈtiː-/ EL-i-fan-TY-nee, -TEE-;[2] Ancient Egyptian: 3bw; Egyptian Arabic: جزيرة الفنتين‎, translit. Gazīrat il-Fantīn; Greek: Ελεφαντίνη; Coptic: (Ⲉ)ⲓⲏⲃ) is an island on the Nile, forming part of the city of Aswan
Aswan
in southern Egypt. There are archaeological sites on the island.Contents1 Geography 2 Ancient Egypt2.1 Archaeological sites2.1.1 Temples 2.1.2 Nilometers3 Jewish presence 4 Other features 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksGeography[edit]Verdant Euphantine Island, opposite Assuan, Egypt.", 1908. Lantern slide. Brooklyn Museum Island
Island
of Elephantine
Elephantine
(Egypt) - Edwin Howland Blashfield
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Stela
A stele (/ˈstiːli/ STEE-lee)[Note 1] is a stone or wooden slab, generally taller than it is wide, erected in the ancient world as a monument. Grave
Grave
steles were often used for funerary or commemorative purposes. Stelae as slabs of stone would also be used as ancient Greek and Roman government notices or as boundary markers to mark borders or property lines. The surface of the stele usually has text, ornamentation, or both. The ornamentation may be inscribed, carved in relief, or painted. Traditional Western gravestones may technically be considered the modern equivalent of ancient stelae, though the term is very rarely applied in this way
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Amun
Amun
Amun
(also Amon, Ammon, Amen; Greek Ἄμμων Ámmōn, Ἅμμων Hámmōn)[citation needed] was a major ancient Egyptian deity who appears as a member of the Hermopolitan ogdoad. Amun
Amun
was attested from the Old Kingdom
Old Kingdom
together with his wife Amaunet. With the 11th dynasty (c. 21st century BC), Amun
Amun
rose to the position of patron deity of Thebes by replacing Monthu.[1] After the rebellion of Thebes against the Hyksos
Hyksos
and with the rule of Ahmose I
Ahmose I
(16th century BC), Amun
Amun
acquired national importance, expressed in his fusion with the Sun god, Ra, as Amun-Ra or Amun-Re. Amun-Ra retained chief importance in the Egyptian pantheon
Egyptian pantheon
throughout the New Kingdom
New Kingdom
(with the exception of the "Atenist heresy" under Akhenaten)
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Napata
Coordinates: 18°32′N 31°50′E / 18.53°N 31.84°E / 18.53; 31.84 Napata
Napata
in hieroglyphsnptNapatan necklace spacer made of gold (6th century BC). It is inscribed with Egyptian hieroglyphs.The last standing pillars of the temple of Amun
Amun
at the foot of Jebel Barkal Napata
Napata
was a city-state of ancient Nubia
Nubia
on the west bank of the Nile River, at the site of modern Karima, Northern Sudan.Contents1 Early history 2 Napatan period2.1 Assyrian invasion and end of the Nubian dynasty3 Late Napatan kingdom 4 Cultural references 5 ReferencesEarly history[edit] Napata
Napata
was founded by Thutmose III
Thutmose III
in the 15th century BC after his conquest of Nubia
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Taharqa
Taharqa, also spelled Taharka or Taharqo (Hebrew: תִּרְהָקָה‬, Modern Tirhaqa, Tiberian Tirehāqā, Manetho's Tarakos, Strabo's Tearco), was a pharaoh of ancient Egypt of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty and qore (king) of the Kingdom of Kush.Contents1 Early life 2 Ruling period 3 Irregular accession to power 4 Reign 5 Biblical
Biblical
references 6 Assyrian invasion of Egypt 7 Death 8 Depictions 9 Image gallery 10 See also 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External linksEarly life[edit] Taharqa
Taharqa
was the son of Piye, the Nubian king of Napata
Napata
who had first conquered Egypt
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Piye
Piye
Piye
(once transliterated as Piankhi;[2] d. 714 BC) was an ancient Kushite king and founder of the Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt
Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt
who ruled Egypt
Egypt
from 744–714 BC.[3] He ruled from the city of Napata, located deep in Nubia, modern-day Sudan.Contents1 Name 2 Family 3 Conquest of Egypt 4 Length of reign 5 Burial 6 References 7 Bibliography 8 External linksName[edit] Piye
Piye
adopted two throne names: Usimare and Sneferre.[4] He was passionate about the worship of the god Amun, like many kings of Nubia. He revitalized the moribund Great Temple of Amun
Amun
at Jebel Barkal, which was first built under Thutmose III
Thutmose III
of the New Kingdom, employing numerous sculptors and stonemasons from Egypt
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