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Aghlabid Dirham
French Algeria
Algeria
(19th - 20th centuries)French conquest French governorsResistance Pacification Emir
Emir
Abdelkader Fatma N'SoumerMokrani Revolt Cheikh B
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Kairouan
Kairouan
Kairouan
(Arabic: القيروان‎  Qeirwān, also known as al-Qayrawan), is the capital of the Kairouan Governorate
Kairouan Governorate
in Tunisia. It is a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage site. The city was founded by the Umayyads
Umayyads
around 670.[1] In the period of Caliph
Caliph
Mu'awiya (reigned 661–680), it became an important centre for Sunni
Sunni
Islamic scholarship and Quranic learning,[2] and thus attracting a large number of Muslims from various parts of the world, next only to Mecca and Medina
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Numayrid Dynasty
The Numayrids were an Arab
Arab
dynasty based in Diyar Mudar
Diyar Mudar
(western Upper Mesopotamia). They were emirs (princes) of their namesake tribe, the Banu Numayr. The senior branch of the dynasty, founded by Waththab ibn Sabiq in 990, more or less continuously ruled the Euphrates
Euphrates
cities of Harran, Saruj
Saruj
and Raqqa
Raqqa
until the late 11th century. In the early part of Waththab's reign (990–1019), the Numayrids also seized Edessa, until the Byzantines conquered it in the early 1030s
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Fatimid Caliphate
The Fatimid
Fatimid
Caliphate
Caliphate
(Arabic: الفاطميون‎, al-Fāṭimīyūn) was an Ismaili
Ismaili
Shia
Shia
Islamic caliphate that spanned a large area of North Africa, from the Red Sea
Red Sea
in the east to the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
in the west. The dynasty of Arab origin[4][5] ruled across the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
coast of Africa and ultimately made Egypt
Egypt
the centre of the caliphate. At its height the caliphate included in addition to Egypt
Egypt
varying areas of the Maghreb, Sudan, Sicily, the Levant, and Hijaz. The Fatimids
Fatimids
claimed descent from Fatimah, the daughter of Islamic prophet Muhammad
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Emirate Of Crete
The Emirate of Crete
Crete
(called Iqritish or Iqritiya in Arabic[1]) was a Muslim
Muslim
state that existed on the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
island of Crete
Crete
from the late 820s to the Byzantine reconquest of the island in 961. Although the emirate recognized the suzerainty of the Abbasid Caliphate and maintained close ties with Tulunid
Tulunid
Egypt, it was de facto independent. A group of Andalusian exiles conquered Crete
Crete
sometime during 824 to 828 and established an independent state. The Byzantines launched a campaign that took most of the island back in 842 and 843 under Theoktistos, but the reconquest was not completed and was soon reversed
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Dulafid Dynasty
The Dulafid or Dolafid dynasty was an Arab
Arab
dynasty that served as governors of Jibal
Jibal
for the Abbasid
Abbasid
caliphs in the 9th century. During the weakening of the authority of the caliphs after 861, their rule in Jibal
Jibal
became increasingly independent of the central government in Samarra
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Kaysites
The Kaysite dynasty was a Muslim
Muslim
Arab
Arab
dynasty that ruled an emirate centered in Manzikert
Manzikert
from c. 860 until 964. Their state was the most powerful Arab
Arab
amirate in Armenia
Armenia
after the collapse of the ostikanate of Arminiya in the late 9th century.Contents1 Origin 2 Suzerains 3 Kaysite rulers 4 Aspects of the Kaysite amirates 5 Aftermath of Kaysite rule 6 Notes 7 ReferencesOrigin[edit] The Kaysites
Kaysites
were members of the Banu Sulaym tribe, which had settled in the Jazira after the Muslim
Muslim
conquest. By the reign of the Abbasid Caliph
Caliph
Harun al-Rashid
Harun al-Rashid
(786–809) the Sulaym had probably advanced into the region around Lake Van
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Shirvanshah
Shirvanshah
Shirvanshah
(Persian: شروانشاه‎), also spelled as Shīrwān Shāh or Sharwān Shāh, was the title of the rulers of Shirvan, located in modern Azerbaijan, from the mid-9th century to the early 16th century. The title remained in a single family, the Yazidids, an originally Arab
Arab
but speedily Persianized dynasty, although the later Shirvanshahs are also known as the Kasranids
Kasranids
or Kaqanids.[2][3] The Shirvanshah
Shirvanshah
established a native state in Shirvan
Shirvan
(located in modern Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Republic).[4] The Shirvanshahs dynasty, existing as independent or a vassal state, from 861 until 1538; longer than any other dynasty in Islamic world, are known for their support of culture
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Alid Dynasties Of Northern Iran
