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Ageusia
Ageusia (/əˈɡjuːziə/ ə-GEW-zee-ə) is the loss of taste functions of the tongue, particularly the inability to detect sweetness, sourness, bitterness, saltiness, and umami (meaning "pleasant/savory taste"). It is sometimes confused with anosmia – a loss of the sense of smell. Because the tongue can only indicate texture and differentiate between sweet, sour, bitter, salty, and umami, most of what is perceived as the sense of taste is actually derived from smell. True ageusia is relatively rare compared to hypogeusia – a partial loss of taste – and dysgeusia – a distortion or alteration of taste.Contents1 Diagnosis 2 Causes2.1 Neurological damage 2.2 Problems with the endocrine system 2.3 Other causes3 ReferencesDiagnosis[edit] Both taste and smell disorders are diagnosed by an otolaryngologist, a doctor of the ear, nose, throat, head, and neck
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International Statistical Classification Of Diseases And Related Health Problems
The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is the international "standard diagnostic tool for epidemiology, health management and clinical purposes". Its full official name is International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems.[1] The ICD is maintained by the World Health Organization
World Health Organization
(WHO), the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations System.[2] The ICD is designed as a health care classification system, providing a system of diagnostic codes for classifying diseases, including nuanced classifications of a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances, and external causes of injury or disease. This system is designed to map health conditions to corresponding generic categories together with specific variations, assigning for these a designated code, up to six characters long
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Aging
Ageing
Ageing
or aging (see spelling differences) is the process of becoming older. The term refers especially to human beings, many animals, and fungi, whereas for example bacteria, perennial plants and some simple animals are potentially immortal. In the broader sense, ageing can refer to single cells within an organism which have ceased dividing (cellular senescence) or to the population of a species (population ageing). In humans, ageing represents the accumulation of changes in a human being over time,[1] encompassing physical, psychological, and social changes. Reaction time, for example, may slow with age, while knowledge of world events and wisdom may expand
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ICD-10
ICD-10 is the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), a medical classification list by the World Health Organization
World Health Organization
(WHO). It contains codes for diseases, signs and symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances, and external causes of injury or diseases.[1] Work on ICD-10 began in 1983 and was completed in 1992.[1] The code set in the base classification allows for more than 14,400 different codes,[citation needed] and permits the tracking of many new diagnoses compared to ICD-9)
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Cisplatin
Cisplatin is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of cancers.[1] This includes testicular cancer, ovarian cancer, cervical cancer, breast cancer, bladder cancer, head and neck cancer, esophageal cancer, lung cancer, mesothelioma, brain tumors and neuroblastoma.[1] It is used by injection into a vein.[1] Common side effects include bone marrow suppression, hearing problems, kidney problems, and vomiting.[1] Other serious side effects include numbness, trouble walking, allergic reactions, electrolyte problems, and heart disease.[1] Use during pregnancy is known to harm the baby.[1] Cisplatin is in the platinum-based antineoplastic family of medications.[1] It works in part by binding to DNA and inhibiting its replication.[1] Cisplatin was discovered in 1845 and licensed for medical use in 1978/1979.[2][1] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.[3] The wholesale cost in the developin
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ACE Inhibitor
An angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitor) is a pharmaceutical drug used primarily for the treatment of hypertension (elevated blood pressure) and congestive heart failure. This group of drugs causes relaxation of blood vessels as well as a decrease in blood volume, which leads to lower blood pressure and decreased oxygen demand from the heart
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Azelastine
Azelastine is a potent, second-generation, selective, histamine antagonist (histamine-H1-receptor antagonist) used as a first line therapy of mild intermittent, moderate/severe intermittent and mild persistent rhinitis (new classification system for rhinitis).[citation needed] Azelastine has been formulated both as a nasal spray and as eye drops and are available worldwide under many brand names.[1]Contents1 Medical uses 2 Side effects 3 Pharmacokinetics and metabolism 4 Mode of action 5 Chemical properties 6 Society and culture6.1 Availability7 References 8 External linksMedical uses[edit] Azelastine nasal spray is indicated for the local treatment of the symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis and perennial allergic rhinitis, such as rhinorrhea, sneezing and nasal pruritus in adults and children 5 years of age and older.[2][3][4] In some countries, it is also indicated for the treatment of vasomotor rhinitis in adults and children ≥ 12 years old.[4
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Clarithromycin
Clarithromycin, sold under the brand name Biaxin among others, is an antibiotic used to treat various bacterial infections.[1] This includes strep throat, pneumonia, skin infections, H
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Zopiclone
