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Agriculture In Iran
Roughly one-third of Iran
Iran
's total surface area is suited for farmland, but because of poor soil and lack of adequate water distribution in many areas, most of it is not under cultivation. Only 12% of the total land area is under cultivation (arable land, orchards and vineyards) but less than one-third of the cultivated area is irrigated ; the rest is devoted to dryland farming . Some 92 percent of agro products depend on water. The western and northwestern portions of the country have the most fertile soils. Iran's food security index stands at around 96 percent. 3% of the total land area is used for grazing and small fodder production. Most of the grazing is done on mostly semi-dry rangeland in mountain areas and on areas surrounding the large deserts ("Dasht's") of Central Iran. The non-agricultural surface represents 53% of the total area of Iran, as follows: * Abb
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Agricultural Science
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE is a broad multidisciplinary field of biology that encompasses the parts of exact, natural, economic and social sciences that are used in the practice and understanding of agriculture . (Veterinary science , but not animal science , is often excluded from the definition.) CONTENTS* 1 Agriculture, agricultural science, and agronomy * 1.1 Agricultural biotechnology * 2 Fertilizer
Fertilizer
* 3 A local science * 4 History of agricultural science * 5 Prominent agricultural scientists * 6 Agricultural science
Agricultural science
and agriculture crisis * 7 Fields or related disciplines * 8 See also * 9 Further reading * 10 References * 11 External links AGRICULTURE, AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE, AND AGRONOMYThe three terms are often confused
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Agricultural Engineering
Agricultural
Agricultural
engineering in forestry CONTENTS * 1 Specialties * 2 History * 3 Agricultural
Agricultural
engineers * 4 Academic programs in agricultural and biosystems engineering * 4.1 America *
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Agroecology
AGROECOLOGY is the study of ecological processes applied to agricultural production systems. The prefix agro- refers to agriculture . Bringing ecological principles to bear in agroecosystems can suggest novel management approaches that would not otherwise be considered. The term is often used imprecisely and may refer to "a science, a movement, a practice". Agroecologists study a variety of agroecosystems, and the field of agroecology is not associated with any one particular method of farming , whether it be organic , integrated , or conventional ; intensive or extensive , although it has much more in common with some of the before mentioned farming systems
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Agroforestry
AGROFORESTRY or AGRO-SYLVICULTURE is a land use management system in which trees or shrubs are grown around or among crops or pastureland. It combines shrubs and trees in agricultural and forestry technologies to create more diverse, productive, profitable, healthy, ecologically sound, and sustainable land-use systems. CONTENTS * 1 As a science * 2 Benefits * 2.1 Adaptation to climate change * 3 Applications * 3.1 Parkland * 3.2 Shade systems * 3.3 Crop-over-tree systems * 3.4 Alley cropping * 3.5 Strip cropping * 3.6 Fauna-based systems * 3.7 Boundary systems * 3.8 Taungya * 3.9 Physical support systems * 3.10 Agroforests * 4 Historical use * 5 Challenges * 6 See also * 6.1 Permaculture
Permaculture
* 7 References * 8 Further reading and listening * 9 External links AS A SCIENCEThe theoretical base for agroforestry comes from ecology , via agroecology
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Agronomy
AGRONOMY (Ancient Greek ἀγρός agrós 'field' + νόμος nómos 'law') is the science and technology of producing and using plants for food , fuel , fiber, and land reclamation . Agronomy
Agronomy
has come to encompass work in the areas of plant genetics , plant physiology , meteorology , and soil science . It is the application of a combination of sciences like biology , chemistry , economics , ecology , earth science , and genetics . Agronomists of today are involved with many issues, including producing food, creating healthier food, managing the environmental impact of agriculture , and extracting energy from plants. Agronomists often specialise in areas such as crop rotation , irrigation and drainage , plant breeding , plant physiology , soil classification , soil fertility , weed control , and insect and pest control
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Agribusiness
AGRIBUSINESS is the business of agricultural production. The term was coined in 1957 by Goldberg and Davis. It includes agrichemicals , breeding , crop production (farming and contract farming ), distribution, farm machinery , processing , and seed supply, as well as marketing and retail sales. All agents of the food and fiber value chain and those institutions that influence it are part of the agribusiness system. Within the agriculture industry , "agribusiness" is used simply as a portmanteau of agriculture and business, referring to the range of activities and disciplines encompassed by modern food production. There are academic degrees in and departments of agribusiness, agribusiness trade associations , agribusiness publications , and so forth, worldwide
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Hydroponics
HYDROPONICS is a subset of hydroculture , the method of growing plants without soil , using mineral nutrient solutions in a water solvent. Terrestrial plants may be grown with only their roots exposed to the mineral solution, or the roots may be supported by an inert medium, such as perlite or gravel . The nutrients in hydroponics can come from an array of different sources; these can include but are not limited to byproduct from fish waste, duck manure, or normal nutrients
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Sharecropping
