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Afrasiyab Dynasty
The Afrasiyab or Chalavi dynasty was a small Iranian Shia dynasty of Mazandaran
Mazandaran
and flourished in the late medieval, pre-Safavid period; it is also called the Kia dynasty. It was founded by Kiya Afrasiyab, who conquered the Bavand kingdom in 1349 and made himself king of the region. In 1504, Ismail I
Ismail I
invaded Mazandaran
Mazandaran
and ended Afrasiyab rule of the region.Contents1 History 2 References 3 SourcesHistory[edit] Kiya Afrasiyab
Kiya Afrasiyab
was the son of certain Hasan Chulabi, who belonged to the Chulabids, a prominent family of Mazandaran
Mazandaran
which served the Bavandids. Afrasiyab was the sipahsalar and the brother-in-law of the Bavandid ruler Hasan II (r
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Neo-Assyrian Empire
The Neo-Assyrian Empire
Neo-Assyrian Empire
was an Iron Age
Iron Age
Mesopotamian
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Before Christ
The terms anno Domini[a][1][2] (AD) and before Christ[b][3][4][5] (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars. The term anno Domini is Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
and means "in the year of the Lord",[6] but is often presented using "our Lord" instead of "the Lord",[7][8] taken from the full original phrase "anno Domini nostri Jesu Christi", which translates to "in the year of our Lord Jesus
Jesus
Christ". This calendar era is based on the traditionally reckoned year of the conception or birth of Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth, with AD counting years from the start of this epoch, and BC denoting years before the start of the era. There is no year zero in this scheme, so the year AD 1 immediately follows the year 1 BC
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Kingdom Of Armenia (antiquity)
The Kingdom of Armenia, also the Kingdom of Greater Armenia,[3] or simply Greater Armenia
Armenia
(Armenian: Մեծ Հայք Mets Hayk;[4] Latin: Armenia
Armenia
Maior), was a monarchy in the Ancient Near East which existed from 321 BC to 428 AD. Its history is divided into successive reigns by three royal dynasties: Orontid (321 BC–200 BC),[5][6] Artaxiad (189 BC–12 AD) and Arsacid (52–428). The root of the kingdom lies in one of the satrapies of the Achaemenid Empire
Empire
of Persia
Persia
called Armenia
Armenia
( Satrapy
Satrapy
of Armenia), which was formed from the territory of the Kingdom of Ararat (860 BC–590 BC) after it was conquered by the Median Empire
Empire
in 590 BC
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Neo-Babylonian Empire
The Neo-Babylonian Empire
Empire
was a period of Mesopotamian history which began in 626 BC and ended in 539 BC.[1] During the preceding three centuries, Babylonia
Babylonia
had been ruled by their fellow Akkadian
Akkadian
speakers and northern neighbours, Assyria. A year after the death of the last strong Assyrian ruler, Assurbanipal, in 627 BC, the Assyrian empire spiralled into a series of brutal civil wars. Babylonia
Babylonia
rebelled under Nabopolassar. In alliance with the Medes, Persians, Scythians
Scythians
and Cimmerians, they sacked the city of Nineveh
Nineveh
in 612 BC, and the seat of empire was transferred to Babylonia
Babylonia
for the first time since the death of Hammurabi
Hammurabi
in the mid 18th century BC
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Scythians
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe
Steppe
culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cerna
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Mannaeans
The Mannaeans
Mannaeans
/məˈniːənz/ (country name usually Mannea; Akkadian: Mannai, possibly Biblical Minni, מנּי) were an ancient people who lived in the territory of present-day northwestern Iran
Iran
south of lake Urmia, around the 10th to 7th centuries BC. At that time they were neighbors of the empires of Assyria
Assyria
and Urartu, as well as other small buffer states between the two, such as Musasir
Musasir
and Zikirta. In the Bible
Bible
(Jeremiah 51:27) the Mannaeans
Mannaeans
are called Minni
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Urartu
Urartu
Urartu
(/ʊˈrɑːrtuː/; Armenian: Ուրարտու), also known as Kingdom of Van (Urartian: Biai, Biainili;[3] Assyrian: māt Urarṭu;[4] Babylonian: Urashtu; Armenian: Վանի թագավորություն, translit. Vani t′agavorut′yun)[5] was an Iron Age
Iron Age
kingdom centred on Lake Van
Lake Van
in the Armenian Highlands. It corresponds to the biblical Kingdom of Ararat. Strictly speaking, Urartu
Urartu
is the Assyrian term for a geographical region, while "Kingdom of Urartu" or "Biainili lands" are terms used in modern historiography for the Urartian-speaking Iron Age
Iron Age
state that arose in that region
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Firuzkuh, Iran
