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Al-Kamil Fi Al-Tarikh
The Complete History (Arabic: الكامل في التاريخ‎, al-Kāmil fit-Tārīkh), is a classic Islamic history book written by Ali ibn al-Athir.[1] Composed in ca. 1231AD/628AH, it is one of the most important Islamic historical works. Ibn al-Athir was a contemporary and member of the retinue of Salah ad-Din, the Kurdish Muslim general who captured Jerusalem from the Crusaders and Massively reduced European holdings in the Levant, leaving the Principality of Antioch
Antioch
and County of Tripoli
County of Tripoli
much reduced and only a few cities on the coast to the Kingdom of Jerusalem.Contents1 Format of The Complete History 2 The Rus 3 The Crusades 4 The Seljuks 5 See also 6 Notes 7 ReferencesFormat of The Complete History[edit] The Complete History is organized into volumes, years, and subsections. The Complete History has several volumes
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Arabic Language
Arabic
Arabic
(Arabic: العَرَبِيَّة‎, al-ʻarabiyyah, [al ʕaraˈbijja] (listen) or عَرَبِيّ‎, ʻarabī, [ˈʕarabiː] (listen) or [ʕaraˈbij]) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.[5] It is now the lingua franca of the Arab world.[6] It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living in the area bounded by Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the east and the Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
mountains in the west, in Northwestern Arabia
Arabia
and in the Sinai Peninsula. The ISO classifies Arabic
Arabic
as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic,[7] which is derived from Classical Arabic
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Seljuq Dynasty
Damascus: 1104 – Baqtash was dethroned by Toghtekin Great Seljuq: 1194 – Toghrul III was killed in battle with Tekish Rum: 1307 – Mesud II
Mesud II
diedThe Seljuq dynasty or Seljuqs[1][2][3](/ˈsɛldʒʊk/ SEL-juuk; Persian: آل سلجوق[4]‎ Al-e Saljuq) was an Oghuz Turk Sunni Muslim dynasty that gradually became a Persianate society
Persianate society
and contributed to the Turko-Persian tradition[5][6] in the medieval West and Central Asia
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Roger I Of Sicily
Roger I (c. 1031 – 22 June 1101), nicknamed Roger Bosso and The Great Count, was a Norman nobleman who became the first Count of Sicily from 1071 to 1101. He was a member of the House of Hauteville, and his descendants in the male line continued to rule Sicily down to 1194. Roger was born in Normandy, and came to southern Italy as a young man in 1057. He participated in several military expeditions against the Emirate of Sicily
Emirate of Sicily
beginning in 1061. He was invested with part of Sicily and the title of count by his brother, Robert Guiscard, Duke of Apulia, in 1071. By 1090, he had conquered the entire island. In 1091, he conquered Malta
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Fatimid Caliphate
The Fatimid
Fatimid
Caliphate
Caliphate
(Arabic: الفاطميون‎, al-Fāṭimīyūn) was an Ismaili
Ismaili
Shia
Shia
Islamic caliphate that spanned a large area of North Africa, from the Red Sea
Red Sea
in the east to the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
in the west. The dynasty of Arab origin[4][5] ruled across the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
coast of Africa and ultimately made Egypt
Egypt
the centre of the caliphate. At its height the caliphate included in addition to Egypt
Egypt
varying areas of the Maghreb, Sudan, Sicily, the Levant, and Hijaz. The Fatimids
Fatimids
claimed descent from Fatimah, the daughter of Islamic prophet Muhammad
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Alexios I Komnenos
Alexios I Komnenos
Komnenos
(Greek: Ἀλέξιος Αʹ Κομνηνός, c. 1048 – 15 August 1118) was Byzantine emperor from 1081 to 1118. Although he was not the founder of the Komnenian dynasty, it was during his reign that the Komnenos
Komnenos
family came to full power. Inheriting a collapsing empire and faced with constant warfare during his reign against both the Seljuq Turks
Seljuq Turks
in Asia Minor
Asia Minor
and the Normans in the western Balkans, Alexios was able to curb the Byzantine decline and begin the military, financial, and territorial recovery known as the Komnenian restoration. The basis for this recovery were various reforms initiated by Alexios
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Baldwin I Of Constantinople
Baldwin I (Flemish: Boudewijn I; French: Baudouin I; July 1172 – c. 1205), the first emperor of the Latin Empire
Latin Empire
of Constantinople, Baldwin IX Count of Flanders
Count of Flanders
and Baldwin VI Count of Hainaut, was one of the most prominent leaders of the Fourth Crusade, which resulted in the sack of Constantinople
Constantinople
and the conquest of large parts of the Byzantine Empire, and the foundation of the Latin Empire
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Baldwin I Of Jerusalem
