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Aharon Appelfeld
Aharon Appelfeld
Aharon Appelfeld
(Hebrew: אהרן אפלפלד‬; born Ervin Appelfeld[2]; February 16, 1932 – January 4, 2018) was an Israeli novelist and Holocaust
Holocaust
survivor.Contents1 Biography 2 Choice of language 3 The Holocaust
Holocaust
as a literary theme 4 Motifs 5 Awards and honors 6 Cultural references 7 Published works 8 See also 9 References 10 External linksBiography[edit] Ervin Appelfeld was born in Jadova Commune, Storojineț County, in the Bukovina
Bukovina
region of the Kingdom of Romania, now Ukraine. In 1941, when he was nine years old, the Romanian Army retook his hometown after a year of Soviet occupation and his mother was murdered.[3] Appelfeld was deported with his father to a forced labor camp in Romanian-controlled Transnistria. He escaped and hid for three years before joining the Soviet army as a cook
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Stara Zhadova
Stara Zhadova (Ukrainian: Стара Жадова; Romanian: Jadova or Jadova Veche) is a commune (selsoviet) in Storozhynets Raion, Chernivtsi Oblast, Ukraine
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Ukrainian Language
Ukrainian /juːˈkreɪniən/ ( listen) (українська мова ukrajinśka mova) is an East Slavic language. It is the official state language of Ukraine
Ukraine
and first of two principal languages of Ukrainians; it is one of the three official languages in the unrecognized state of Transnistria, the other two being Romanian and Russian. Written Ukrainian uses a variant of the Cyrillic
Cyrillic
script (see Ukrainian alphabet). Historical linguists trace the origin of the Ukrainian language
Ukrainian language
to the Old East Slavic
Old East Slavic
of the early medieval state of Kievan Rus'. After the fall of the Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
as well as the Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia, the language developed into a form called the Ruthenian language
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Kingdom Of Romania
The Kingdom of Romania (Romanian: Regatul României) was a constitutional monarchy in Southeastern Europe which existed from 1881, when prince Carol I of Romania was proclaimed King, until 1947, when King Michael I of Romania abdicated and the Parliament proclaimed Romania a republic. From 1859 to 1877, Romania evolved from a personal union of two vassal principalities (Moldavia and Wallachia) under a single prince to an autonomous principality with a Hohenzollern monarchy. The country gained its independence from the Ottoman Empire during the 1877-1878 Russo-Turkish War (known locally as the Romanian War of Independence), when it also received Northern Dobruja in exchange for the southern part of Bessarabia
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Jewish Agency
The Jewish
Jewish
Agency for Israel
Israel
(Hebrew: הסוכנות היהודית לארץ ישראל‎, HaSochnut HaYehudit L'Eretz Yisra'el) is the largest Jewish
Jewish
nonprofit organization in the world
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Ma'abarot
Ma'abarot
Ma'abarot
(Hebrew: מַעְבָּרוֹת‎) were refugee absorption camps in Israel
Israel
in the 1950s. The Ma'abarot
Ma'abarot
were meant to provide accommodation for the large influx of Jewish refugees
Jewish refugees
and new Jewish immigrants (olim) arriving to the newly independent State of Israel, replacing the less habitable immigrant camps or tent cities. The ma'abarot began to decline by mid-1950s and were largely transformed into Development Towns. The last Ma'abara was closed in 1963.Contents1 Etymology 2 History 3 Media and popular culture 4 See also 5 ReferencesEtymology[edit]Ma'abara in Beit LidThe Hebrew word Ma'abara (singular) derives from the word ma'avar (Hebrew: מעבר‎, transit). Ma'abarot
Ma'abarot
(plural) were meant to be temporary communities for the new arrivals
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Be'er Tuvia
Be'er Tuvia
Be'er Tuvia
(Hebrew: בְּאֵר טוֹבִיָּה‬, Be'er Toviya, "Tuvia's Well") is a moshav in the Southern District of Israel. Located near the city of Kiryat Malakhi, it falls under the jurisdiction of Be'er Tuvia
Be'er Tuvia
Regional Council. In 2016 its population was 1,108.[1] History[edit] Be'er Tuvia
Be'er Tuvia
circa 1888In 1887, a group of First Aliyah
First Aliyah
pioneers from Bessarabia
Bessarabia
founded a moshava, which they named Qastina, after the neighboring Arab
Arab
village of the same name
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Hebrew
Hebrew (/ˈhiːbruː/; עִבְרִית, Ivrit [ʔivˈʁit] ( listen) or [ʕivˈɾit] ( listen)) is a Northwest Semitic language native to Israel, spoken by over 9 million people worldwide.[8][9] Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites
Israelites
and their ancestors, although the language was not referred to by the name Hebrew in the Tanakh.[note 1] The earliest examples of written Paleo-Hebrew date from the 10th century BCE.[10] Hebrew belongs to the West Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic language family
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Gerard Behar Center
