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Al-Hakam II
Al-Hakam II
Al-Hakam II
(al-Ḥakam II ibn ʿAbd al-Raḥmān III; Arabic: الحكم الثاني ابن عبد الرحمن‎) (January 13, 915 – October 16, 976) was the second Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliph
Caliph
of Córdoba, in Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
and son of Abd-ar-Rahman III
Abd-ar-Rahman III
(al-Nasir) and Murjan. He ruled from 961 to 976.Contents1 Early rule 2 Patron of knowledge 3 Construction projects 4 Military conflict in North Africa 5 Personal life 6 Death and succession 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksEarly rule[edit]Dinar of al-Hakam II c. 969 AD Al-Hakam II
Al-Hakam II
succeeded to the Caliphate after the death of his father Abd-ar-Rahman III
Abd-ar-Rahman III
in 961
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Harem
Harem
Harem
(Arabic: حريم‎ ḥarīm, "a sacred inviolable place; harem; female members of the family"), also known as zenana in South Asia, properly refers to domestic spaces that are reserved for the women of the house in a Muslim
Muslim
family and are inaccessible to adult males except for close relations. Similar institutions have been common in other Mediterranean
Mediterranean
and Middle Eastern civilizations, especially among royal and upper-class families and the term is sometimes used in non-Islamic contexts. The structure of the harem and the extent of monogamy or polygamy has varied depending on the family's personalities, socio-economic status, and local customs. This private space has been traditionally understood as serving the purposes of maintaining the modesty, privilege, and protection of women
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Zirid Dynasty
The Zirid dynasty
Zirid dynasty
(Berber languages: ⵉⵣⵉⵔⵉⴻⵏ Tagelda en Ayt Ziri, Arabic: زيريون‎ /ALA-LC: Zīryūn; Banu Ziri), was a Sanhaja
Sanhaja
Berber dynasty from current Algeria, which ruled the central Maghreb
Maghreb
from 972 to 1014 and Ifriqiya
Ifriqiya
(eastern Maghreb) from 972 to 1148.[3][6] Descendants of Ziri ibn Menad, a military leader who rallied to the Cairo-based Fatimid Caliphate
Fatimid Caliphate
and gave his name to the dynasty, the Zirids were Emirs who ruled in the name of the Fatimids. They gradually established their autonomy until officially breaking with the Fatimids
Fatimids
in the mid-11th century
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Muladi
The Muladi
Muladi
(Spanish: muladí [mulaˈði], pl. muladíes; Portuguese: muladi [mulɐˈði], pl. muladis; Catalan: muladita [muɫəˈðitə] or muladí [muɫəˈði], pl. muladites or muladís; Arabic: مولد‎ trans. muwallad, pl. مولدون muwalladūn or مولدين muwalladīn) were Muslims
Muslims
of local descent or of mixed Arab, Berber, and Iberian origin, who lived in Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
during the Middle Ages. They were also called "Musalimah" (Islamized). In broader usage, the word muwallad is used to describe Arabs of mixed parentage, especially those not living in their ancestral homelands.[1][2]Contents1 Etymology 2 History 3 Notable Muladi 4 See also 5 Footnotes 6 ReferencesEtymology[edit] Aljamiado
Aljamiado
text in 16th centuryThe Spanish, Portuguese and Catalan words muladí, muladi or muladita are derived from the Arabic
Arabic
muwallad
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Hajib
A hajib or hadjib (Arabic: الحاجب‎, tr. al-ḥājib [æl ˈħæːdʒib]) was a court official, equivalent to a chamberlain, in the early Muslim
Muslim
world, which evolved to fulfil various functions, often serving as chief ministers or enjoying dictatorial powers. The post appeared under the Umayyad Caliphate, but gained in influence and prestige in the more settled court of the Abbasids, under whom it ranked as one of the senior offices of the state, alongside the vizier
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Physician
A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments. Physicians may focus their practice on certain disease categories, types of patients and methods of treatment—known as specialities—or they may assume responsibility for the provision of continuing and comprehensive medical care to individuals, families, and communities—known as general practice.[3] Medical practice properly requires both a detailed knowledge of the academic disciplines (such as anatomy and physiology) underlying diseases and their treatment—the science of medicine—and also a decent competence in its applied practice—the art or craft of medicine. Both the role of the physician and the meaning of the word itself vary around the world
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Scientist
A scientist is a person engaging in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge that describes and predicts the natural world. In a more restricted sense, a scientist may refer to an individual who uses the scientific method.[1] The person may be an expert in one or more areas of science.[2] The term scientist was coined by the theologian, philosopher, and historian of science William Whewell
William Whewell
in 1833. This article focuses on the more restricted use of the word. Scientists perform research toward a more comprehensive understanding of nature, including physical, mathematical and social realms. Philosophy
Philosophy
is today typically regarded as a distinct activity from science, though the activities were not always distinguished in this fashion, with science considered a "branch" of philosophy rather than opposed to it, prior to modernity
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Surgeon
