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Agostino Chigi
Agostino Andrea Chigi (29 November 1466[1] – April 11, 1520) was an Italian banker and patron of the Renaissance. Born in Siena, he was the son of the prominent banker Mariano Chigi, a member of an ancient and illustrious house.[2] He moved to Rome
Rome
around 1487, collaborating with his father. The heir of a rich fund of capital, and enriched further after lending huge amounts of money to Pope Alexander VI
Pope Alexander VI
(and to other rulers of the time as well), he strayed from common mercantile practice by obtaining lucrative monopolies like the salt monopoly of the Papal States
Papal States
and the Kingdom of Naples, as well as that of the alum excavated in Tolfa,[3] Agnato and Ischia di Castro
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Italy
Coordinates: 43°N 12°E / 43°N 12°E / 43; 12Italian Republic Repubblica Italiana  (Italian)FlagEmblemAnthem: Il Canto degli Italiani  (Italian) "The Song of the Italians"Location of  Italy  (dark green) – in Europe  (light green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (light green)  –  [Legend]Capital and largest city Rome 41°54′N 12°29′E / 41.900°N 12.483°E / 41.900; 12.483Official languages ItalianaNative languages see full listReligion83.3% Christians 12.4% irreligious 3.7% Muslims 0.2% Buddhists 0.1% Hindus 0.3% other religions[1]Demonym ItalianGovernment Unitary constitutional parliamentary republic• PresidentSergio Mattarella• Prime MinisterPaolo Gentiloni• President of the SenateElisabetta Casellati•&
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Vatican Library
Outline, Index Vatican City
Vatican City
portalv t eThe Vatican Apostolic Library
Library
(Latin: Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana), more commonly called the Vatican Library
Library
or simply the Vat,[1] is the library of the Holy See, located in Vatican City. Formally established in 1475, although it is much older, it is one of the oldest libraries in the world and contains one of the most significant collections of historical texts. It has 75,000 codices from throughout history,[2] as well as 1.1 million printed books, which include some 8,500 incunabula. The Vatican Library
Library
is a research library for history, law, philosophy, science and theology
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Giovanni Da Udine
Giovanni Nanni, also Giovanni de' Ricamatori, better known as Giovanni da Udine
Udine
(1487–1564), was an Italian painter and architect born in Udine. A painter also named Giovanni da Udine
Udine
was exiled from his native city in 1372.[1]Contents1 Biography 2 Stucco Discovery 3 Gallery of Bird Drawings 4 References 5 External linksBiography[edit] As a student and assistant of Raphael, he was responsible for most of the "decorative" (i.e. non-narrative) elements of the major Raphaellesque projects in Rome, and he was a specialist in fresco and stucco grotesque decorations. These included the stucco work in the Loggia di Raffaello (Vatican, 1517–1519) and the heavy fruit-laden wreaths in the loggia di psiche in the Villa Farnesina. He also assisted in the construction of a few monumental fountains, which are now destroyed
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Renaissance
The Renaissance
Renaissance
(UK: /rɪˈneɪsəns/, US: /rɛnəˈsɑːns/)[1] is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries. It is an extension of the Middle Ages, and is bridged by the Age of Enlightenment
Age of Enlightenment
to modern history. It grew in fragments, with the very first traces found seemingly in Italy, coming to cover much of Europe, for some scholars marking the beginning of the modern age. The intellectual basis of the Renaissance
Renaissance
was its own invented version of humanism, derived from the concept of Roman Humanitas and the rediscovery of classical Greek philosophy, such as that of Protagoras, who said that "Man is the measure of all things." This new thinking became manifest in art, architecture, politics, science and literature
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Villa
A villa was originally an ancient Roman upper-class country house. Since its origins in the Roman villa, the idea and function of a villa have evolved considerably. After the fall of the Roman Republic, villas became small farming compounds, which were increasingly fortified in Late Antiquity, sometimes transferred to the Church for reuse as a monastery. Then they gradually re-evolved through the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
into elegant upper-class country homes
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Tiber
The Tiber
Tiber
(/ˈtaɪbər/, Latin
Latin
Tiberis,[1] Italian Tevere, Italian pronunciation: [ˈteːvere])[2] is the third-longest river in Italy, rising in the Apennine Mountains
Apennine Mountains
in Emilia-Romagna
Emilia-Romagna
and flowing 406 kilometres (252 mi) through Tuscany, Umbria
Umbria
and Lazio, where it is joined by the river Aniene, to the Tyrrhenian Sea, between Ostia and Fiumicino.[3] It drains a basin estimated at 17,375 square kilometres (6,709 sq mi). The river has achieved lasting fame as the main watercourse of the city of Rome, founded on its eastern banks. The river rises at Mount Fumaiolo
Mount Fumaiolo
in central Italy
Italy
and flows in a generally southerly direction past Perugia
Perugia
and Rome
Rome
to meet the sea at Ostia
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Baldassare Peruzzi
Baldassare Tommaso Peruzzi (7 March 1481 – 6 January 1536) was an Italian architect and painter, born in a small town near Siena
