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Ahom Language
The Ahom language is a nearly extinct Tai language
Tai language
spoken by the Ahom people who ruled the Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
river valley in the present day Indian state of Assam
Assam
between the 13th and the 18th centuries. The language is classified in a Northwestern subgrouping of Southwestern Tai owing to close affinities with Shan, Khamti and, more distantly, Thai. As the Ahom rulers of the area assimilated to the more numerous Assamese, the Indo-Aryan Assamese language
Assamese language
gradually replaced Ahom as a spoken language, a process which became complete during the 19th century
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India
India, officially the Republic
Republic
of India
India
(IAST: Bhārat Gaṇarājya),[e] is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country (with over 1.2 billion people), and the most populous democracy in the world. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan
Pakistan
to the west;[f] China, Nepal, and Bhutan
Bhutan
to the northeast; and Myanmar
Myanmar
and Bangladesh
Bangladesh
to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India
India
is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and the Maldives
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Brahmaputra
The Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
(/ˌbrɑːməˈpuːtrə/ is one of the major rivers of Asia, a trans-boundary river which flows through China, India
India
and Bangladesh. As such, it is known by various names in the region: Assamese: ব্ৰহ্মপুত্ৰ নদ ('নদ' nôd, masculine form of 'নদী' nôdi "river") Brôhmôputrô [bɹɔɦmɔputɹɔ]; Sanskrit: ब्रह्मपुत्र, IAST: Brahmaputra; Tibetan: ཡར་ཀླུངས་གཙང་པོ་, Wylie: yar klung gtsang po Yarlung Tsangpo; simplified Chinese: 布拉马普特拉河; traditional Chinese: 布拉馬普特拉河; pinyin: Bùlāmǎpǔtèlā Hé. It is also called Tsangpo-Brahmaputra (when referring to the whole river including the stretch within Tibet).[3] The Manas River, which runs through Bhutan, joins it at Jogighopa, in India
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Languages Of Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh (English: /ˌɑːrəˌnɑːtʃəl prəˈdɛʃ/) is one of the 29 states of India and is the northeastern-most state of the country. Arunachal Pradesh borders the states of Assam and Nagaland to the south and shares international borders with Bhutan in the west, Myanmar in the east and is separated from China in the north by the disputed McMahon Line. Itanagar is the capital of the state. A major part of the state is claimed by the Republic of China, and the People's Republic of China referring to it as "South Tibet". The major part of the state which is claimed by China, was temporarily occupied by Chinese forces during the 1962 war.[11] Land of the Dawn-Lit Mountains is the sobriquet for the state in Sanskrit;[12] it is also known as the Orchid State of India or the Paradise of the Botanists
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Northeast India
Northeast India
India
(officially North Eastern Region, NER) is the easternmost region of India
India
representing both a geographic and political administrative division of the country. It comprises eight states: Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim
Sikkim
and Tripura. The Siliguri Corridor
Siliguri Corridor
in West Bengal, with a width of 21 to 40 kilometres (13 to 25 mi),[1] connects the North Eastern Region with East India
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PARADISEC
The Pacific and Regional Archive for Digital Sources in Endangered Cultures (Paradisec) is a cross-institutional project that supports work on endangered languages and cultures of the Pacific and the region around Australia. They digitise reel-to-reel field tapes, have a mass data store and use international standards for metadata description
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Ethnologue
Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world. It was first issued in 1951, and is now published annually by SIL International, a U.S.-based, worldwide, Christian non-profit organization
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Burma
Myanmar
Myanmar
(Burmese: [mjəmà]),[nb 1][8] officially the Republic
Republic
of the Union of Myanmar
Myanmar
and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia. Myanmar
Myanmar
is bordered by India
India
and Bangladesh
Bangladesh
to its west, Thailand
Thailand
and Laos
Laos
to its east and China
China
to its north and northeast. To its south, about one third of Myanmar's total perimeter of 5,876 km (3,651 mi) forms an uninterrupted coastline of 1,930 km (1,200 mi) along the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
and the Andaman Sea. The country's 2014 census counted the population to be 51 million people.[9] As of 2017, the population is about 54 million.[5] Myanmar is 676,578 square kilometres (261,228 square miles) in size
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Yunnan
Yunnan
Yunnan
