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Advanced Research Projects Agency
The DEFENSE ADVANCED RESEARCH PROJECTS AGENCY (DARPA) is an agency of the U.S. Department of Defense responsible for the development of emerging technologies for use by the military. Originally known as the ADVANCED RESEARCH PROJECTS AGENCY (ARPA), the agency was created in February 1958 by President Dwight D. Eisenhower in response to the Soviet launching of Sputnik 1
Sputnik 1
in 1957. Since its inception, the agency’s mission is ensuring that the United States avoids further technological surprise. By collaborating with academic, industry, and government partners, DARPA
DARPA
formulates and executes research and development projects to expand the frontiers of technology and science, often beyond immediate U.S. military requirements
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Gamma Ray
GAMMA RAYS (also called GAMMA RADIATION), denoted by the lower-case Greek letter gamma (γ or {displaystyle gamma } ), are penetrating electromagnetic radiation of a kind arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei . It consists of photons in the highest observed range of photon energy . Paul Villard , a French chemist and physicist , discovered gamma radiation in 1900 while studying radiation emitted by radium . In 1903, Ernest Rutherford named this radiation gamma rays. Rutherford had previously discovered two other types of radioactive decay, which he named alpha and beta rays . Gamma rays are able to ionize other atoms (ionizing radiation ), and are thus biologically hazardous. The decay of an atomic nucleus from a high energy state to a lower energy state, a process called gamma decay, produces gamma radiation
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Transit (satellite)
The TRANSIT system, also known as NAVSAT or NNSS (for Navy Navigation Satellite System), was the first satellite navigation system to be used operationally. The system was primarily used by the U.S. Navy
U.S. Navy
to provide accurate location information to its Polaris ballistic missile submarines , and it was also used as a navigation system by the Navy's surface ships , as well as for hydrographic survey and geodetic surveying . Transit provided continuous navigation satellite service from 1964, initially for Polaris submarines and later for civilian use as well
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Global Positioning System
The GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS), originally NAVSTAR GPS, is a space-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States
United States
Air Force . It is a global navigation satellite system that provides geolocation and time information to a GPS receiver anywhere on or near the Earth
Earth
where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS
GPS
satellites. The GPS
GPS
does not require the user to transmit any data, and it operates independently of any telephonic or internet reception, though these technologies can enhance the usefulness of the GPS
GPS
positioning information. The GPS
GPS
provides critical positioning capabilities to military, civil, and commercial users around the world
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Time-sharing
In computing , TIME-SHARING is the sharing of a computing resource among many users by means of multiprogramming and multi-tasking at the same time. Its introduction in the 1960s and emergence as the prominent model of computing in the 1970s represented a major technological shift in the history of computing. By allowing a large number of users to interact concurrently with a single computer, time-sharing dramatically lowered the cost of providing computing capability, made it possible for individuals and organizations to use a computer without owning one, and promoted the interactive use of computers and the development of new interactive applications
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X-ray
X-RAYS make up X-RADIATION, a form of electromagnetic radiation . Most X-rays have a wavelength ranging from 0.01 to 10 nanometers , corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 petahertz to 30 exahertz (3×1016 Hz to 3×1019 Hz) and energies in the range 100 eV to 100 keV . X-ray
X-ray
wavelengths are shorter than those of UV rays and typically longer than those of gamma rays . In many languages, X-radiation is referred to with terms meaning RöNTGEN RADIATION, after the German scientist Wilhelm Röntgen , who usually is credited as its discoverer, and who had named it X-radiation to signify an unknown type of radiation. Spelling of X-ray(s) in the English language includes the variants x-ray(s), xray(s), and X ray(s)
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Infrared
INFRARED RADIATION, or simply INFRARED or IR, is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light , and is therefore invisible, although it is sometimes loosely called INFRARED LIGHT. It extends from the nominal red edge of the visible spectrum at 700 nanometers (frequency 430 THz ), to 1000000 nm (300 GHz
GHz
) (although people can see infrared up to at least 1050 nm in experiments ). Most of the thermal radiation emitted by objects near room temperature is infrared. Like all EMR, IR carries radiant energy , and behaves both like a wave and like its quantum particle, the photon . Infrared
Infrared
was discovered in 1800 by astronomer Sir William Herschel
William Herschel
, who discovered a type of invisible radiation in the spectrum lower in energy than red light, by means of its effect on a thermometer
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Nuclear Test
NUCLEAR WEAPONS TESTS are experiments carried out to determine the effectiveness, yield, and explosive capability of nuclear weapons . Throughout the twentieth century, most nations that developed nuclear weapons tested them. Testing nuclear weapons can yield information about how the weapons work, as well as how the weapons behave under various conditions and how personnel, structures, and equipment behave when subjected to nuclear explosions. Nuclear testing has often been used as an indicator of scientific and military strength, and many tests have been overtly political in their intention; most nuclear weapons states publicly declared their nuclear status by means of a nuclear test. The first nuclear device was detonated as a test by the United States at the Trinity site
Trinity site
on July 16, 1945, with a yield approximately equivalent to 20 kilotons of TNT
TNT

