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Advanced Research Projects Agency
The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense
United States Department of Defense
responsible for the development of emerging technologies for use by the military. Originally known as the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), the agency was created in February 1958 by President Dwight D. Eisenhower in response to the Soviet launching of Sputnik 1
Sputnik 1
in 1957. Since its inception, the agency's mission is ensuring that the United States avoids further technological surprise.[3] By collaborating with academic, industry, and government partners, DARPA
DARPA
formulates and executes research and development projects to expand the frontiers of technology and science, often beyond immediate U.S
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Automatic Target Recognition
Automatic target recognition
Automatic target recognition
(ATR) is the ability for an algorithm or device to recognize targets or other objects based on data obtained from sensors. Target recognition was initially done by using an audible representation of the received signal, where a trained operator who would decipher that sound to classify the target illuminated by the radar. While these trained operators had success, automated methods have been developed and continue to be developed that allow for more accuracy and speed in classification. ATR can be used to identify man made objects such as ground and air vehicles as well as for biological targets such as animals, humans, and vegetative clutter
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Bell Labs
Nokia
Nokia
Bell Labs
Bell Labs
(formerly named AT&T Bell Laboratories, Bell Telephone
Telephone
Laboratories and Bell Labs) is an American research and scientific development company, owned by Finnish company Nokia. Its headquarters are located in Murray Hill, New Jersey, in addition to other laboratories around the rest of the United States
United States
and in other countries. The historic laboratory originated in the late 19th century as the Volta Laboratory and Bureau
Volta Laboratory and Bureau
created by Alexander Graham Bell
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Arlington County, Virginia
Arlington County is a county in the Commonwealth of Virginia,[1] often referred to simply as Arlington or Arlington, Virginia. In 2016, the county's population was estimated at 230,050,[2] making it the sixth-largest county in Virginia, or the fourth-largest city if it were incorporated as such. It is the 5th highest-income county in the U.S. by median family income,[3] and has the highest concentration of singles in the region.[4] The county is coterminous with the U.S. Census Bureau's census-designated place of Arlington. Though a county, it is also treated as the second-largest principal city of the Washington metropolitan area. The county is situated in Northern Virginia
Virginia
on the southwestern bank of the Potomac River
Potomac River
directly across from Washington, D.C., of which it was once a part
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Infrared
Infrared
Infrared
radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions [1][2][3][4]). It is sometimes called infrared light. IR wavelengths extend from the nominal red edge of the visible spectrum at 700 nanometers (frequency 430 THz), to 1 millimeter (300 GHz)[5] Most of the thermal radiation emitted by objects near room temperature is infrared
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X-ray
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation. Most X-rays have a wavelength ranging from 0.01 to 10 nanometers, corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 petahertz to 30 exahertz (3×1016 Hz to 3×1019 Hz) and energies in the range 100 eV to 100 keV. X-ray
X-ray
wavelengths are shorter than those of UV rays and typically longer than those of gamma rays
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Gamma Ray
Gamma
Gamma
rays (also called gamma radiation), denoted by the lower-case Greek letter gamma (γ or γ displaystyle gamma ), are penetrating electromagnetic radiation of a kind arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei. It consists of photons in the highest observed range of photon energy. Paul Villard, a French chemist and physicist, discovered gamma radiation in 1900 while studying radiation emitted by radium. In 1903, Ernest Rutherford
Ernest Rutherford
named this radiation gamma rays
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Transit (satellite)
The Transit system, also known as NAVSAT or NNSS (for Navy Navigation Satellite System), was the first satellite navigation system to be used operationally. The system was primarily used by the U.S. Navy
U.S. Navy
to provide accurate location information to its Polaris ballistic missile submarines, and it was also used as a navigation system by the Navy's surface ships, as well as for hydrographic survey and geodetic surveying
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Global Positioning System
The Global Positioning System
System
(GPS), originally Navstar GPS,[1] is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States
United States
Air Force.[2] It is a global navigation satellite system that provides geolocation and time information to a GPS receiver
GPS receiver
anywhere on or near the Earth
Earth
where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites.[3] Obstacles such as mountains and buildings block the relatively weak GPS
GPS
signals. The GPS
GPS
does not require the user to transmit any data, and it operates independently of any telephonic or internet reception, though these technologies can enhance the usefulness of the GPS
GPS
positioning information
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Time-sharing
In computing, time-sharing is the sharing of a computing resource among many users by means of multiprogramming and multi-tasking at the same time.[1] Its introduction in the 1960s and emergence as the prominent model of computing in the 1970s represented a major technological shift in the history of computing. By allowing a large number of users to interact concurrently with a single computer, time-sharing dramatically lowered the cost of providing computing capability, made it possible for individuals and organizations to use a computer without owning one,[2] and promoted the interactive use of computers and the development of new interactive applications.Contents1 History1.1 Batch processing 1.2 Time-sharing 1.3 Development 1.4 Time-sharing
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MULTICS
Multics
Multics
(Multiplexed Information and Computing Service) is an influential early time-sharing operating system, based around the concept of a single-level memory.[4][5] Virtually all modern operating systems were heavily influenced by Multics, often through Unix, which had been created by the people who had worked on Multics—either directly (Linux, macOS) or indirectly (Microsoft Windows NT).Contents1 Overview 2 Novel ideas 3 Project history3.1 Current status4 Retrospective observations 5 Influence on other projects5.1 Unix 5.2 Other operating systems6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading8.1 Technical details 8.2 Security9 External linksOverview[edit] Initial planning and development for Multics
Multics
started in 1964, in Cambridge, Massachusetts
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General Electric
General Electric
General Electric
(GE) is an American multinational conglomerate incorporated in New York[5] and headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts.[2] As of 2016, the company operates through the following segments: aviation, current, digital, energy connections, global research, healthcare, lighting, oil and gas, power, renewable energy, transportation, and capital which cater to the needs of financial services, medical devices, life sciences, pharmaceutical, automotive, software development and engineering industries.[6] In 2017, GE ranked among the Fortune 500
Fortune 500
as the thirteenth-largest firm in the U.S
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Counterinsurgency
A counter-insurgency or counterinsurgency[1] (COIN) can be defined as "comprehensive civilian and military efforts taken to simultaneously defeat and contain insurgency and address its root causes".[2] An insurgency is a rebellion against a constituted authority when those taking part in the rebellion are not recognized as belligerents.[3] It isthe organized use of subversion and violence to seize, nullify or challenge political control of a region. As such, it is primarily a political struggle, in which both sides use armed force to create space for their political, economic and influence activities to be effective.[2] Counter-insurgency
Counter-insurgency
campaigns of duly-elected or politically recognized governments take place during war, occupation by a foreign military or police force, and when internal conflicts that involve subversion and armed rebellion occur
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MIT
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
(MIT) is a private research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States. Founded in 1861 in response to the increasing industrialization of the United States, MIT adopted a European polytechnic university model and stressed laboratory instruction in applied science and engineering. The Institute is traditionally known for its research and education in the physical sciences and engineering, but more recently in biology, economics, linguistics and management as well
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Internet
The Internet
Internet
is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite
Internet protocol suite
(TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of private, public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope, linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless, and optical networking technologies
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Artificial Intelligence
Artificial intelligence
Artificial intelligence
(AI, also machine intelligence, MI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence (NI) displayed by humans and other animals
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