is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the far southwest of the country. It spans approximately 394,000 square kilometres (152,000 sq mi) and has a population of 45.7 million (as of 2009). The capital of the province is Kunming, formerly also known as Yunnan. The province borders the Chinese provinces Guangxi, Guizhou, Sichuan, and the Tibet
Tibet
Autonomous Region, and the countries Vietnam, Laos, and Myanmar. Yunnan
Yunnan
is situated in a mountainous area, with high elevations in the northwest and low elevations in the southeast. Most of the population lives in the eastern part of the province. In the west, the altitude can vary from the mountain peaks to river valleys as much as 3,000 metres (9,800 ft). Yunnan
Yunnan
is rich in natural resources and has the largest diversity of plant life in China
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Kam–Tai Languages
The Kam–Tai languages, also called Zhuang–Dong in China or Be–Kam–Tai, are a proposed primary branch of the Tai–Kadai language family, and include all major languages of that family. Ethnologue lists 76 languages in this branch. This makes it the largest branch of the Tai–Kadai language family containing over 80% of those languages.[2] Based on the large number of vocabulary they share, three of the five branches of Tai–Kadai, namely Kam–Sui, Be, and Tai, are often classified together as Kam–Tai or Be–Kam–Tai. However, this is negative evidence, possibly due to lexical replacement in the other branches, and morphological similarities suggest that Kam–Sui should instead be grouped with Kra, one of the other branches, as Northern Tai–Kadai, and that Tai should be grouped with the final branch, Hlai, as Southern Tai–Kadai (Ostapirat 2005). References[edit]^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Kam–Tai". Glottolog 3.0
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Austronesian Languages
The Austronesian
Austronesian
languages are a language family that is widely dispersed throughout Maritime Southeast Asia, Madagascar
Madagascar
and the islands of the Pacific Ocean, with a few members in continental Asia.[2] Austronesian
Austronesian
languages are spoken by about 386 million people (4.9%), making it the fourth-largest language family by number of speakers, behind the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
(46.3%), the Sino-Tibetan languages (20.4%), and the Niger-Congo languages
Niger-Congo languages
(6.9%). Major Austronesian
Austronesian
languages with the highest number of speakers are Malay (Indonesian and Malaysian), Javanese, and Filipino (Tagalog)
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Mon-Khmer Languages
The Austroasiatic languages,[note 1] in recent classifications synonymous with Mon–Khmer,[2] are a large language family of Mainland Southeast Asia, also scattered throughout India, Bangladesh, Nepal
Nepal
and the southern border of China, with around 117 million speakers.[3] The name Austroasiatic comes from the Latin
Latin
words for "South" and "Asia", hence "South Asia". Of these languages, only Vietnamese, Khmer, and Mon have a long-established recorded history, and only Vietnamese and Khmer have official status as modern national languages (in Vietnam
Vietnam
and Cambodia, respectively). In Myanmar, the Wa language is the de facto official language of Wa State. The rest of the languages are spoken by minority groups and have no official status. Ethnologue
Ethnologue
identifies 168 Austroasiatic languages
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Indo-Aryan Languages
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordic Bronze Age Terramare Tumulus
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China
China, officially the People's Republic
People's Republic
of China
China
(PRC), is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia
East Asia
and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion.[13] Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area,[k][19] depending on the source consulted. China
China
also has the most neighbor countries in the world
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Language Family
A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics, which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree, or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy. Linguists therefore describe the daughter languages within a language family as being genetically related.[1] According to Ethnologue
Ethnologue
the 7,099 living human languages are distributed in 141 different language families.[2] A "living language" is simply one that is used as the primary form of communication of a group of people
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ISO 639-3
ISO 639-3:2007, Codes for the representation of names of languages – Part 3: Alpha-3 code for comprehensive coverage of languages, is an international standard for language codes in the ISO 639 series. It defines three-letter codes for identifying languages. The standard was published by ISO on 1 February 2007.[1] ISO 639-3 extends the ISO 639-2 alpha-3 codes with an aim to cover all known natural languages
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