Baldwin I, also known as Baldwin of Boulogne (1060s – 2 April 1118), was the first count of Edessa
Edessa
from 1098 to 1100, and the second crusader ruler and first King of Jerusalem
King of Jerusalem
from 1100 to his death. Being a younger son, he was destined for a Church career, but he abandoned it and married a Norman noblewoman, Godehilde of Tosny. He received the County of Verdun in 1096, but he soon joined the crusader army of his brother, Godfrey of Bouillon
Godfrey of Bouillon
and became one of the most successful commanders of the First Crusade. Baldwin and the Norman Tancred launched a separate expedition against Cilicia
Cilicia
in the autumn of 1097. Tancred tried to capture Tarsus, but Baldwin forced him to leave it, which gave rise to an enduring conflict between them
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Antioch
Antioch
Antioch
on the Orontes (/ˈæntiˌɒk/; Greek: Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου, also Syrian Antioch)[note 1] was an ancient Greco-Roman
Greco-Roman
city[1] on the eastern side of the Orontes River. Its ruins lie near the modern city of Antakya, Turkey, and lends the modern city its name. Antioch
Antioch
was founded near the end of the 4th century
4th century
BC by Seleucus I Nicator, one of Alexander the Great's generals. The city's geographical, military, and economic location benefited its occupants, particularly such features as the spice trade, the Silk Road, and the Persian Royal Road. It eventually rivaled Alexandria
Alexandria
as the chief city of the Near East. It was also the main center of Hellenistic Judaism at the end of the Second Temple
Second Temple
period
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Siege Of Antioch
Decisive Crusader–Byzantine victory Antioch
Antioch
captured by the Crusaders Principality of Antioch
Antioch
is formedBelligerentsCrusaders  Byzantine EmpireSeljuk EmpireAntioch
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Fulcher Of Chartres
Fulcher of Chartres
Chartres
(1059 in or near Chartres
Chartres
- after 1128) was a priest and participated in the First Crusade. He served Baldwin I of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
for many years, and wrote a chronicle of the Crusade, writing in Latin.Contents1 Life 2 Chronicle 3 References3.1 Sources4 Further readingLife[edit] Fulcher was born in 1059.[1] His appointment as chaplain of Baldwin of Boulogne in 1097 suggests that he had been trained as a priest, most likely at the school of Chartres
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First Crusade
CrusadersKingdom of FranceBlois Toulouse Boulogne Flanders Normandy Le Puy-en-Velay Vermandois BrittanyHoly Roman EmpireDuchy of Lower Lorraine Republic of GenoaSicily (Taranto) Byzantine Empire Armenian CiliciaMuslim forcesSeljuk Sultanate Danishmends Fatimid Caliphate Abbasid CaliphateCommanders and leadersImperial Contingent:Godfrey of Bouillon Baldwin of BoulogneSouthern French Contingent:Raymond IV of Toulouse Adhemar of Le PuyNorthern French Contingent:Hugh I of Vermandois Stephen II of Blois Robert II of Flanders Robert II of NormandyNorman-Italian ContingentBohemond of Taranto Tancred of Hauteville Richard of SalernoEastern Leaders:Alexios I Komnenos Tatikios Manuel Boutoumites Constantine of ArmeniaSeljuq Empire:Kilij Arslan I Yaghi-Siyan Kerbogha Duqaq Fakhr al-Mulk RadwanDanishmendsGhazi ibn DanishmendFatimidsIftikhar ad-Daula Al-Afdal ShahanshahStrengthCrusaders: ca
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Shia Islam
Sunni
Sunni
theological traditionsIlm al-KalamAsh'ari1 Maturidi Sunni
Sunni
Murji'ah Traditionalist2Shi'a Twelver3PrinciplesTawhid Adalah Prophecy Imamah QiyamahPracticesSalah Sawm Zakat Hajj Khums Jihad Commandin
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Egypt In The Middle Ages
Following the Islamic conquest in 639 AD, Lower Egypt
Lower Egypt
was ruled at first by governors acting in the name of the Rashidun Caliphs and then the Ummayad
Ummayad
Caliphs in Damascus, but in 747 the Ummayads were overthrown
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Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
(Arabic: الأنْدَلُس‎, trans. al-ʼAndalus; Spanish: al-Ándalus; Portuguese: al-Ândalus; Catalan: al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus), also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal. At its greatest geographical extent in the 8th century, a part of southern France—Septimania—was briefly under its control
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Sunni Islam
OthersZahiri Awza'i Thawri Laythi JaririSunni schools of theology Ash'ari Maturidi Traditionalist OthersMuʿtazila Murji'ahContemporary movements al-Ahbash Ahl-i Hadith Deobandi Islamic Modernism Salafi
Salafi
movement WahhabismHoly sites Jerusalem Mecca Medina DamascusLists Literature Kutub al-Sittah Islam portalvte Sunni Islam
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