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Akeman Street
Akeman Street
Akeman Street
was a major Roman road
Roman road
in England that linked Watling Street with the Fosse Way. Its junction with Watling Street
Watling Street
was just north of Verulamium
Verulamium
(near modern St Albans) and that with the Fosse Way was at Corinium Dobunnorum
Corinium Dobunnorum
(now Cirencester). Its course passes through towns and villages including Hemel Hempstead, Berkhamsted, Tring, Aylesbury, Alchester (outside modern Bicester), Chesterton, Kirtlington, Ramsden and Asthall. [1] Parts of the A41 road
A41 road
between Berkhamsted
Berkhamsted
and Bicester
Bicester
use the course of the former Roman road, as did the Sparrows Herne turnpike
Sparrows Herne turnpike
between Berkhamsted
Berkhamsted
and Aylesbury
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Geographic Coordinate System
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.[note 1] The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined three-dimensional Cartesian vector. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation.[1] To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection.[2]Contents1 History 2 Geodetic datum 3 Horizontal coordinates3.1 Latitude
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Cambridge
280,000 [1] - • Ethnicity (2011)[2] 66% White British 1.4% White Irish 15% White Other 1.7% Black British 3.2% Mixed Race 11% British Asian & Chinese 1.6% otherDemonym(s) CantabrigianTime zone Greenwich Mean Time
Greenwich Mean Time
(UTC+0) • Summer (DST) BST (UTC+1)Postcode CB1 – CB5Area code(s) 01223ONS code 12UB (ONS) E07000008 (GSS)OS grid reference TL450588Website www.cambridge.gov.uk Cambridge
Cambridge
(/ˈkeɪmbrɪdʒ/[3] KAYM-brij) is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam
River Cam
approximately 50 miles (80 km) north of London
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Middle Ages
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
(or medieval period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and merged into the Renaissance
Renaissance
and the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages
Middle Ages
is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early, High, and Late Middle Ages. Population decline, counterurbanisation, collapse of centralized authority, invasions, and mass migrations of tribes, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages. The large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire
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Old English Language
Old English
Old English
(Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon,[2] is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland
Scotland
in the early Middle Ages. It was brought to Great Britain
Great Britain
by Anglo-Saxon settlers probably in the mid-5th century, and the first Old English
Old English
literary works date from the mid-7th century. After the Norman conquest
Norman conquest
of 1066, English was replaced, for a time, as the language of the upper classes by Anglo-Norman, a relative of French
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Bath, Somerset
Bath is the largest city in the ceremonial county of Somerset, England, known for its Roman-built baths. In 2011, the population was 88,859.[2] Bath is in the valley of the River Avon, 97 miles (156 km) west of London
London
and 11 miles (18 km) south-east of Bristol. The city became a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
in 1987. The city became a spa with the Latin
Latin
name Aquae Sulis
Aquae Sulis
("the waters of Sulis") c.60  AD  when the Romans built baths and a temple in the valley of the River Avon, although hot springs were known even before then. Bath Abbey
Bath Abbey
was founded in the 7th century and became a religious centre; the building was rebuilt in the 12th and 16th centuries. In the 17th century, claims were made for the curative properties of water from the springs, and Bath became popular as a spa town in the Georgian era
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Aquae Sulis
Aquae Sulis
Sulis
was a small town in the Roman province
Roman province
of Britannia. Today it is the English city of Bath, Somerset.Contents1 Development1.1 Baths and temple complex 1.2 Walled town 1.3 Decline2 Medieval legend 3 Remains 4 References 5 External linksDevelopment[edit] Baths and temple complex[edit]Model of the Roman baths and temple complexMain article: Roman Baths (Bath) The Romans probably began building a formal temple complex at Aquae Sulis
Sulis
in the AD 60s. The Romans had probably arrived in the area shortly after their arrival in Britain in AD 43 and there is evidence that their military road, the Fosse Way, crossed the river Avon at Bath
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Ermine Street
Ermine Street is the name of a major Roman road
Roman road
in England that ran from London
London
(Londinium) to Lincoln (Lindum Colonia) and York (Eboracum). The Old English name was "Earninga Straete" (1012), named after a tribe called the Earningas, who inhabited a district later known as Armingford Hundred, around Arrington, Cambridgeshire
Arrington, Cambridgeshire
and Royston, Hertfordshire.[1] "Armingford", and "Arrington" share the same Old English origin. The original Roman name for the route is unknown
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Wimpole Hall
Wimpole
Wimpole
Estate is a large estate containing Wimpole
Wimpole
Hall, a country house located within the Parish of Wimpole, Cambridgeshire, England, about 8 1⁄2 miles (13.7 kilometres) southwest of Cambridge. The house, begun in 1640, and its 3,000 acres (12 km2) of parkland and farmland are owned by the National Trust and are regularly open to the public. Wimpole
Wimpole
is the largest house in Cambridgeshire.Contents1 History 2 The grounds 3 Listed buildings 4 Community use 5 Gallery 6 References 7 Sources 8 External linksHistory[edit] Sited close to the great Roman road, Ermine Street, Wimpole
Wimpole
was listed in the Domesday Book