Zopiclone (brand names Zimovane and Imovane) is a nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic agent used in the treatment of insomnia. Zopiclone is molecularly distinct from benzodiazepine drugs and is classed as a cyclopyrrolone. However, zopiclone increases the normal transmission of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid in the central nervous system, via modulating benzodiazepine receptors in the same way that benzodiazepine drugs do. As zopiclone is sedating, it is marketed as a sleeping pill. It works by causing a depression or tranquilization of the central nervous system. After prolonged use, the body can become accustomed to the effects of zopiclone. When the dose is then reduced or the drug is abruptly stopped, withdrawal symptoms may result. These can include a range of symptoms similar to those of benzodiazepine withdrawal. Although withdrawal from therapeutic doses of zopiclone and its isomers (i.e
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Glossitis
Glossitis
Glossitis
can mean soreness of the tongue, or more usually inflammation with depapillation of the dorsal surface of the tongue (loss of the lingual papillae), leaving a smooth and erythematous (reddened) surface,[1][2] (sometimes specifically termed atrophic glossitis). In a wider sense, glossitis can mean inflammation of the tongue generally.[3] Glossitis
Glossitis
is often caused by nutritional deficiencies and may be painless or cause discomfort. Glossitis usually responds well to treatment if the cause is identified and corrected
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Tobacco
Tobacco
Tobacco
is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them. The plant is part of the genus Nicotiana
Nicotiana
and of the Solanaceae
Solanaceae
(nightshade) family. While more than 70 species of tobacco are known, the chief commercial crop is N. tabacum. The more potent variant N. rustica is also used around the world. Tobacco
Tobacco
contains the alkaloid nicotine, which is a stimulant, and harmala alkaloids.[2] Dried tobacco leaves are mainly used for smoking in cigarettes, cigars, pipe tobacco, and flavored shisha tobacco. They can also be consumed as snuff, chewing tobacco, dipping tobacco and snus. Tobacco
Tobacco
use is a risk factor for many diseases, especially those affecting the heart, liver, and lungs, as well as many cancers
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Anxiety Disorder
Anxiety disorders
Anxiety disorders
are a group of mental disorders characterized by significant feelings of anxiety and fear.[2] Anxiety is a worry about future events and fear is a reaction to current events.[2] These feelings may cause physical symptoms, such as a fast heart rate and shakiness.[2] There are a number of anxiety disorders: including generalized anxiety disorder, specific phobia, social anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, panic disorder, and selective mutism.[2] The disorder differs by what results in the symptoms.[2] People often have more than one anxiety disorder.[2] The cause of anxiety disorders i
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Adverse Effect
In medicine, an adverse effect is an undesired harmful effect resulting from a medication or other intervention such as surgery. An adverse effect may be termed a "side effect", when judged to be secondary to a main or therapeutic effect. If it results from an unsuitable or incorrect dosage or procedure, this is called a medical error and not a complication. Adverse effects are sometimes referred to as "iatrogenic" because they are generated by a physician/treatment. Some adverse effects occur only when starting, increasing or discontinuing a treatment. Using a drug or other medical intervention which is contraindicated may increase the risk of adverse effects. Adverse effects may cause complications of a disease or procedure and negatively affect its prognosis. They may also lead to non-compliance with a treatment regimen
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Cancer
Cancer
Cancer
is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.[2][8] These contrast with benign tumors, which do not spread to other parts of the body.[8] Possible signs and symptoms include a lump, abnormal bleeding, prolonged cough, unexplained weight loss, and a change in bowel movements.[1] While these symptoms may indicate cancer, they may have other causes.[1] Over 100 types of cancers affect humans.[8] Tobacco
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Renal Failure
Kidney
Kidney
failure, also known as end-stage kidney disease, is a medical condition in which the kidneys no longer work.[1] It is divided into acute kidney failure (cases that develop rapidly) and chronic kidney failure (those that are long term).[5] Symptoms may include leg swelling, feeling tired, vomiting, loss of appetite, or confusion.[1] Complications of acute disease may include uremia, high blood potassium, or volume overload.[2] Complications of chronic disease may include heart disease, high blood pressure, or anemia.[3][4] Causes of acute kidney failure include low blood pressure, blockage of the urinary tract, certain medications, muscle breakdown, and he
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Liver Failure
Liver
Liver
failure or hepatic insufficiency is the inability of the liver to perform its normal synthetic and metabolic function as part of normal physiology. Two forms are recognised, acute and chronic.[1] Recently a third form of liver failure known as acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is increasingly being recognized.[2]Contents1 Acute 2 Chronic 3 Acute on chronic 4 ReferencesAcute[edit] Main article: Acute liver failure Acute liver failure
Acute liver failure
is defined as "the rapid development of hepatocellular dysfunction, specifically coagulopathy and mental status changes (encephalopathy) in a patient without known prior liver disease".[3]:1557 The disease process is associated with the development of a coagulopathy of liver aetiology, and clinically apparent altered level of consciousness due to hepatic encephalopathy
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