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Afrikaner Broederbond
The Afrikaner
Afrikaner
Broederbond (AB) (meaning Afrikaner
Afrikaner
Brotherhood) or Broederbond was a secret, exclusively male and Afrikaner
Afrikaner
Calvinist organisation in South Africa dedicated to the advancement of Afrikaner interests. It was founded by H. J. Klopper (af), H. W. van der Merwe, D. H. C. du Plessis and Rev. Jozua Naudé[1] in 1918 and was known as Jong Zuid Afrika (Young South Africa) until 1920, when it became the Broederbond.[2][3] Its large influence within South African political and social life, sometimes compared to that of Masons in Freemason
Freemason
conspiracy theories,[citation needed] came to a climax with the rise of apartheid, which was largely designed and implemented by Broederbond members
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South African Defence Force
The South African Defence Force
South African Defence Force
(SADF) comprised the South African armed forces from 1957 until 1994. Shortly before the state reconstituted itself as a republic in 1961, the former Union Defence Force was officially succeeded by the SADF, which was established by the Defence Act (No. 44) of 1957
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Albert Luthuli
Inkosi Albert John Lutuli (commonly spelled Luthuli;[a] c. 1898 – 21 July 1967), also known by his Zulu name Mvumbi, was a South African teacher, activist, Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
winner, and politician. Luthuli was elected president of the African National Congress
African National Congress
(ANC) in 1952, at the time an umbrella organisation that led opposition to the white minority government in South Africa, and served until his accidental death. He was awarded the 1960 Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
for his role in the non-violent struggle against apartheid. He was the first African, and the first person from outside Europe and the Americas, to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize
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Ahmed Kathrada
Ahmed Mohamed Kathrada (21 August 1929 – 28 March 2017), sometimes known by the nickname "Kathy", was a South African politician, political prisoner and anti-apartheid activist. Kathrada's involvement in the anti-apartheid activities of the African National Congress (ANC) led him to his long-term imprisonment following the Rivonia
Rivonia
Trial, in which he was held at Robben Island
Robben Island
and Pollsmoor Prison. Following his release in 1990, he was elected to serve as a member of parliament, representing the ANC
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Joel Joffe, Baron Joffe
Joel Goodman Joffe, Baron Joffe, CBE (12 May 1932 – 18 June 2017) was a South African-born British lawyer and Labour peer in the House of Lords.Contents1 Life and career 2 Publications 3 References 4 External linksLife and career[edit] Born in Johannesburg, South Africa, to a mother born in Palestine and a father born in Lithuania. Joffe grew up in a Jewish household before being sent to Catholic boarding school.[1] He was educated at the University of Witwatersrand
University of Witwatersrand
(BCom, LLB 1955), and worked as a human rights lawyer 1958–65, including as defence attorney of the leadership of the ANC at the 1963-4 Rivonia Trial, helping to represent Nelson Mandela
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Bantu Holomisa
Bantubonke Harrington Holomisa[1] (born 25 July 1955[1][2]) is a South African Member of Parliament[1] and President of the United Democratic Movement.[2] Holomisa was born in Mqanduli, Eastern Cape.[1] He joined the Transkei Defence Force in 1976[1] and had become a Brigadier
Brigadier
by 1985.[1][3] Holomisa forced the resignation and exile of Prime Minister of Transkei
Transkei
George Matanzima in October 1987[4][5] and overthrew Matanzima's successor, Prime Minister Stella Sigcau[6] in December 1987
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Arthur Goldreich
Arthur Goldreich (1929 – 24 May 2011)[1] was a South African-Israeli abstract painter and a key figure in the anti-apartheid movement in the country of his birth and a critic of the form of Zionism
Zionism
practiced in Israel.[2]Contents1 Early life 2 Escape from jail 3 Criticism of Israel 4 ReferencesEarly life[edit] Goldreich was born in Pietersburg, South Africa, and settled in Israel, where he participated in the 1948 Arab-Israeli war
1948 Arab-Israeli war
as a member of the Palmach, the elite military wing of the Haganah.[2][3] In time he became a leading figure at Bezalel Academy
Bezalel Academy
in Jerusalem
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Steve Biko
Bantu Stephen Biko (18 December 1946 – 12 September 1977) was a South African anti-apartheid activist. Ideologically an African nationalist and African socialist, he was at the forefront of a grassroots anti-apartheid campaign known as the Black Consciousness Movement during the late 1960s and 1970s. His ideas were articulated in a series of articles published under the pseudonym Frank Talk. Raised in a poor Xhosa family, Biko grew up in Ginsberg township in the Eastern Cape. In 1966, he began studying medicine at the University of Natal, where he joined the National Union of South African Students (NUSAS). Strongly opposed to the apartheid system of racial segregation and white-minority rule in South Africa, Biko was frustrated that NUSAS and other anti-apartheid groups were dominated by white liberals, rather than by the blacks who were most affected by apartheid
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South African Communist Party
The South African Communist Party (SACP) is a communist party in South Africa. It was founded in 1921, was declared illegal in 1950 by the governing National Party, and participated in the struggle to end the apartheid system. It is a partner of the Tripartite Alliance
Tripartite Alliance
with the African National Congress
African National Congress
and the Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU) and through this it influences the South African government.Contents1 History1.1 Apartheid 1.2 Post-apartheid2 General Secretaries 3 Chairs 4 Prominent members of the Central Committee of the SACP 5 See also 6 Literature 7 Notes and references 8 External linksHistory[edit] The Communist Party of South Africa