Domesday Book
of 1086. At that time there was a moated manor house set in a small 81 hectares (200 acres) deer-park
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Via Devana
The Via Devana
Via Devana
was a Roman Road
Roman Road
in England that ran from Colchester
Colchester
in the south-east to Chester
Chester
in the north-west. Both were important Roman military centres and it is conjectured that the main reason the road was constructed was military rather than civilian. The Latin name for Chester
Chester
is Deva and it was thus 'The Chester
Chester
Road'. Colchester
Colchester
was Colonia Victricensis, 'the City of Victory', and lays claim to be the oldest Roman city in Britain. The Via Devana
Via Devana
had little civilian rationale and the road eventually fell into disuse as it was not possible to maintain extensive public works following withdrawal of the last Roman legion
Roman legion
from Britain in 407
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Sparrows Herne Turnpike
Sparrows Herne Turnpike Road
Sparrows Herne Turnpike Road
was an 18th-century English turnpike road from London
London
to Aylesbury. The route was approximately that of the later A41 trunk road, (excluding the modern bypass sections at Watford and Hemel Hempstead), and much of the original route is now numbered as the A4251. It followed the Edgware Road
Edgware Road
and ran through Watford, Kings Langley, Apsley, the Boxmoor
Boxmoor
area of Hemel Hempstead, Berkhamsted
Berkhamsted
and Tring. It linked in with other turnpikes to the north forming a route to Birmingham. The turnpike trust was set up in 1762 by around 300 landed gentry to look after about 26 miles of road between Sparrows Herne near Bushey and Walton near Aylesbury
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A10 Road (Great Britain)
The A10 (in certain sections known as Great Cambridge
Cambridge
Road or Old North Road) is a major road in England. Its southern end is at London Bridge in the London Borough of Southwark, and its northern end is the Norfolk
Norfolk
port town of King's Lynn. From London to Royston it chiefly follows the line of Roman Ermine Street.Contents1 Route 2 Abandoned schemes 3 References 4 External linksRoute[edit]A10 in the City of LondonA10 outside Hertford
Hertford
facing south towards LondonA10 Wadesmill
Wadesmill
bypass undergoing remedial work before openingWithin the City of London, the route of the A10 comprises King William Street, Gracechurch Street, Bishopsgate
Bishopsgate
and Norton Folgate. It then becomes Shoreditch High Street, Kingsland Road, Kingsland High Street and Stoke Newington
Stoke Newington
Road
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The Fens
The Fens, also known as the Fenlands, are a coastal plain in eastern England. Despite being a natural marshy region, most of the fens were drained several centuries ago, resulting in a flat, dry, low-lying agricultural region supported by a system of drainage channels and man-made rivers (dykes and drains) and automated pumping stations. A fen is the local term for an individual area of marshland or former marshland and also designates the type of marsh typical of the area, which has neutral or alkaline water chemistry and relatively large quantities of dissolved minerals, but few other plant nutrients. Fenland
Fenland
primarily lies around the coast of the Wash; it reaches into four ceremonial counties: Lincolnshire, Cambridgeshire, Norfolk
Norfolk
and a small area of Suffolk, as well as the historic county of Huntingdonshire
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Denver, Norfolk
Denver is a village and civil parish in the English county of Norfolk. It is on the River Great Ouse, approximately 1 mile (2 km) south of the small town of Downham Market, 14 miles (22 km) south of the larger town of King's Lynn, and 37 miles (60 km) west of the city of Norwich.[1][2]Contents1 Background 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksBackground[edit] The civil parish has an area of 10.82 km² and in the 2001 census had a population of 847 in 358 households, the population increasing to 890 at the 2011 Census.[3] For the purposes of local government, the parish falls within the district of King's Lynn
King's Lynn
and West Norfolk.[4]Denver SluiceIn 1651 the first sluice was built across the river at Denver, by Cornelius Vermuyden, although it had to be rebuilt after bursting in 1713. The sluices play a major role in the drainage of the fens, being at the confluence of five watercourses
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Brancaster
Brancaster
Brancaster
is a village and civil parish on the north coast of the English county of Norfolk. The civil parish of Brancaster
Brancaster
comprises Brancaster
Brancaster
itself, together with Brancaster
Brancaster
Staithe and Burnham Deepdale. The three villages form a more or less continuous settlement along the A149 at the edge of the Brancaster Manor
Brancaster Manor
marshland and the Scolt Head Island National Nature Reserve. The villages are located about 3 miles (5 km) west of Burnham Market, 22 miles (35 km) north of the town of King's Lynn
King's Lynn
and 31 miles (50 km) north-west of the city of Norwich.[1]Burnham Deepdale, St MaryBrancaster, St Mary the VirginThe civil parish has an area of 8.27 square miles (21.43 km2) and in the 2011 census had a population of 797 in 406 households
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International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique.[a][b] Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each separate edition and variation (except reprintings) of a publication. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book will each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is ten digits long if assigned before 2007, and thirteen digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-specific and varies between countries, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book
Book
Numbering (SBN) created in 1966
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