Firuzkuh (Persian: فيروزكوه‎, also Romanized as Fīrūzkūh and Fīrūz Kūh; Tabarian: Pirezcow; also known as Qaşabeh-ye Fīrūz Kūh)[1] is a city and capital of Firuzkuh County, Tehran Province, Iran. At the 2016 census, its population was 17,453.[2] It is located north-east of Tehran, in the middle of Alborz Mountains. Previously, it was part of Mazandaran Province. The city has a relatively cool and windy climate. It has some natural attractions and is famous for them, including Tange Vashi, Boornic Cave, Roodafshan Cave, Gardane Gadook and the sight-seeing of villages like Varse-Kharan, Zarrin Dasht, Darreh-Deh, and Kaveh Deh.Firuzkuh CastleFiruzkuh is rich in historical heritage and some of the most ancient objects in Tehran Province have been found there. Among its villages Darreh-Deh contains the most ancient places
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Zarmihrids
The Zarmihrid dynasty was a local dynasty of Tabaristan
Tabaristan
which ruled over parts of the mountainous areas of the region since the reign of Sasanian
Sasanian
king Khosrau I
Khosrau I
to 785. The family claimed its origin from a powerful Karen lord named Sukhra, a descendant of Kaveh the blacksmith, the national hero of Iran, and who was one of the leading nobles of the empire during the reign of Balash
Balash
and Kavadh I. According to a traditional story, Sukhra
Sukhra
left two children, Karin and Zarmihr, who helped Khosrau I
Khosrau I
protect the eastern borders of his empire when it was invaded by Turkic nomads. Karin was rewarded with land in the south of Amol, and was given title of Ispahbadh, thus starting the Karen dynasty of Tabaristan
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Akkadian Empire
Coordinates: 33°6′N 44°6′E / 33.100°N 44.100°E / 33.100; 44.100 Akkadian
Akkadian
Empire𒆳𒌵𒆠 māt Akkadi  (Akkadian) 𒀀𒂵𒉈𒆠 a-ga-de3KI  (Sumerian)c. 2334 – 2154 BCMap of the Akkadian
Akkadian

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Circa
Circa
Circa
(from Latin, meaning 'around, about'), usually abbreviated c., ca. or ca (also circ. or cca.), means "approximately" in several European languages (and as a loanword in English), usually in reference to a date.[1] Circa
Circa
is widely used in historical writing when the dates of events are not accurately known. When used in date ranges, circa is applied before each approximate date, while dates without circa immediately preceding them are generally assumed to be known with certainty
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Rashidun Caliphate
The Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliphate
Caliphate
(Arabic: اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلرَّاشِدَةُ‎ al-Khilāfa-al-Rāshidah) (632–661) was the first of the four major caliphates established after the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad. It was ruled by the first four successive caliphs (successors) of Muhammad
Muhammad
after his death in 632 CE (AH 11). These caliphs are collectively known in Sunni Islam
Islam
as the Rashidun, or "Rightly Guided" caliphs (اَلْخُلَفَاءُ ٱلرَّاشِدُونَ al-Khulafā’ur-Rāshidūn)
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Kura–Araxes Culture
The Kura–Araxes culture
Kura–Araxes culture
or the early trans-Caucasian culture was a civilization that existed from about 4000 BC until about 2000 BC,[1] which has traditionally been regarded as the date of its end; in some locations it may have disappeared as early as 2600 or 2700 BC.[2] The earliest evidence for this culture is found on the Ararat plain; it spread northward in Caucasus
Caucasus
by 3000 BC (but never reaching Colchis[3]). Altogether, the early trans-Caucasian culture enveloped a vast area approximately 1,000 km by 500 km,[4] and mostly encompassed, on modern-day territories, the Southern Caucasus
Caucasus
(except western Georgia), northwestern Iran, the northeastern Caucasus, eastern Turkey, and as far as Syria.[5][6] The name of the culture is derived from the Kura and Araxes river valleys
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Seleucid Empire
The Seleucid Empire
Empire
(/sɪˈljuːsɪd/;[6] Ancient Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic
Hellenistic
state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator
Seleucus I Nicator
founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.[7][8][9][10] Seleucus received Babylonia
Babylonia
(321 BC), and from there, expanded his dominions to include much of Alexander's near-eastern territories
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Prehistory Of Iran
The prehistory of Iran could be divided to Paleolithic, Epipaleolithic, Neolithic
Neolithic
and Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
periods as follow:Contents1 Paleolithic 2 Epipaleolithic 3 Neolithic 4 Chalcolithic 5 See also 6 References 7 Further readingPaleolithic[edit] One of the potential routes for early human migrations toward southern and eastern Asia is Iran, a country characterized by a wide range of geographic variation and resources, which could support early groups of hominins who wandered into the region
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