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Ageusia
AGEUSIA (/əˈɡjuːziə/ ə-GEW-zee-ə ) is the loss of taste functions of the tongue , particularly the inability to detect sweetness, sourness, bitterness, saltiness, and umami (meaning "pleasant/savory taste"). It is sometimes confused with anosmia – a loss of the sense of smell . Because the tongue can only indicate texture and differentiate between sweet, sour, bitter, salty, and umami, most of what is perceived as the sense of taste is actually derived from smell. True ageusia is relatively rare compared to hypogeusia – a partial loss of taste – and dysgeusia – a distortion or alteration of taste. CONTENTS * 1 Diagnosis * 2 Causes * 2.1 Neurological damage * 2.2 Problems with the endocrine system * 2.3 Other causes * 3 References DIAGNOSISBoth taste and smell disorders are diagnosed by an otolaryngologist, a doctor of the ear, nose, throat, head, and neck
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Clarithromycin
CLARITHROMYCIN, sold under the brand name BIAXIN, is an antibiotic used to treat various bacterial infections. This includes strep throat , pneumonia , skin infections, H. pylori infection , and Lyme disease , among others. Clarithromycin can be taken by mouth as a pill or liquid. Common side effects include nausea, vomiting, headaches, and diarrhea. Severe allergic reactions are rare. Liver problems have been reported. It may cause harm if taken during pregnancy . It is in the macrolide class and works by decreasing protein production of some bacteria. Clarithromycin was developed in 1980. It is on the World Health Organization\'s List of Essential Medicines , the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system . Clarithromycin is available as a generic medication. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between 0.13 and 0.79 USD per dose. In the United States it is moderately expensive at 50 to 100 USD for a course of treatment
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Zopiclone
ZOPICLONE (brand names Zimovane and Imovane) is a nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic agent used in the treatment of insomnia . Zopiclone is molecularly distinct from benzodiazepine drugs and is classed as a cyclopyrrolone . However, zopiclone increases the normal transmission of the neurotransmitter gamma-Aminobutyric acid in the central nervous system, via modulating benzodiazepine receptors in the same way that benzodiazepine drugs do. As zopiclone is sedating , it is marketed as a sleeping pill. It works by causing a depression or tranquilization of the central nervous system. After prolonged use, the body can become accustomed to the effects of zopiclone. When the dose is then reduced or the drug is abruptly stopped, withdrawal symptoms may result. These can include a range of symptoms similar to those of benzodiazepine withdrawal . Although withdrawal from therapeutic doses of zopiclone and its isomers (i.e
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Glossitis
GLOSSITIS can mean soreness of the tongue, or more usually inflammation with depapillation of the dorsal surface of the tongue (loss of the lingual papillae ), leaving a smooth and erythematous (reddened) surface, (sometimes specifically termed ATROPHIC GLOSSITIS). In a wider sense, glossitis can mean inflammation of the tongue generally. Glossitis
Glossitis
is often caused by nutritional deficiencies and may be painless or cause discomfort. Glossitis usually responds well to treatment if the cause is identified and corrected. Tongue soreness caused by glossitis is differentiated from burning mouth syndrome , where there is no identifiable change in the appearance of the tongue, and there are no identifiable causes
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Tobacco
TOBACCO is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them. The plant is part of the genus Nicotiana
Nicotiana
and of the Solanaceae (nightshade) family. While more than 70 species of tobacco are known, the chief commercial crop is N. tabacum . The more potent variant N. rustica is also used around the world. Tobacco
Tobacco
contains the alkaloid nicotine , which is a stimulant . Dried tobacco leaves are mainly used for smoking in cigarettes , cigars , pipe tobacco , and flavored shisha tobacco . They can be also be consumed as snuff , chewing tobacco , dipping tobacco and snus . Tobacco
Tobacco
use is a risk factor for many diseases, especially those affecting the heart , liver , and lungs , as well as many cancers . In 2008, the World Health Organization
World Health Organization
named tobacco as the world's single greatest preventable cause of death
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Azelastine
AZELASTINE is a potent, second-generation, selective, histamine antagonist (histamine-H1-receptor antagonist) used as a first line therapy of mild intermittent, moderate/severe intermittent and mild persistent rhinitis (new classification system for rhinitis). Azelastine
Azelastine
has been formulated both as a nasal spray and as eye drops and are available worldwide under many brand names. CONTENTS * 1 Medical uses * 2 Side effects * 3 Pharmacokinetics
Pharmacokinetics
and metabolism * 4 Mode of action * 5 Chemical properties * 6 Society and culture * 6.1 Availability * 7 References * 8 External links MEDICAL USES Azelastine
Azelastine
nasal spray is indicated for the local treatment of the symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis and perennial allergic rhinitis , such as rhinorrhea , sneezing and nasal pruritus in adults and children 5 years of age and older
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ACE Inhibitor
An ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING-ENZYME INHIBITOR (ACE INHIBITOR) is a pharmaceutical drug used primarily for the treatment of hypertension (elevated blood pressure) and congestive heart failure . This group of drugs causes relaxation of blood vessels as well as a decrease in blood volume , which leads to lower blood pressure and decreased oxygen demand from the heart . They inhibit the angiotensin-converting enzyme , an important component of the renin–angiotensin system . Frequently prescribed ACE inhibitors include benazepril , zofenopril , perindopril , trandolapril , captopril , enalapril , lisinopril , and ramipril
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Adverse Effect
In medicine , an ADVERSE EFFECT is an undesired harmful effect resulting from a medication or other intervention such as surgery . An adverse effect may be termed a "side effect ", when judged to be secondary to a main or therapeutic effect . If it results from an unsuitable or incorrect dosage or procedure, this is called a medical error and not a complication . Adverse effects are sometimes referred to as "iatrogenic " because they are generated by a physician /treatment. Some adverse effects occur only when starting, increasing or discontinuing a treatment. Using a drug or other medical intervention which is contraindicated may increase the risk of adverse effects. Adverse effects may cause complications of a disease or procedure and negatively affect its prognosis . They may also lead to non-compliance with a treatment regimen. Adverse effects of medical treatment resulted in 142,000 deaths in 2013 up from 94,000 deaths in 1990 globally