Gerard Behar Center (Hebrew: מרכז ז'ראר בכר‎) is a major arts centre in Jerusalem, Israel, for independent theatre, dance, and musical productions, children's shows, art exhibitions, artist workshops, and festivals. In 2010 the center hosted over 900 events with attendance in excess of 263,600 participants. The center includes two theatres and is home to two dance companies, Kolben and Vertigo. Formerly known as Beit Ha'Am, in 1961 the newly opened site was the venue for the trial of Nazi officer Adolf Eichmann, who sat in a specially-made bulletproof glass booth during the proceedings. After the trial, the building reverted to its use as a cultural center, but in 1983 the complex was upgraded to an arts centre by the Jerusalem Foundation with funding from Eliezer and Lucie Behar of France, who renamed the center in memory of their son, Gerard, a victim of the Nazis during World War II
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Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(/dʒəˈruːsələm/; Hebrew: יְרוּשָׁלַיִם‬  Yerushaláyim; Arabic: القُدس‎  al-Quds)[note 2] is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea. It is one of the oldest cities in the world, and is considered holy to the three major Abrahamic religions—Judaism, Christianity
Christianity
and Islam
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Yiddish Language
Yiddish
Yiddish
(ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, lit. "Jewish", pronounced [ˈjɪdɪʃ] [ˈɪdɪʃ]; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, lit. Judaeo-German)[3] is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews. It originated during the 9th century[4] in Central Europe, providing the nascent Ashkenazi community with a High German-based vernacular fused with elements taken from Hebrew and Aramaic as well as from Slavic languages
Slavic languages
and traces of Romance languages.[5][6] Yiddish
Yiddish
is written with a fully vocalized version of the Hebrew alphabet. The earliest surviving references date from the 12th century and call the language לשון־אַשכּנז‎ (loshn-ashknaz, "language of Ashkenaz") or טײַטש‎ (taytsh), a variant of tiutsch, the contemporary name for Middle High German
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Holocaust
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah,[b] was a genocide during World War II
World War II
in which Adolf Hitler's Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered some six million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.[c] Jews
Jews
were targeted for extermination as part of a larger event involving the persecution and murder of other groups, including in particular the Roma, ethnic Poles, and "incurably sick",[6] as well as political opponents, homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses, and Soviet prisoners of war.[7] Germany implemented the persecution in stages. Following Hitler's rise to power in 1933, the government passed laws to exclude Jews
Jews
from civil society, most prominently the Nuremberg Laws
Nuremberg Laws
in 1935
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World War II
Allied victoryCollapse of Nazi Germany Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires Dissolution of the League of Nations Creation of the United Nations Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers Beginning of the Cold War
Cold War
(more...)ParticipantsAllied Powers Axis PowersCommanders and leadersMain Allied leaders Joseph Stalin Franklin D
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Moshe Shamir
Moshe Shamir
Moshe Shamir
(Hebrew: משה שמיר; September 15, 1921 – August 20, 2004) was an Israeli author, playwright, opinion writer, and public figure.Contents1 Biography 2 Literary and journalism career 3 Political career 4 Awards 5 Works in English translation 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksBiography[edit] Shamir was born in Safed. He went to the Tel Nordau School and graduated from the Herzliya Hebrew
Hebrew
High School in Tel Aviv.Members of the Harel Brigade, January 1949. Moshe Shamir
Moshe Shamir
2nd right.In the Israeli War of Independence he served in Palmach. He began his political career as a member of the movement Hashomer Hatzair, in which he filled a leadership role. He was one of the editors of their official newspaper Al Ha-Homa from 1939 to 1941. From 1944 to 1946 he was a member of kibbutz Mishmar HaEmek
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Mishnaic Hebrew Language
Mishnaic Hebrew
Hebrew
is one of the few Hebrew
Hebrew
dialects found in the Talmud, except for direct quotations from the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible
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Boston Review
Boston Review
Boston Review
is a bimonthly American political and literary magazine. The magazine covers politics, poetry, film, fiction, philosophy, economics, book reviews, and criticism. Boston Review
Boston Review
also publishes an imprint of books alongside MIT Press. The editors are Deborah Chasman and philosopher Joshua Cohen; Pulitzer Prize-winning writer Junot Díaz
Junot Díaz
is the fiction editor. The magazine is published by Boston Critic, Inc., a nonprofit organization. It has received praise from notable intellectuals including John Rawls
John Rawls
and Henry Louis Gates, Jr..Contents1 History 2 Features2.1 New Democracy Forum 2.2 New Fiction Forum 2.3 Fiction contests 2.4 "Discovery" prize3 Notable contributors 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit]Prior to 2010, Boston Review
Boston Review
appeared in tabloid format
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