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Ahmad Azari Qomi
Grand Ayatollah Ahmad Azari-Qomi-Bigdeli (1925–1999) was an Iranian cleric.Contents1 Background and career 2 Events leading to death 3 Works 4 See also 5 ReferencesBackground and career[edit] Azari was born to a family of Sh'ia
Sh'ia
clerics in Qom
Qom
in 1925.[1] Azari started his studies at
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Modern Era
Modern history, the modern period or the modern era, is the linear, global, historiographical approach to the time frame after post-classical history.[1][2] This view stands in contrast to the "organic," or non-linear, view of history first put forward by the renowned philosopher and historian, Oswald Spengler, early in the 20th century.[3] Modern history
Modern history
can be further broken down into periods :The early modern period began approximately in the early 16th century; notable historical milestones included the European Renaissance, the Age of Discovery, and the Protestant Reformation.[4][5] The late modern period began approximately in the mid-18th century; notable historical milestones included the French Revolution, the American Revolution, the Industrial Revolution, the Great Divergence, and the Russian Revolution
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Islamic Republic
PoliticalHizb ut-Tahrir Iranian Revolution Jamaat-e-Islami Millî Görüş Muslim Brotherhood List of Islamic political partiesMilitantMilitant Islamism
Islamism
based inMENA region South Asia Southeast Asia Sub-Saharan AfricaKey textsReconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam (Iqbal 1930s)Principles of State and Government (Asad 1961)Ma'alim fi al-Tariq ("Milestones") (Qutb 1965)Islamic Government: Governance of the Jurist ("Velayat-e faqih") (Khomeini 1970)Heads of stateAli Khamenei Omar al-Bashir Muammar Gaddafi Ruhollah Khomeini Mohamed Morsi Mohammad
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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Durham University
Durham University
Durham University
(legally the University of Durham)[4] is a collegiate public research university in Durham, North East England, with a second campus in Stockton-on-Tees. The chancellor of the university is Sir Thomas Allen, who succeeded Bill Bryson
Bill Bryson
in 2012.[5] As a collegiate university its main functions are divided between the academic departments of the university and 16 colleges. In general, the departments perform research and provide lectures to students, while the colleges are responsible for the domestic arrangements and welfare of undergraduate students, graduate students, post-doctoral researchers and some university staff. The university was founded by an Act of Parliament
Act of Parliament
in 1832 and granted a Royal Charter
Royal Charter
in 1837
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Ziba Mir-Hosseini
Ziba Mir-Hosseini (Persian: زیبا میرحسینی‎; born 3 April 1952) is an Iranian-born legal anthropologist, specialising in Islamic law, gender and development.[1][2] She received her PhD in anthropology from Cambridge University[3] and is the author of several books on Islam, gender, and the family.[4][5][6] She has also directed two documentary films, Runaway and Divorce Iranian Style.[7]Contents1 Biography 2 Further reading 3 References 4 External linksBiography[edit] Born to Iranian parents, Mir-Hosseini is fluent in English, French, and Persian, and is familiar with Arabic and Kurdish. She received her bachelor's degree in Sociology from Tehran University in 1974, and completed her PhD in Social anthropology in 1980 from the University of Cambridge
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Society Of The Militant Clergy Of Tehran
The Combatant Clergy Association (Persian: جامعه روحانیت مبارز‎, translit. Jāme'e-ye Rowhāniyyat-e Mobārez) is a politically active group in Iran, but not a political party in the traditional sense. It has never been registered as a political party, however it acts as a fragmented caucus and has actively operated in the electoral arena, competing for votes. Thus, it is considered an elite party and can be classified as a political party according to the minimalist definition by Angelo Panebianco
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Grand Ayatollah Hossein-Ali Montazeri
Hussein-Ali Montazeri (24 September 1922[1][2] – 19 December 2009; Persian: حسینعلی منتظری‎‎,  pronunciation (help·info)) was an Iranian Shia Islamic theologian, Islamic democracy advocate, writer and human rights activist. He was one of the leaders of the Iranian Revolution in 1979. He was once the designated successor to the revolution's Supreme Leader Ayatollah Khomeini, with whom he had a falling-out in 1989 over government policies that Montazeri claimed infringed on people's freedom and denied them their rights. Montazeri spent his later years in Qom, and remained politically influential in Iran, especially to the reformist movement.[3] He was widely known as the most knowledgeable senior Islamic scholar in Iran[4] and a Grand Marja (religious authority) of Shia Islam. For more than two decades, Hussein-Ali Montazeri was one of the main critics of the Islamic Republic's domestic and foreign policy
