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Agriculture In Iran
Roughly one-third of Iran's total surface area is suited for farmland, but because of poor soil and lack of adequate water distribution in many areas, most of it is not under cultivation. Only 12% of the total land area is under cultivation (arable land, orchards and vineyards) but less than one-third of the cultivated area is irrigated; the rest is devoted to dryland farming. Some 92 percent of agro products depend on water.[1] The western and northwestern portions of the country have the most fertile soils. Iran's food security index stands at around 96 percent.[2] 3% of the total land area is used for grazing and small fodder production. Most of the grazing is done on mostly semi-dry rangeland in mountain areas and on areas surrounding the large deserts ("Dasht's") of Central Iran. The non-agricultural surface represents 53% of the total area of Iran, as follows:Abb
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Agriculture
Agriculture
Agriculture
is the cultivation and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.[1] Agriculture
Agriculture
was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities. The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science. The history of agriculture dates back thousands of years; people gathered wild grains at least 105,000 years ago, and began to plant them around 11,500 years ago, before they became domesticated. Pigs, sheep, and cattle were domesticated over 10,000 years ago. Crops originate from at least 11 regions of the world
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Animal-free Agriculture
Animal-free agriculture
Animal-free agriculture
consists of farming methods that do not use animals or animal products.[1] Animal-free growers do not keep domesticated animals and do not use animal products such as farmed animal manures or animal parts (bone meal, blood meal, fish meal).[2] Emphasis is placed on using green manures instead. Animal-free farming may use organic or non-organic farming techniques. However, most detailed discussions of animal-free agriculture currently focus on animal-free organic variants.[3] See also[edit]Forest gardening Livestock's Long Shadow Vegan organic gardening Vegan permacultureReferences[edit]^ "Introduction to veganics". Veganic Agriculture
Agriculture
Network
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Aquaculture
Aquaculture
Aquaculture
(less commonly spelled aquiculture[2]), also known as aquafarming) is the farming of fish, crustaceans, molluscs, aquatic plants, algae, and other organisms. Aquaculture
Aquaculture
involves cultivating freshwater and saltwater populations under controlled conditions, and can be contrasted with commercial fishing, which is the harvesting of wild fish.[3] Mariculture
Mariculture
refers to aquaculture practiced in marine environments and in underwater habitats. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization
Food and Agriculture Organization
(FAO), aquaculture "is understood to mean the farming of aquatic organisms including fish, molluscs, crustaceans and aquatic plants
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Aquaponics
Aquaponics
Aquaponics
(/ˈækwəˈpɒnɪks/) refers to any system that combines conventional aquaculture (raising aquatic animals such as snails, fish, crayfish or prawns in tanks) with hydroponics (cultivating plants in water) in a symbiotic environment. In normal aquaculture, excretions from the animals being raised can accumulate in the water, increasing toxicity. In an aquaponic system, water from an aquaculture system is fed to a hydroponic system where the by-products are broken down by nitrifying bacteria initially into nitrites and subsequently into nitrates that are utilized by the plants as nutrients
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Hydroponics
Hydroponics
Hydroponics
is a subset of hydroculture, the method of growing plants without soil, using mineral nutrient solutions in a water solvent.[1] Terrestrial plants may be grown with only their roots exposed to the mineral solution, or the roots may be supported by an inert medium, such as perlite or gravel
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Agribusiness
Agribusiness
Agribusiness
is the business of agricultural production. The term was coined in 1957 by Goldberg and Davis. It includes agrichemicals, breeding, crop production (farming and contract farming), distribution, farm machinery, processing, and seed supply, as well as marketing and retail sales. All agents of the food and fiber value chain and those institutions that influence it are part of the agribusiness system. Within the agriculture industry, "agribusiness" is used simply as a portmanteau of agriculture and business, referring to the range of activities and disciplines encompassed by modern food production. There are academic degrees in and departments of agribusiness, agribusiness trade associations, agribusiness publications, and so forth, worldwide. In the context of agribusiness management in academia, each individual element of agriculture production and distribution may be described as agribusinesses
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Agricultural Engineering
Agricultural
Agricultural
engineering is the engineering discipline that studies agricultural production and processing
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Agricultural Science
Agricultural science
Agricultural science