In medicine, a surgeon is a physician who performs surgical operations. There are also surgeons in podiatry, dentistry and the veterinary fields.Contents1 History 2 Titles in the Commonwealth 3 Military titles 4 Specialties 5 Pioneer surgeons 6 Organizations and fellowships 7 ReferencesHistory[edit]Al-Zahrawi, the Islamic Golden Age
Islamic Golden Age
physician widely considered one of the '"Fathers of Modern Surgery"The first person to document a surgery was the 6th Century BC Indian physician-surgeon, Sushruta. He specialised in cosmetic plastic surgery and had documented even an operation of open rhinoplasty[1]. His magnum opus Suśruta-saṃhitā is one of the most important surviving ancient treatises on medicine and is considered a foundational text of Ayurveda and surgery. The treatise addresses all aspects of general medicine, but the translator G. D
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Vizier
A vizier (/vɪˈzɪər/, rarely /ˈvɪziər/;[1] Arabic: وزير‎ wazīr; Persian: وازیر‬‎ vazīr; Turkish: vezir; Chinese: 宰相 zǎixiàng; Bengali: উজির ujira'; Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu): वज़ीर or وزیر‬ vazeer, sometimes spelled vazir, vizir, vasir, wazir, vesir, or vezir), is a high-ranking political advisor or minister.[2] The Abbasid
Abbasid
caliphs gave the title wazir to a minister formerly called katib (secretary) who was at first merely a helper, but afterwards became the representative and successor of the dapir (official scribe or secretary) of the Sassanian kings.[3] In modern usage, the ter
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Normans
The Normans
Normans
(Norman: Normaunds; French: Normands; Latin: Normanni) were the people who, in the 10th and 11th centuries, gave their name to Normandy, a region in France
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Fatimid Caliphate
The Fatimid
Fatimid
Caliphate
Caliphate
(Arabic: الفاطميون‎, al-Fāṭimīyūn) was an Ismaili
Ismaili
Shia
Shia
Islamic caliphate that spanned a large area of North Africa, from the Red Sea
Red Sea
in the east to the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
in the west. The dynasty of Arab origin[4][5] ruled across the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
coast of Africa and ultimately made Egypt
Egypt
the centre of the caliphate. At its height the caliphate included in addition to Egypt
Egypt
varying areas of the Maghreb, Sudan, Sicily, the Levant, and Hijaz. The Fatimids
Fatimids
claimed descent from Fatimah, the daughter of Islamic prophet Muhammad
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Latin
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Morocco
Coordinates: 32°N 6°W / 32°N 6°W / 32; -6Kingdom of Moroccoالمملكة المغربية (Arabic) ⵜⴰⴳⵍⴷⵉⵜ ⵏ ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ (Berber)FlagCoat of armsMotto:  لله، الوطن، الملك  (Arabic) Allah, Al Watan, Al Malik ⴰⴽⵓⵛ, ⴰⵎⵓⵔ, ⴰⴳⵍⵍⵉⴷ (Berber)"God, Homeland, King"Anthem:  النشيد الوطني المغربي  (Arabic) ⵉⵣⵍⵉ ⴰⵏⴰⵎⵓⵔ ⵏ ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ  (Berber) Cherifian AnthemDark green: Internationally recognized territory of Morocco. Lighter green: Western Sahara, a territory claimed and mostly controlled by Morocco
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Kingdom Of Navarre
 FranceThe Kingdom of Navarre
Navarre
(/nəˈvɑːr/; Basque: Nafarroako Erresuma, Spanish: Reino de Navarra, French: Royaume de Navarre, Latin: Regnum Navarrae), originally the Kingdom of Pamplona
Pamplona
(Basque: Iruñeko Erresuma), was a Basque-based kingdom[7] that occupied lands on either side of the western Pyrenees, alongside the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
between present-day Spain
Spain
and France. The medieval state took form around the city of Pamplona
Pamplona
during the first centuries of the Iberian Reconquista. The kingdom has its origins in the conflict in the buffer region between the Frankish king Charlemagne
Charlemagne
and the Umayyad Emirate that controlled most of the Iberian Peninsula
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Kingdom Of Castile
The Kingdom of Castile
Kingdom of Castile
(/kæˈstiːl/; Spanish: Reino de Castilla, Latin: Regnum Castellae) was a large and powerful state on the Iberian Peninsula during the Middle Ages. Its name comes from the host of castles constructed in the region. It began in the 9th century as the County of Castile
County of Castile
(Condado de Castilla), an eastern frontier lordship of the Kingdom of León. During the 10th century its counts increased their autonomy, but it was not until 1065 that it was separated from León and became a kingdom in its own right. Between 1072 and 1157 it was again united with León, and after 1230 this union became permanent. Throughout this period the Castilian kings made extensive conquests in southern Iberia at the expense of the Islamic principalities
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Kingdom Of León
The Kingdom of León
Kingdom of León
(/liˈɒn/; Spanish: [leˈon]; Leonese: Reinu de Llïón, Spanish: Reino de León, Galician: Reino de León, Portuguese: Reino de Leão, Latin: Regnum Legionense) was an independent kingdom situated in the northwest region of the Iberian Peninsula. It was founded in AD 910 when the Christian princes of Asturias
Asturias
along the northern coast of the peninsula shifted their capital from Oviedo
Oviedo
to the city of León. The County of Portugal separated to become the independent Kingdom of Portugal
Portugal
in 1139 and the eastern, inland part of León was joined to the Kingdom of Castile in 1230. From 1296 to 1301, the Kingdom of León
Kingdom of León
was again independent and after the re-union with Castile remained a Crown until 1833, but as part of a united Spain
Spain
from 1479
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