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African American Art
AFRICAN-AMERICAN ART is a broad term describing the visual arts of the American black community ( African Americans
African Americans
). Influenced by various cultural traditions, including those of Africa
Africa
, Europe
Europe
and the Americas
Americas
, traditional African-American
African-American
art forms include the range of plastic arts , from basket weaving , pottery , and quilting to woodcarving and painting . CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Pre-colonial, Antebellum and Civil War eras * 1.2 Post-Civil War * 1.3 The Harlem Renaissance
Harlem Renaissance
to contemporary art * 1.3.1 Mid-20th century * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 Sources * 5 External links HISTORYPRE-COLONIAL, ANTEBELLUM AND CIVIL WAR ERAS This is the carved powder horn by carver John Bush from around 1754
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Afrocentrism
AFROCENTRISM (also AFROCENTRICITY) is a cultural ideology or worldview that focuses on the history of black Africans . It is a response to global ( Eurocentric /Orientalist ) attitudes about African people and their historical contributions; it revisits their history with an African cultural and ideological focus. Afrocentricity deals primarily with self-determination and African agency and is a Pan-African ideology in culture, philosophy , and history. Afrocentrism
Afrocentrism
can be seen as an African-American inspired ideology that manifests an affirmation of themselves in a Eurocentric -dominated society, commonly by conceptualizing a glorified heritage in terms of distinctly African, foreign origins (where foreign is anything not indigenous to the African continent)
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Nation Of Islam
Politics
Politics
portal Islam
Islam
portal * v * t * e The NATION OF ISLAM, abbreviated as NOI, is an African American political and religious movement , founded in Detroit, Michigan , United States, by Wallace D. Fard Muhammad
Muhammad
on July 4, 1930. Its stated goals are to improve the spiritual, mental, social, and economic condition of African Americans
African Americans
in the United States
United States
and all of humanity. Critics have described the organization as being black supremacist and antisemitic . The Southern Poverty Law Center tracks the NOI as a hate group . Its official newspaper is The Final Call . In 2007, the core membership was estimated to be between 20,000 and 50,000
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Black Power
BLACK POWER is a political slogan and a name for various associated ideologies aimed at achieving self-determination for people of African descent. It is used primarily, but not exclusively, by African Americans in the United States. The Black Power movement was prominent in the late 1960s and early 1970s, emphasizing racial pride and the creation of black political and cultural institutions to nurture and promote black collective interests and advance black values. "Black Power" expresses a range of political goals, from defense against racial oppression, to the establishment of social institutions and a self-sufficient economy, including black-owned bookstores , cooperatives, farms, and media. However, the movement was criticized for alienating itself from the mainstream civil rights movement , for its apparent support of racial segregation , and for constituting black superiority over other races
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Black Anarchism
BLACK ANARCHISM is a loose term sometimes applied in the United States to group together a number of people of African descent who identify with anarchism. They include Ashanti Alston , Lorenzo Kom\'boa Ervin , Kuwasi Balagoon , Kai Lumumba Barrow, Greg Jackson, and Martin Sostre . Critics of the term suggest that it elides major political differences between these individuals, incorrectly presenting these individuals as having a shared theory or movement, while imposing a label that these individuals do not (or did not) all accept. The individuals to whom the label has been applied all oppose the existence of the State , the subjugation and domination of black people, and other groups, and favor a non-hierarchical organization of society
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Black Capitalism
BLACK CAPITALISM is a movement among African Americans
African Americans
to build wealth through the ownership and development of businesses. Black capitalism has traditionally focused on African-American businesses , although some critics and activists have also pushed for increased representation of Blacks in corporate America. CONTENTS * 1 Historical roots * 2 Strands of black capitalism * 2.1 Group success * 2.2 Individual success * 3 Issues facing black capitalism * 3.1 As distinct from racial integration * 3.2 Black anti-capitalism * 3.3 Violence against black capitalism * 3.4 Economic disparity * 4 See also * 5 Related magazines and books * 6 References HISTORICAL ROOTSRoots of black capitalism can be found in the lives of "Free Negroes" during times of the American Enslavement. Many records exist reporting the development of economic wealth by these "Free Negroes"
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Black Theology
BLACK THEOLOGY, or BLACK LIBERATION THEOLOGY, refers to a theological perspective which originated among African American
African American
seminarians and scholars, and in some black churches in the United States
United States
and later in other parts of the world. It contextualizes Christianity
Christianity
in an attempt to help those of African descent overcome oppression. It especially focuses on the injustices committed against African Americans
African Americans
and black South Africans during American segregation and apartheid , respectively
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Black Church
The term BLACK CHURCH or AFRICAN-AMERICAN CHURCH refers to Protestant churches that currently or historically have ministered to predominantly black congregations in the United States. While some black churches belong to predominantly African-American denominations , such as the African Methodist Episcopal Church (AME), many black churches are members of predominantly white denominations, such as the United Church of Christ
United Church of Christ