South Africa
was founded in 1921 by the joining together of the International Socialist League and others under the leadership of Willam H. Andrews
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South African Musicians' Alliance
The South African Musicians' Alliance (SAMA) is a union, artist collective, and resistance movement formed by musicians in South Africa who opposed the censorship and suppression of the apartheid regime.[1] The alliance was formed sometime before 1983.[2] SAMA musicians flouted the government's imposed racial segregation and restrictions on music content.[1] Three of SAMA's priorities were freedom of speech, freedom of movement, and freedom of association.[1] One prominent spokesperson of the organisation was pianist Rashid Lanie.[3][4] See also[edit]Internal resistance to apartheidReferences[edit]^ a b c Hall, Patricia (ed.). " Censorship
Censorship
from Apartheid
Apartheid
to Post- Apartheid
Apartheid
South Africa". The Oxford Handbook of Music Censorship. Oxford University Press. p. 597. Retrieved 2017-11-26.  ^ Ansell, Gwen, ed. (2005). "Jazz for the Struggle, and the Struggle for Jazz"
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Winnie Madikizela-Mandela
Winnie Madikizela-Mandela, OLS (born Nomzamo Winifred Zanyiwe Madikizela; 26 September 1936[1] – 2 April 2018),[2] also known as Winnie Mandela, was a South African anti-apartheid activist and politician, and the ex-wife of Nelson Mandela. She served as a Member of Parliament from 1994 to 2003,[3] and from 2009 until her death,[4] and was a deputy minister from 1994 to 1996. A member of the African National Congress (ANC) political party, she served on the ANC's National Executive Committee and headed its Women's League. Madikizela- Mandela
Mandela
was known to her supporters as the "Mother of the Nation".[5] Born to a Mpondo[6] family in Bizana, and a qualified social worker, Madikizela- Mandela
Mandela
married anti-apartheid activist Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
in Johannesburg
Johannesburg
in 1958; they remained married for 38 years and had two children together
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Chris Hani
Chris Hani
Chris Hani
(28 June 1942 – 10 April 1993),[1] born Martin Thembisile Hani, was the leader of the South African Communist Party
South African Communist Party
and chief of staff of uMkhonto we Sizwe, the armed wing of the African National Congress (ANC). He was a fierce opponent of the apartheid government, and was assassinated on 10 April 1993.Contents1 Early life 2 Political and military career 3 Assassination3.1 Assassins' conviction and amnesty hearing 3.2 Conspiracy theories surrounding assassination4 Influence 5 Honours 6 ReferencesEarly life[edit] Thembisile Hani was born on 28 June 1942[1] in the small town of Cofimvaba, Transkei. He was the fifth of six children. He attended Lovedale school in 1957, to finish his last two years. He twice finished two school grades in a single year
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Bram Fischer
Abram Fischer, commonly known as Bram Fischer, (23 April 1908 Bloemfontein
Bloemfontein
– 8 May 1975 Bloemfontein) was a South African lawyer of Afrikaner
Afrikaner
descent, notable for anti-apartheid activism and for the legal defence of anti-apartheid figures, including Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
at the Rivonia Trial. Following the trial he was himself put on trial accused of furthering communism. He was sentenced to life imprisonment, and diagnosed with cancer while in prison
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Ruth First
Ruth First
Ruth First
(4 May 1925 – 17 August 1982) was a South African anti-apartheid activist and scholar born in Johannesburg, South Africa. She was killed by a parcel bomb addressed specifically to her in Mozambique, where she worked in exile from South Africa.Contents1 Family and education 2 Treason trial and detention 3 Exile and assassination 4 Memoirs 5 Films 6 Patrol vessel 7 Main published works 8 See also 9 References 10 External linksFamily and education[edit] Ruth First's parents, Julius First and Matilda Levetan, immigrated to South Africa
South Africa
from Latvia
Latvia
as immigrants in 1906 and became founder members of the Communist Party of South Africa
South Africa
(CPSA), the forerunner of the South African Communist Party
South African Communist Party
(SACP)
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Mangosuthu Buthelezi
Mangosuthu Buthelezi
Mangosuthu Buthelezi
(born 27 August 1928) is a South African politician and Zulu tribal leader who founded the Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) in 1975 and was Chief Minister of the KwaZulu
KwaZulu
bantustan until 1994. He was Minister of Home Affairs of South Africa
South Africa
from 1994 to 2004. His praise name is Shenge. Throughout most of the apartheid era, Buthelezi was considered one of the foremost black leaders. He played a key role in creating a framework for a negotiated solution to South Africa's racial conflict, signing the landmark Mahlabatini Declaration of Faith
Mahlabatini Declaration of Faith
in 1974 with Harry Schwarz. During the CODESA negotiations of the early 1990s, he represented the IFP
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P. W. Botha
Pieter Willem Botha, DMS ( Afrikaans
Afrikaans
pronunciation: [ˈpitər ˈvələm ˈbʊəta]; 12 January 1916 – 31 October 2006), commonly known as "P. W." and Die Groot Krokodil ( Afrikaans
Afrikaans
for "The Big Crocodile"), was the leader of South Africa
South Africa
from 1978 to 1989, serving as the last Prime Minister from 1978 to 1984 and the first executive State President from 1984 to 1989. First elected to Parliament in 1948, Botha was an outspoken opponent of majority rule and international communism. However, his administration did make concessions towards political reform, whereas internal unrest saw widespread human rights abuses at the hands of the government. Botha resigned the leadership of the ruling National Party in February 1989 after suffering a stroke and six months later was coerced to leave the presidency as well. In F. W
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