A dynasty (UK: /ˈdɪnəsti/, US: /ˈdaɪnəsti/) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,[1] usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes also appearing in elective republics. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "house",[2] which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital", etc., depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states, such as Ancient Egypt, the Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends, and artifacts of that period ("a Ming-dynasty vase")
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Hamdanid Dynasty
The Hamdanid dynasty
Hamdanid dynasty
(Arabic: حمدانيون‎ Ḥamdānyūn) was a Shi'a Muslim[1] Arab[2] dynasty of northern Iraq (al-Jazirah) and Syria
Syria
(890-1004)
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Rawadid Dynasty
Rawwadid or Ravvadid (also Revend or Revendi) or Banū rawwād (955–1071), was a Muslim
Muslim
ruling family of Arab descent[1] during the Medieval era, centered on Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan, also known as Iranian Azerbaijan).[2] Originally of Arab descent, the Rawadids ruled Tabriz
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Jarrahids
The Jarrahids
Jarrahids
(also known as Banu al-Jarrah) were an Arab
Arab
dynasty that intermittently ruled Palestine and controlled Transjordan and northern Arabia
Arabia
in the late 10th and early 11th centuries. They were described by historian Marius Canard as a significant player in the Byzantine–Fatimid wars in Syria who "created for themselves, in their own best interests, a rule of duplicity, treason and pillage".[1] They were the ruling family of the Tayy tribe, one of the three powerful tribes of Syria at the time; the other two were Kalb and Kilab. The Jarrahids
Jarrahids
first emerged in the Muslim sources as allies of the Qarmatians, and grew prominent under their chieftain Mufarrij ibn Daghfal ibn al-Jarrah
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Uqaylid Dynasty
The 'Uqailids or ' Uqaylid dynasty
Uqaylid dynasty
was a Shi'a
Shi'a
Arab
Arab
dynasty with several lines that ruled in various parts of Al-Jazira, northern Syria and Iraq
Iraq
in the late tenth and eleventh centuries. The main line, centered in Mosul, ruled from 990 to 1096.Contents1 Rise 2 'Uqaylids of Mosul 3 Other 'Uqailids 4 See also 5 ReferencesRise[edit] The 'Uqailids were descended from the Banu Uqayl and were Shi'a.[citation needed] They first came to power in Diyar Bakr
Diyar Bakr
when they were granted land there by the Buwayhids, who hoped that they would serve as a buffer against the Kurd Badh. Soon afterwards the 'Uqailids forged an alliance with the Hamdanids, who had been expelled from Mosul
Mosul
by the Buwayhids
Buwayhids
in 979
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Mirdasid Dynasty
The Mirdasid dynasty
Mirdasid dynasty
was an Arab
Arab
dynasty that controlled the Emirate of Aleppo
Aleppo
more or less continuously from 1024 until 1080.The Mirdasid Dynasty and its neighbors in ca. 1050/1060.Contents1 General description 2 List of Mirdasid emirs 3 Historical overview 4 See also 5 External links 6 References 7 BibliographyGeneral description[edit] The Mirdasids were members of the Banu Kilab, an Arab
Arab
tribe that had been present in northern Syria
Syria
for several centuries. Like the other Arab
Arab
tribes of the region, the Mirdasids were Shi'a
Shi'a
Muslims. Such Arab tribes were susceptible to the propaganda of the Qarmatians, who denounced the wealth of the urban Sunni
Sunni
population
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Umayyad Caliphate
The Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliphate
Caliphate
(661–750 CE; UK: /ʊˈmaɪjæd, uːˈ-/,[3] US: /uːˈmaɪ(j)əd, -aɪæd/;[4][5][6] Arabic: ٱلْخِلَافَة ٱلْأُمَوِيَّة‎, romanized: al-Khilāfah al-ʾUmawīyah)[7] was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad. The caliphate was ruled by the Umayyad dynasty
Umayyad dynasty
(Arabic: ٱلْأُمَوِيُّون‎, al-ʾUmawīyūn, or بَنُو أُمَيَّة, Banū ʾUmayyah, "Sons of Umayyah"). The third Caliph, Uthman ibn Affan
Uthman ibn Affan
(r. 644–656), was a member of the Umayyad clan. The family established dynastic, hereditary rule with Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan, long-time governor of Syria, who became the sixth Caliph
Caliph
after the end of the First Muslim Civil War in 661
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Muzaffarids (Iran)
The Muzaffarid dynasty (Persian: مظفریان‎) was a Persian dynasty[1] of Arab origin[2][3][4][a] which came to power in Iran following the breakup of the Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
in the 14th century. At their zenith, they ruled a kingdom comprising Iranian Azerbaijan, Central Persia, and Persian Iraq.Contents1 Rise to power 2 Reign of Shah Shoja 3 Mozaffari decline 4 Muzaffarid rulers 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 SourcesRise to power[edit] The Muzaffarids were originally from Arabia
Arabia
and had settled in Khorasan from the beginning of Caliphal rule there. They stayed in Khorasan up until the Mongol
Mongol
invasion of that province, at which point they fled to Yazd. Serving under the Il-Khans, they gained prominence when Sharaf al-Din Muzaffar was made governor of Maibud
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