(which developed from the Congregational Church of New England). Most of the first black congregations and churches formed before 1800 were founded by free blacks – for example, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania ; Springfield Baptist
Baptist
Church (Augusta, Georgia); Petersburg, Virginia ; and Savannah, Georgia
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List Of Museums Focused On African Americans
This is a LIST OF MUSEUMS IN THE UNITED STATES WHOSE PRIMARY FOCUS IS ON AFRICAN AMERICAN CULTURE AND HISTORY. Such museums are commonly known as AFRICAN AMERICAN MUSEUMS. According to scholar Raymond Doswell, an African-American museum is "an institution established for the preservation of African-derived culture." Museums have a mission of "collecting and preserving material on history and cultural heritage of African Americans." African-American museums share these goals with archives, genealogy groups, historical societies, and research libraries. Museums differ from archives, genealogy groups, historical societies, and research libraries because they have as a basic educational or aesthetic purpose the collection and display of objects, and regular exhibitions for the public
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African-American Music
AFRICAN-AMERICAN MUSIC is an umbrella term covering a diverse range of musics and musical genres largely developed by African Americans
African Americans
. Their origins are in musical forms that arose out of the historical condition of slavery that characterized the lives of African Americans prior to the American Civil War
American Civil War
. The modern genres of blues and ragtime were developed during the late 19th century by fusing European musical styles (characterized by diatonic harmony within the framework of equal temperament ) with those of African origin which employed the natural harmonic series and blue notes . The exceptions are hip hop, house and techno, which were formed in the late 20th century from earlier forms of African-American music such as funk and soul
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African-American Neighborhood
AFRICAN-AMERICAN NEIGHBORHOODS or BLACK NEIGHBORHOODS are types of ethnic enclaves found in many cities in the United States
United States
. Generally, an African American
African American
neighborhood is one where the majority of the people who live there are African American. Some of the earliest African-American neighborhoods were in New York City
New York City
along with early communities located in Virginia. In 1830, there were 14,000 "free Negroes " living in New York City. The formation of black neighborhoods are closely linked to the history of segregation in the United States
United States
, either through formal laws or as a product of social norms. Despite the formal laws and segregation, black neighborhoods have played an important role in the development of African-American culture
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Religion In Black America
RELIGION IN BLACK AMERICA refers to the religious and spiritual practices of blacks and people of African descent in the United States . Historians generally agree that the religious life of Black Americans "forms the foundation of their community life." Before 1775 there was scattered evidence of organized religion among blacks in the American colonies. The Methodist
Methodist
and Baptist
Baptist
churches became much more active in the 1780s, and growth was quite rapid for the next 150 years until they covered a majority of the people. After Emancipation in 1863, Freedmen organized their own churches, chiefly Baptist, followed by Methodists. Other Protestant denominations, and Catholics, played smaller roles. By 1900 the Pentecostal
Pentecostal
and Holiness movements were important, and later the Jehovah Witnesses. The Nation of Islam
Nation of Islam
added a Muslim factor in the 20th century
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Black Conservatism
BLACK CONSERVATISM is a political and social philosophy rooted in communities of African descent that aligns largely with the conservative ideology around the world. Since the Civil Rights Movement (1954-1968), the African American community has often identified politically with liberals. Black conservatives, then, are rare. They often emphasizes traditionalism , patriotism , self-sufficiency, free market capitalism, and strong cultural and social conservatism within the context of the black church . In the United States
United States
it is often, but not exclusively, associated with the Republican Party
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African-American Leftism
AFRICAN-AMERICAN LEFTISM refers to left-wing political currents that have developed among various African-American
African-American
communities in the United States of America
United States of America
. These currents are active around social issues, and often call for an expansive state that aims at bringing about equality of outcome between the African-American
African-American
community and White community and other minority groups
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Congress Of Racial Equality
The CONGRESS OF RACIAL EQUALITY (CORE) is an African-American civil rights organization in the United States that played a pivotal role for African Americans in the Civil Rights Movement . Founded in 1942. Its stated mission is "to bring about equality for all people regardless of race, creed, sex, age, disability, sexual orientation, religion or ethnic background." CORE's national chairman was Roy Innis . CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Founding * 1.2 Freedom Rides * 1.3 Desegregating Chicago\'s Schools * 1.4 Desegregating Durham * 1.5 March on Washington * 1.6 Freedom Summer * 1.7 March in Cicero, Illinois * 1.8 Since 1966 * 2 Geography * 3 International activities * 4 Criticism * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 External links * 8.1 Archives HISTORYFOUNDINGCORE was founded in Chicago in March 1942
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Southern Christian Leadership Conference
The SOUTHERN CHRISTIAN LEADERSHIP CONFERENCE (SCLC) is an African-American civil rights organization. SCLC, which is closely associated with its first president, Martin Luther King Jr , had a large role in the American Civil Rights Movement . CONTENTS* 1 Founding * 1.1 Citizenship Schools * 1.2 Albany Movement * 1.3 Birmingham campaign * 1.4 March on Washington * 1.5 St
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