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Penicillamine
PENICILLAMINE, sold under the trade names of CUPRIMINE among others, is a medication primarily used for the treatment of Wilson\'s disease . It is also used for people with kidney stones who have high urine cystine levels , rheumatoid arthritis , copper poisoning , and lead poisoning . It is taken by mouth. Common side effects include rash, loss of appetite, nausea, diarrhea, and low blood white blood cell levels . Other serious side effects include liver problems , obliterative bronchiolitis , and myasthenia gravis . It is not recommended in people with lupus erythematosus . Use during pregnancy may result in harm to the baby. Penicillamine works by binding heavy metals such that they can be removed from the body in the urine. Penicillamine
Penicillamine
was approved for medical use in the United States in 1970
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International Statistical Classification Of Diseases And Related Health Problems
The INTERNATIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF DISEASES (ICD) is the international "standard diagnostic tool for epidemiology , health management and clinical purposes". Its full official name is INTERNATIONAL STATISTICAL CLASSIFICATION OF DISEASES AND RELATED HEALTH PROBLEMS. The ICD is maintained by the World Health Organization (WHO), the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations System . The ICD is designed as a health care classification system, providing a system of diagnostic codes for classifying diseases , including nuanced classifications of a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances, and external causes of injury or disease. This system is designed to map health conditions to corresponding generic categories together with specific variations, assigning for these a designated code, up to six characters long. Thus, major categories are designed to include a set of similar diseases
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Cisplatin
CISPLATIN is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of cancers . This includes testicular cancer , ovarian cancer , cervical cancer , breast cancer , bladder cancer , head and neck cancer , esophageal cancer , lung cancer , mesothelioma , brain tumors and neuroblastoma . It is used by injection into a vein . Common side effects include bone marrow suppression , hearing problems , kidney problems , and vomiting . Other serious side effects include numbness, trouble walking, allergic reactions , electrolyte problems , and heart disease . Use during pregnancy is known to harm the baby. Cisplatin
Cisplatin
is in the platinum-based antineoplastic family of medications. It works in part by binding to, and inhibiting DNA replication
DNA replication
. Cisplatin
Cisplatin
was discovered in 1845 and licensed for medical use in 1978/1979
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Aging
AGEING or AGING (see spelling differences ), is the process of becoming older. The term refers especially to human beings, many animals, and fungi, whereas for example bacteria, perennial plants and some simple animals are potentially immortal . In the broader sense, ageing can refer to single cells within an organism which have ceased dividing (cellular senescence ) or to the population of a species (population ageing ). In humans, ageing represents the accumulation of changes in a human being over time, encompassing physical , psychological , and social changes. Reaction time, for example, may slow with age, while knowledge of world events and wisdom may expand. Ageing is among the greatest known risk factors for most human diseases: of the roughly 150,000 people who die each day across the globe, about two thirds die from age-related causes
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Anxiety Disorder
ANXIETY DISORDERS are a group of mental disorders characterized by significant feelings of anxiety and fear . Anxiety is a worry about future events and fear is a reaction to current events. These feelings may cause physical symptoms, such as a fast heart rate and shakiness. There are a number of anxiety disorders: including generalized anxiety disorder , specific phobia , social anxiety disorder , separation anxiety disorder , agoraphobia , panic disorder , and selective mutism . The disorder differs by what results in the symptoms. People often have more than one anxiety disorder. The cause of anxiety disorders is a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Risk factors include a history of child abuse , family history of mental disorders, and poverty . Anxiety disorders often occur with other mental disorders, particularly major depressive disorder , personality disorder , and substance use disorder
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Emotional
EMOTION is any conscious experience characterized by intense mental activity and a high degree of pleasure or displeasure . Scientific discourse has drifted to other meanings and there is no consensus on a definition. Emotion is often intertwined with mood , temperament , personality , disposition , and motivation . In some theories, cognition is an important aspect of emotion. Those acting primarily on the emotions they are feeling may seem as if they are not thinking, but mental processes are still essential, particularly in the interpretation of events. For example, the realization of our believing that we are in a dangerous situation and the subsequent arousal of our body's nervous system (rapid heartbeat and breathing, sweating, muscle tension) is integral to the experience of our feeling afraid. Other theories, however, claim that emotion is separate from and can precede cognition. Emotions are complex
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Behaviour
BEHAVIOR ( American English
American English
) or BEHAVIOUR (Commonwealth English ) is the range of actions and mannerisms made by individuals, organisms , systems , or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether internal or external, conscious or subconscious , overt or covert , and voluntary or involuntary . Taking a behavior informatics perspective, a behavior consists of behavior actor, operation, interactions, and their properties. A behavior can be represented as a behavior vector
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List Of ICD-9 Codes 780–799
In communications and information processing , CODE is a system of rules to convert information —such as a letter , word , sound, image, or gesture —into another form or representation, sometimes shortened or secret , for communication through a channel or storage in a medium . An early example is the invention of language which enabled a person, through speech , to communicate what he or she saw, heard, felt, or thought to others. But speech limits the range of communication to the distance a voice can carry, and limits the audience to those present when the speech is uttered. The invention of writing , which converted spoken language into visual symbols , extended the range of communication across space and time . The process of ENCODING converts information from a source into symbols for communication or storage. DECODING is the reverse process, converting code symbols back into a form that the recipient understands
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