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Air-to-air Missile
An air-to-air missile (AAM) is a missile fired from an aircraft for the purpose of destroying another aircraft. AAMs are typically powered by one or more rocket motors, usually solid fueled but sometimes liquid fueled. Ramjet
Ramjet
engines, as used on the Meteor (missile)
Meteor (missile)
are emerging as propulsion that will enable future medium-range missiles to maintain higher average speed across their engagement envelope. Air-to-air missiles are broadly put in two groups. Those designed to engage opposing aircraft at ranges of less than 30 km are known as short-range or "within visual range" missiles (SRAAMs or WVRAAMs) and are sometimes called "dogfight" missiles because they are designed to optimize their agility rather than range. Most use infrared guidance and are called heat-seeking missiles
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Radar
Radar
Radar
is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects. It can be used to detect aircraft, ships, spacecraft, guided missiles, motor vehicles, weather formations, and terrain. A radar system consists of a transmitter producing electromagnetic waves in the radio or microwaves domain, a transmitting antenna, a receiving antenna (often the same antenna is used for transmitting and receiving) and a receiver and processor to determine properties of the object(s). Radio
Radio
waves (pulsed or continuous) from the transmitter reflect off the object and return to the receiver, giving information about the object's location and speed. Radar
Radar
was developed secretly for military use by several nations in the period before and during World War II
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Soviet Air Force
10,100 (1973) 7,859 aircraft (1990)Main Staff MoscowInsigniaRoundelThe Soviet Air Forces
Soviet Air Forces
(Russian: Военно-воздушные силы, tr. Voyenno-Vozdushnye Sily (VVS), literally "Military Air Forces") was the official designation of one of the air forces of the Soviet Union. The other was the Soviet Air Defence Forces. The Air Forces were formed from components of the Imperial Russian Air Service in 1917, and faced their greatest test during World War II. The groups were also involved in the Korean War, and dissolved along with the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
itself in 1991–92. Former Soviet Air Forces' assets were subsequently divided into several air forces of former Soviet republics, including the new Russian Air Force
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Le Prieur Rocket
Le Prieur rockets (French Fusées Le Prieur) were a type of incendiary air-to-air rockets used in World War I
World War I
against observation balloons and airships.[1] They were invented by the French Lieutenant
Lieutenant
Yves Le Prieur and were first used in the Battle of Verdun
Battle of Verdun
in 1916. Due to great inaccuracy their range was limited to about 115 metres (126 yards).Contents1 Development 2 Method of use 3 See also 4 ReferencesDevelopment[edit] The Le Prieur rocket
Le Prieur rocket
was essentially a cardboard tube filled with 200 grams of black powder with a wooden conical head attached (by doped paper or linen tape) and had a triangular knife blade inserted in a slot across its apex forming a spear point
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Observation Balloons
An observation balloon is a type of balloon that is employed as an aerial platform for intelligence gathering and artillery spotting. Use of observation balloons began during the French Revolutionary Wars, reaching their zenith during World War I, and they continue in limited use today. Historically, observation balloons were filled with hydrogen. The balloons were fabric envelopes filled with hydrogen gas, whose flammable nature led to the destruction of hundreds of balloons on both sides. Observers manning these observation balloons frequently had to use a parachute to evacuate their balloon when it came under attack
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Albert Ball
First World WarWestern FrontAwards Victoria Cross Distinguished Service Order
Distinguished Service Order
& Two Bars Military Cross Légion d'honneur
Légion d'honneur
(France) Order of St. George
Order of St. George
(Russia)Relations Sir Albert Ball (father)Albert Ball, VC, DSO & Two Bars, MC (14 August 1896 – 7 May 1917) was an English fighter pilot during the First World War. At the time of his death he was the United Kingdom's leading flying ace, with 44 victories, and remained its fourth-highest scorer behind Edward Mannock, James McCudden, and George McElroy.[1] Born and raised in Nottingham, Ball joined the Sherwood Foresters
Sherwood Foresters
at the outbreak of the First World War and was commissioned as a second lieutenant in October 1914
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R4M Rocket
The R4M
R4M
(German: Rakete, 4Kilogramm, Minenkopf) rocket, nicknamed the Hurricane (German: Orkan) due to its distinctive smoke trail when fired, was an anti-aircraft rocket. It was developed by the German Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe
during World War II.Contents1 Development 2 Operations 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksDevelopment[edit] The R4M
R4M
was developed in order to deal with the increasing weight of anti-bomber weapons being deployed by Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe
fighters
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US Air Force
The United States
United States
Air Force (USAF) is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States
United States