Siena
(in Ancaiano, frazione of Sovicille) and died in Rome. He worked for many years with Bramante, Raphael, and later Sangallo during the erection of the new St. Peter's. He returned to his native Siena
Siena
after the Sack of Rome
Rome
(1527) where he was employed as architect to the Republic. For the Sienese he built new fortifications for the city and designed (though did not build) a remarkable dam on the Bruna River near Giuncarico. He seems to have moved back to Rome
Rome
permanently by 1535. He died there the following year and was buried in the Rotunda of the Pantheon, near Raphael.[1] He was a painter of frescoes in the Cappella San Giovanni (Chapel of St John the Baptist) in the Duomo of Siena. His son Giovanni Sallustio was also an architect
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Piano Nobile
The piano nobile (Italian, "noble floor" or "noble level", also sometimes referred to by the corresponding French term, bel étage) is the principal floor of a large house, usually built in one of the styles of Classical Renaissance architecture. This floor contains the principal reception and bedrooms of the house. The piano nobile is often the first (European terminology, second floor in US terms) or sometimes the second storey, located above a ground floor (often rusticated) containing minor rooms and service rooms. The reasons for this were so the rooms would have finer views, and more practically to avoid the dampness and odours of the street level. This is especially true in Venice
Venice
where the piano nobile of the many palazzi is especially obvious from the exterior by virtue of its larger windows and balconies and open loggias
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Ducat
The ducat /ˈdʌkət/ was a gold or silver coin used as a trade coin in Europe from the later middle ages until as late as the 20th century. Many types of ducats had various metallic content and purchasing power throughout the period
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Latin Language
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Library Of Congress Control Number
The Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Control Number (LCCN) is a serially based system of numbering cataloging records in the Library of Congress
Library of Congress
in the United States. It has nothing to do with the contents of any book, and should not be confused with Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Classification.Contents1 History 2 Format 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] The LCCN numbering system has been in use since 1898, at which time the acronym LCCN originally stood for Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Card Number. It has also been called the Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Catalog Card Number, among other names
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International Standard Name Identifier
The International Standard Name Identifier (ISNI) is an identifier for uniquely identifying the public identities of contributors to media content such as books, television programmes, and newspaper articles. Such an identifier consists of 16 digits. It can optionally be displayed as divided into four blocks. It was developed under the auspices of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) as Draft International Standard 27729; the valid standard was published on 15 March 2012
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Système Universitaire De Documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify, track and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers. It is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education (fr) (ABES). External links[edit]Official websiteThis article relating to library science or information science is a stub
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Bibliothèque Nationale De France
The Bibliothèque nationale de France
France
(BnF, English: National Library of France"; French: [bi.bli.jɔ.tɛk na.sjɔ.nal də fʁɑ̃s]) is the national library of France, located in Paris. It is the national repository of all that is published in France
France
and also holds extensive historical collections.Contents1 History 2 New buildings 3 Mission 4 Manuscript
Manuscript
collection 5 Digital library 6 List of directors6.1 1369–1792 6.2 1792–present7 In popular culture 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External linksHistory[edit]See also: History of the Bibliothèque nationale de France (fr)The National Library of France
France
traces its origin to the royal library founded at the Louvre Palace
Louvre Palace
by Charles V in 1368
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SNAC
SNAC, or Social Networks and Archival Context, is an online effort for discovering, locating, and using distributed historical records started by a collaboration of United States-based organizations. It was established in 2010, with funding from the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA),[1] California Digital Library (CDL), Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities (IATH) at the University of Virginia and the University of California, Berkeley School of Information.[2][3] See also[edit] Archival Resource Key (ARK)References[edit]^ Ferriero, David (2015-08-18). "Introducing SNAC". National Archives - AOTUS blog. Retrieved 2017-05-08.  ^ "SNAC: Social Networks and Archival Context". socialarchive.iath.virginia.edu. Retrieved 2017-05-08.  ^ Larson, Ray R.; Pitti, Daniel; Turner, Adrian (2014)
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