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Supreme Leader
A supreme leader typically refers to the person among a number of leaders of a state, organization or other such group who has been given or is able to exercise the most – or complete – authority over it. In a religion, this role is usually satisfied by a person deemed to be the representative or manifestation of a god or gods on Earth
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Montazeri
Hussein-Ali Montazeri (24 September 1922[1][2] – 19 December 2009; Persian: حسینعلی منتظری‎‎,  pronunciation (help·info)) was an Iranian Shia Islamic theologian, Islamic democracy advocate, writer and human rights activist. He was one of the leaders of the Iranian Revolution in 1979. He was once the designated successor to the revolution's Supreme Leader Ayatollah Khomeini, with whom he had a falling-out in 1989 over government policies that Montazeri claimed infringed on people's freedom and denied them their rights. Montazeri spent his later years in Qom, and remained politically influential in Iran, especially to the reformist movement.[3] He was widely known as the most knowledgeable senior Islamic scholar in Iran[4] and a Grand Marja (religious authority) of Shia Islam. For more than two decades, Hussein-Ali Montazeri was one of the main critics of the Islamic Republic's domestic and foreign policy
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Khatami
Seyyed Mohammad Khatami (Persian: سید محمد خاتمی‎, pronounced [ sejˈjed mohæmˈmæde xɒːtæˈmiː] ( listen); born 14 October 1943)[3][4][5][6] is an Iranian scholar, Shia theologian, and reformist politician. He served as the fifth President of Iran from 3 August 1997 to 3 August 2005. He also served as Iran's Minister of Culture from 1982 to 1992. He was an outspoken critic of former President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's government.[7][8][9][10] Little known until that point, Khatami attracted global attention during his first election to the presidency when he received almost 70% of the vote.[11] Khatami had run on a platform of liberalization and reform
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SAVAK
SAVAK
SAVAK
(Persian: ساواک‬‎, short for سازمان اطلاعات و امنیت کشور‬ Sāzemān-e Ettelā'āt va Amniyat-e Keshvar, literally "Organization of National Intelligence and Security") was the secret police, domestic security and intelligence service of Pahlavi dynasty. It was established by Iran's Mohammad Reza Shah with the help of the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the Israeli MOSSAD.[1] SAVAK
SAVAK
operated from 1957 until the Iranian Revolution
Iranian Revolution
of 1979, when the prime minister Shapour Bakhtiar ordered its dissolution during the outbreak of Iranian Revolution
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Mohammad Shirazi
Grand Ayatollah Sayyid Muhammad ibn Mahdi al-Hussaini al-Shirazi (Arabic: آية الله العظمى السيد محمد بن مهدي الحسيني الشيرازي‎; August 31, 1928 – December 17, 2001), commonly known as Mohammad Al-Shirazi, was a Shia Muslim author, politician and religious leader.Contents1 Early life 2 Theory of clerical rule 3 Iranian Revolution 4 Iran power struggle 5 Literary contributions 6 Death 7 Selected works 8 See also 9 Notes 10 External linksEarly life[edit] Muhammad Shirazi was born in the holy city of Najaf, Iraq, in AD 1928 (1347 AH) into a Persian clerical family. Other members of the Shirazi family are Grand Ayatollah Mirza Hassan Shirazi, leader of Iran's constitutional movement, also known as the Tobacco Movement, a successful boycott of the British tobacco monopoly, and Grand Ayatollah Muhammad Taqi Shirazi, leader of the 1920 revolution in Iraq
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Ansar-e Hezbollah
Ansar-e-Hezbollah[13] (Persian: انصار حزب‌الله‎, lit. 'the supporters of the party of God') is a conservative organization in Iran
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Resalat (newspaper)
Resalat (Persian: رسالت‎, lit. 'The Prophecy') is a conservative daily newspaper in Iran.[2] Resalat is a pro- Khamenei
Khamenei
and pro- Ahmadinejad
Ahmadinejad
newspaper. History and profile[edit] Resalat was first published in 1985.[3] The paper belongs to the Resalat Foundation[4] and focus
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Khomeini
Sayyid
Sayyid
Ruhollah Mūsavi Khomeini
Khomeini
(Persian: سید روح‌الله موسوی خمینی‎ [ruːhoɫˈɫɑːhe χomeiˈniː] ( listen); 24 September 1902 – 3 June 1989), known in the Western world
Western world
as Ayatollah
Ayatollah
Khomeini,[11] was an Iranian Shia
Shia
Muslim
Muslim
religious leader and politician. He was the founder of Iran
Iran
as an Islamic republic
Islamic republic
and the leader of its 1979 Iranian Revolution
Iranian Revolution
that saw the overthrow of 2500 years of Persian monarchy and Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah
Shah
of Iran
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