Armed Forces. It is one of the five branches of the United States
United States
Armed Forces, and one of the seven American uniformed services. Initially formed as a part of the United States Army on 1 August 1907, the USAF was established as a separate branch of the U.S. Armed Forces on 18 September 1947 with the passing of the National Security Act of 1947. It is the youngest branch of the U.S. Armed Forces, and the fourth in order of precedence. The USAF is the largest[13] and most technologically advanced[14] air force in the world. The Air Force articulates its core missions as air and space superiority, global integrated intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance, rapid global mobility, global strike, and command and control. The U.S
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Inertial Guidance
An inertial navigation system (INS) is a navigation aid that uses a computer, motion sensors (accelerometers), rotation sensors (gyroscopes) and occasionally magnetic sensors (magnetometers), to continuously calculate by dead reckoning the position, the orientation and the velocity (direction and speed of movement) of a moving object without the need for external references.[1] It is used on vehicles such as ships, aircraft, submarines, guided missiles and spacecraft. Other terms used to refer to inertial navigation systems or closely related devices include inertial guidance system, inertial instrument, inertial measurement unit (IMU) and many other variations. Older INS systems generally used an inertial platform as their mounting point to the vehicle and the terms are sometimes considered synonymous.Comparison of accuracy of various navigation systems. The radius of the circle indicates the accuracy
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Autocannon
An autocannon or automatic cannon is a large, fully automatic, rapid-fire projectile weapon that fires armour-piercing or explosive shells, as opposed to the bullet fired by a machine gun. Autocannon often have a larger calibre than a machine gun (e.g., 20 mm or greater), but are usually smaller than a field gun or other artillery. When used on its own, the word "autocannon" indicates a single-barrel weapon. When multiple rotating barrels are involved, the word "rotary" is added, and such a weapon is referred to as a "rotary autocannon." Modern autocannon are typically not single soldier-portable or stand-alone units, rather they are usually vehicle-mounted, aircraft-mounted, or boat-mounted, or even remote-operated as in some naval applications. As such, ammunition is typically fed from a belt to reduce reloading or for a faster rate of fire, but a magazine remains an option
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Harrier Jump Jet
The Harrier, informally referred to as the Harrier Jump Jet, is a family of jet-powered attack aircraft capable of vertical/short takeoff and landing operations (V/STOL). Originally developed by UK manufacturer Hawker Siddeley
Hawker Siddeley
in the 1960s, the Harrier emerged as the only truly successful V/ STOL
STOL
design of the many attempted during that era, despite being a subsonic aircraft, unlike most of its competitors. It was conceived to operate from improvised bases, such as car parks or forest clearings, without requiring large and vulnerable air bases
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All-aspect
An all-aspect missile is one which is able to track a target no matter which way the target faces relative to the missile. In other words, an all-aspect missile can be launched against a target in a tail-chase engagement, in a head-on engagement, in a side-on engagement, from above, from below, etc. This is opposed to older infrared homing missiles which were only able to track the hot engine exhaust of an aircraft if the aircraft's engine exhaust was pointing towards the missile seeker, and thus were only successfully used in tail-chase engagements. An example is the Israeli Rafael Advanced Defense Systems
Rafael Advanced Defense Systems
Python 5 air-air/ground-air missile
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Fragmentation (weaponry)
Fragmentation is the process by which the casing of an artillery or mortar shell, rocket, missile, bomb, grenade, etc. is shattered by the detonation of the explosive filler. The correct term for these pieces is "fragmentation" (sometimes shortened to frag); "shards" or "splinters" can be used for non-preformed fragments. Preformed fragments can be of various shapes (spheres, cubes, rods, etc.) and sizes, and are normally held rigidly within some form of matrix or body until the high explosive (HE) filling is detonated
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Continuous Rod
A continuous-rod warhead is a specialized munition that exhibits an annular blast fragmentation pattern, so that when it explodes it spreads into a large circle that cuts the target. It is used in anti-aircraft and anti-missile missiles.Contents1 Early anti-aircraft munitions 2 Construction 3 Operation 4 ReferencesEarly anti-aircraft munitions[edit] Rifle
Rifle
and machine-gun bullets were used against early military aircraft during World War I. Artillery
Artillery
was used when aircraft flew above the range of rifle and machine-gun cartridges. Since the probability of actually striking the aircraft was small, artillery shells were designed to explode at the approximate altitude of the aircraft to throw a shower of fragments in the vicinity of the explosion. Similar anti-aircraft weaponry with larger calibers, higher rates of fire, and improved fuzes continued to be used through World War II
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