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Behavioral Sciences
The term BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES (behavioral science) encompasses the various disciplines and interactions among organisms in the natural world . It involves the systematic analysis and investigation of human and animal behaviour through the study of the past, controlled and naturalistic observation of the present, and disciplined scientific experimentation. It attempts to accomplish legitimate, objective conclusions through rigorous formulations and observation. Examples of behavioral sciences include psychology , psychobiology , and cognitive science . CONTENTS * 1 Difference between behavioral sciences and social sciences * 2 Categories of behavioural sciences * 3 Applications of behavioural sciences * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Selected bibliography DIFFERENCE BETWEEN BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES AND SOCIAL SCIENCESThe term behavioral sciences is often confused with the term social sciences
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Radar
RADAR is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects. It can be used to detect aircraft , ships , spacecraft , guided missiles , motor vehicles , weather formations , and terrain . A radar system consists of a transmitter producing electromagnetic waves in the radio or microwaves domain, a transmitting antenna , a receiving antenna (often the same antenna is used for transmitting and receiving) and a receiver and processor to determine properties of the object(s). Radio waves (pulsed or continuous) from the transmitter reflect off the object and return to the receiver, giving information about the object's location and speed. Radar
Radar
was developed secretly for military use by several nations in the period before and during World War II
World War II

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Multics
MULTICS (MULTIPLEXED INFORMATION AND COMPUTING SERVICE) is an influential early time-sharing operating system , based around the concept of a single-level memory . Virtually all modern operating systems are heavily influenced by Multics; often through Unix
Unix
, either directly ( Linux
Linux
, macOS ) or indirectly ( Microsoft Windows
Microsoft Windows
). CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Novel ideas * 3 Project history * 4 Retrospective observations * 5 Current status * 6 Influence on other projects * 6.1 Unix
Unix
* 6.2 Other operating systems * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 9.1 Technical details * 9.2 Security * 10 External links OVERVIEWInitial planning and development for Multics
Multics
started in 1964, in Cambridge, Massachusetts
Cambridge, Massachusetts

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Bell Labs
NOKIA BELL LABS (formerly named AT&T BELL LABORATORIES, BELL TELEPHONE LABORATORIES and BELL LABS) is an American research and scientific development company , owned by Finnish company Nokia
Nokia
. Its headquarters are located in Murray Hill , New Jersey , in addition to other laboratories around the rest of the United States and in other countries. The historic laboratory originated in the late 19th century as the Volta Laboratory and Bureau created by Alexander Graham Bell
Alexander Graham Bell

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Hypermedia
HYPERMEDIA, an extension of the term hypertext , is a nonlinear medium of information that includes graphics, audio, video, plain text and hyperlinks . This designation contrasts with the broader term multimedia , which may include non-interactive linear presentations as well as hypermedia. It is also related to the field of electronic literature . The term was first used in a 1965 article written by Ted Nelson . The WWW (World Wide-web) is a classic example of hypermedia, whereas a non-interactive cinema presentation is an example of standard multimedia due to the absence of hyperlinks. The first hypermedia work was, arguably, the Aspen Movie Map
Aspen Movie Map
. Bill Atkinson 's HyperCard
HyperCard
popularized hypermedia writing, while a variety of literary hypertext and hypertext works, fiction and non-fiction, demonstrated the promise of links
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Virtual Reality
VIRTUAL REALITY (VR) is a computer technology that uses Virtual reality headsets , sometimes in combination with physical spaces or multi-projected environments, to generate realistic images, sounds and other sensations that simulate a user's physical presence in a virtual or imaginary environment. A person using virtual reality equipment is able to "look around" the artificial world, and with high quality VR move about in it and interact with virtual features or items. VR headsets are head-mounted goggles with a screen in front of the eyes. Programs may include audio and sounds through speakers or headphones. VR systems that include transmission of vibrations and other sensations to the user through a game controller or other devices are known as haptic systems. This tactile information is generally known as force feedback in medical, video gaming and military training applications
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Human Capital Flight
HUMAN CAPITAL FLIGHT refers to the emigration of highly skilled or well-educated individuals. The net benefits of human capital flight for the sending country are sometimes referred to as a "BRAIN GAIN" whereas the net costs are sometimes referred to as a "BRAIN DRAIN". Research shows that there are significant economic benefits of human capital flight both for the migrants themselves and those who remain in the country of origin. It has been found that emigration of skilled individuals to the developing world contributes to greater education and innovation in the developing world. Research also suggests that emigration, remittances and return migration can have a positive impact on democratization and the quality political institutions in the country of origin. Claims of a "brain drain" remain largely unsupported in academic research, with some scholars describing it as a "myth"
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Douglas Engelbart
DOUGLAS CARL ENGELBART (January 30, 1925 – July 2, 2013) was an American engineer and inventor , and an early computer and Internet pioneer . He is best known for his work on founding the field of human–computer interaction , particularly while at his Augmentation Research Center Lab in SRI International
SRI International
, which resulted in creation of the computer mouse , and the development of hypertext , networked computers, and precursors to graphical user interfaces . These were demonstrated at The Mother of All Demos
The Mother of All Demos
in 1968. Engelbart\'s Law , the observation that the intrinsic rate of human performance is exponential, is named after him. In the early 1950s, he decided that instead of "having a steady job" – such as his position at NASA's Ames Research Center
Ames Research Center
– he would focus on making the world a better place
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