is a broad multidisciplinary field of biology that encompasses the parts of exact, natural, economic and social sciences that are used in the practice and understanding of agriculture. (Veterinary science, but not animal science, is often excluded from the definition.)Contents1 Agriculture, agricultural science, and agronomy1.1 Agricultural biotechnology2 Fertilizer 3 History 4 Prominent agricultural scientists 5 Fields or related disciplines 6 See also 7 Further reading 8 References 9 External linksAgriculture, agricultural science, and agronomy[edit] The three terms are often confused. However, they cover different concepts: Agriculture
Agriculture
is the set of activities that transform the environment for the production of animals and plants for human use
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Agroecology
Agroecology
Agroecology
is the study of ecological processes applied to agricultural production systems. The prefix agro- refers to agriculture. Bringing ecological principles to bear in agroecosystems can suggest novel management approaches that would not otherwise be considered
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Agroforestry
Agroforestry
Agroforestry
is a land use management system in which trees or shrubs are grown around or among crops or pastureland
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Agronomy
Agronomy
Agronomy
(Ancient Greek ἀγρός agrós 'field' + νόμος nómos 'law') is the science and technology of producing and using plants for food, fuel, fiber, and land reclamation. Agronomy
Agronomy
has come to encompass work in the areas of plant genetics, plant physiology, meteorology, and soil science. It is the application of a combination of sciences like biology, chemistry, economics, ecology, earth science, and genetics
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Crop Diversity
Crop diversity is the variance in genetic and phenotypic characteristics of plants used in agriculture. Over the past 50 years, there has been a major decline in two components of crop diversity; genetic diversity within each crop and the number of species commonly grown. Crop diversity
Crop diversity
loss threatens global food security, as the world's human population depends on a diminishing number of varieties of a diminishing number of crop species. Crops are increasingly grown in monoculture, meaning that if, as in the historic Irish Potato
Potato
Famine, a single disease overcomes a variety's resistance, it may destroy an entire harvest, or as in the case of the 'Gros Michel' banana, may cause the commercial extinction of an entire variety
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Sharecropping
Sharecropping
Sharecropping
is a form of agriculture in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crops produced on their portion of land. Sharecropping
Sharecropping
has a long history and there are a wide range of different situations and types of agreements that have used a form of the system. Some are governed by tradition, and others by law. Legal contract systems such as the Italian mezzadria, the French métayage, the Spanish mediero, or the Islamic system of muqasat, occur widely.[citation needed]Contents1 Overview1.1 Advantages 1.2 Disadvantages2 Regions2.1 Africa 2.2 United States3 Sharecropping
Sharecropping
agreements 4 Farmers' cooperatives 5 Economic theories of share tenancy 6 See also 7 References 8 Further readingOverview[edit] Sharecropping
Sharecropping
has benefits and costs for both the owners and the tenant
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Ecology
Ecology
Ecology
(from Greek: οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of")[A] is the branch of biology[1] which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment. Objects of study include interactions of organisms with each other and with abiotic components of their environment. Topics of interest include the biodiversity, distribution, biomass, and populations of organisms, as well as cooperation and competition within and between species. Ecosystems
Ecosystems
are dynamically interacting systems of organisms, the communities they make up, and the non-living components of their environment. Ecosystem
Ecosystem
processes, such as primary production, pedogenesis, nutrient cycling, and niche construction, regulate the flux of energy and matter through an environment. These processes are sustained by organisms with specific life history traits
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Livestock
Livestock
Livestock
are domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce labor and commodities such as meat, eggs, milk, fur, leather, and wool. The term is sometimes used to refer solely to those that are bred for consumption, while other times it refers only to farmed ruminants, such as cattle and goats.[1] In recent years, some organizations have also raised livestock to promote the survival of rare breeds. The breeding, maintenance, and slaughter of these animals, known as animal husbandry, is a component of modern agriculture that has been practiced in many cultures since humanity's transition to farming from hunter-gatherer lifestyles. Animal
Animal
husbandry practices have varied widely across cultures and time periods. Originally, livestock were not confined by fences or enclosures, but these practices have largely shifted to intensive animal farming, sometimes referred to as "factory farming"
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