SHARECROPPING is a form of agriculture in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crops produced on their portion of land. Sharecropping
Sharecropping
has a long history and there are a wide range of different situations and types of agreements that have used a form of the system. Some are governed by tradition, and others by law. Legal contract systems such as the Italian mezzadria, the French métayage , the Spanish mediero, or the Islamic system of muqasat, occur widely
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Slash-and-burn
SLASH-AND-BURN AGRICULTURE, or FIRE–FALLOW CULTIVATION, is a farming method that involves the cutting and burning of plants in a forest or woodland to create a field called a swidden. (Preparing fields by deforestation is called assarting .) In subsistence agriculture , slash-and-burn typically uses little technology. It is often applied in shifting cultivation agriculture (such as in the Amazon rainforest
Amazon rainforest
) and in transhumance livestock herding. Slash-and-burn
Slash-and-burn
is used by 200–500 million people worldwide. In 2004 it was estimated that in Brazil
Brazil
alone, 500,000 small farmers each cleared an average of one hectare (2.47105 acres) of forest per year. The technique is not scalable or sustainable for large human populations. Methods such as Inga alley farming have been proposed as alternatives which would cause less environmental degradation
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Aquaculture
AQUACULTURE (less commonly spelled AQUICULTURE ), also known as AQUAFARMING, is the farming of fish , crustaceans , molluscs , aquatic plants, algae , and other aquatic organisms. Aquaculture
Aquaculture
involves cultivating freshwater and saltwater populations under controlled conditions, and can be contrasted with commercial fishing , which is the harvesting of wild fish . Mariculture refers to aquaculture practiced in marine environments and in underwater habitats. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization
Food and Agriculture Organization
(FAO) , aquaculture "is understood to mean the farming of aquatic organisms including fish, molluscs, crustaceans and aquatic plants. Farming implies some form of intervention in the rearing process to enhance production, such as regular stocking, feeding, protection from predators, etc
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Aquaponics
AQUAPONICS (/ˈækwəˈpɒnᵻks/ ) refers to any system that combines conventional aquaculture (raising aquatic animals such as snails, fish , crayfish or prawns in tanks) with hydroponics (cultivating plants in water) in a symbiotic environment. In normal aquaculture, excretions from the animals being raised can accumulate in the water, increasing toxicity . In an aquaponic system, water from an aquaculture system is fed to a hydroponic system where the by-products are broken down by nitrifying bacteria initially into nitrites and subsequently into nitrates , which are utilized by the plants as nutrients , and the water is then recirculated back to the aquaculture system. As existing hydroponic and aquaculture farming techniques form the basis for all aquaponics systems, the size, complexity, and types of foods grown in an aquaponics system can vary as much as any system found in either distinct farming discipline
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Animal-free Agriculture
ANIMAL-FREE AGRICULTURE consists of farming methods that do not use animals or animal products . Animal-free growers do not keep domesticated animals and do not use animal products such as farmed animal manures or animal parts (bone meal , blood meal , fish meal ). Emphasis is placed on using green manures instead. Animal-free farming may use organic or non-organic farming techniques. However, most detailed discussions of animal-free agriculture currently focus on animal-free organic variants. SEE ALSO * Forest gardening * Livestock\'s Long Shadow * Vegan organic gardening * Vegan permaculture REFERENCES * ^ "Introduction to veganics". Veganic Agriculture
Agriculture
Network. 14 March 2010
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Crop Diversity
CROP DIVERSITY is the variance in genetic and phenotypic characteristics of plants used in agriculture . Over the past 50 years, there has been a major decline in two components of crop diversity; genetic diversity within each crop and the number of species commonly grown. Crop diversity
Crop diversity
loss threatens global food security , as the world's human population depends on a diminishing number of varieties of a diminishing number of crop species. Crops are increasingly grown in monoculture , meaning that if, as in the historic Irish Potato
Potato
Famine , a single disease overcomes a variety's resistance, it may destroy an entire harvest, or as in the case of the ' Gros Michel ' banana, may cause the commercial extinction of an entire variety. With the help of seed banks , international organizations are working to preserve crop diversity
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List Of Agricultural Universities And Colleges
This article, LIST OF AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES, lists agricultural universities and colleges around the world, by continent and country. This list is incomplete ; you can help by expanding it
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List Of Agriculture Ministries
An AGRICULTURE MINISTRY (also called an AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT, AGRICULTURE BOARD, AGRICULTURE COUNCIL, or AGRICULTURE AGENCY, or MINISTRY OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT) is a ministry charged with agriculture . The ministry is often headed by a minister for agriculture. Specific duties may relate to regulation , promotion, agricultural research , price supports and agricultural subsidies , plant diseases and invasive species . Some countries have multiple agriculture ministries, devoting entire ministries to more specific policy areas such as forestry and fisheries ; rural affairs ; food and food quality , security , and safety ; consumer protection ; and matters relating to the environment
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