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Adiantum
See text Adiantum
Adiantum
/ˌædiˈæntəm/,[1] the walking fern or maidenhair fern, is a genus of about 250 species of ferns in the Vittarioideae subfamily of the family Pteridaceae,[2] though some researchers place it in its own family, Adiantaceae. The genus name comes from Greek, meaning "not wetting", referring to the fronds' ability to shed water without becoming wet.Contents1 Description 2 Cladistics 3 Cultivation 4 List of species 5 Gallery 6 ReferencesDescription[edit] They are distinctive in appearance, with dark, often black stipes and rachises, and bright green, often delicately cut leaf tissue. The sori are borne submarginally, and are covered by reflexed flaps of leaf tissue which resemble indusia. Dimorphism between sterile and fertile fronds is generally subtle. They generally prefer humus-rich, moist, well-drained sites, ranging from bottomland soils to vertical rock walls
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Horticulture
Horticulture
Horticulture
is the science and art of growing plants (fruits, vegetables, flowers, and any other cultivar). It also includes plant conservation, landscape restoration, soil management, landscape and garden design, construction, and maintenance, and arboriculture. In contrast to agriculture, horticulture does not include large-scale crop production or animal husbandry. Horticulturists apply their knowledge, skills, and technologies used to grow intensively produced plants for human food and non-food uses and for personal or social needs. Their work involves plant propagation and cultivation with the aim of improving plant growth, yields, quality, nutritional value, and resistance to insects, diseases, and environmental stresses. They work as gardeners, growers, therapists, designers, and technical advisors in the food and non-food sectors of horticulture
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Genus
A genus (/ˈdʒiːnəs/, pl. genera /ˈdʒɛnərə/) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms in biology. In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family. In binomial nomenclature, the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus.E.g. Felis catus
Felis catus
and Felis silvestris
Felis silvestris
are two species within the genus Felis. Felis
Felis
is a genus within the family Felidae.The composition of a genus is determined by a taxonomist. The standards for genus classification are not strictly codified, so different authorities often produce different classifications for genera
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Humus
In soil science, humus (derived in 1790–1800 from the Latin
Latin
humus for earth, ground[1]) denominates the fraction of soil organic matter that is amorphous and without the "cellular cake structure characteristic of plants, micro-organisms or animals."[2] Humus significantly affects the bulk density of soil and contributes to its retention of moisture and nutrients. In agriculture, "humus" sometimes also is used to describe mature or natural compost extracted from a woodland or other spontaneous source for use as a soil conditioner.[3] It is also used to describe a topsoil horizon that contains organic matter (humus type,[4] humus form,[5] humus profile).[6] Humus
Humus
is the dark organic matter that forms in soil when dead plant and animal matter decays. Humus
Humus
has many nutrients that improve the health of soil, nitrogen being the most important
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Sorus
A sorus (pl. sori) is a cluster of sporangia (structures producing and containing spores) in ferns and fungi. This New Latin
New Latin
word is from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
σωρός (sōrós ‘stack, pile, heap’). In lichens and other fungi, the sorus is surrounded by an external layer. In some red algae it may take the form of a depression into the thallus. In ferns, these form a yellowish or brownish mass on the edge or underside of a fertile frond. In some species, they are protected during development by a scale or film of tissue called the indusium, which forms an umbrella-like cover. Sori occur on the sporophyte generation, the sporangia within producing haploid meiospores. As the sporongia mature, the indusium shrivels so that spore release is unimpeded. The sporangia then burst and release the spores. The shape, arrangement, and location of the sori are often valuable clues in the identification of fern taxa
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Paraphyly
In taxonomy, a group is paraphyletic if it consists of the group's last common ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor excluding a few—typically only one or two—monophyletic subgroups. The group is said to be paraphyletic with respect to the excluded subgroups. The arrangement of the members of a paraphyletic group is called a paraphyly. The term is commonly used in phylogenetics (a subfield of biology) and in linguistics. The term was coined to apply to well-known taxa like Reptilia (reptiles) which, as commonly named and traditionally defined, is paraphyletic with respect to mammals and birds. Reptilia contains the last common ancestor of reptiles and all descendants of that ancestor—including all extant reptiles as well as the extinct synapsids—except for mammals and birds. Other commonly recognized paraphyletic groups include fish, monkeys and lizards.[1] If many subgroups are missing from the named group, it is said to be polyparaphyletic
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Rachis
Rachis
Rachis
/ˈreɪkɪs/ is a biological term for a main axis or "shaft" (from the Greek ράχις, backbone, spine[1]).Contents1 In zoology/microbiology 2 In botany 3 See also 4 ReferencesIn zoology/microbiology[edit] In vertebrates a rachis can refer to the series of articulated vertebrae, which encase the spinal cord. In this case the rachis usually forms the supporting axis of the body and is then called the spine or vertebral column. Rachis
Rachis
can also mean the central shaft of pennaceous feathers. In the gonad of the invertebrate nematode C. elegans, a rachis is the central cell-free core or axis of the gonadal arm of both adult males and hermaphrodites where the germ cells have achieved pachytene and are attached to the walls of the gonadal tube
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Stipe (botany)
In botany, a stipe is a stalk that supports some other structure.[1] The precise meaning is different depending on which taxonomic group is being described.The long stipe of a Helicteres
Helicteres
flower ...remains as each flower forms a fruit.Hexagonal stipe bases of the fern Cyathea medullarisAn orchid's stipe, with polliniaThe stipe of a brown algaIn the case of ferns, the stipe is only the petiole from the rootstock to the beginning of the leaf tissue, or lamina. The continuation of the structure within the lamina is then termed a rachis. In flowering plants, the term is often used in reference to a stalk that sometimes supports a flower's ovary. In orchids, the stipe or caudicle is the stalk-like support of the pollinia
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Frond
A frond is a large, divided leaf.[1] In both common usage and botanical nomenclature, the leaves of ferns are referred to as fronds[2] and some botanists restrict the term to this group.[3] Other botanists allow the term frond to also apply to the large leaves of cycads and palms (Arecaceae).[4][5] "Frond" is commonly used to identify a large, compound leaf, but if the term is used botanically to refer to the leaves of ferns, it may be applied to smaller and undivided leaves. Fronds have particular terms describing their components. Like all leaves, fronds usually have a stalk connecting them to the main stem. In botany, this leaf stalk is generally called a petiole, but in regard to fronds specifically it is called a stipe, and it supports a flattened blade (which may be called a lamina), and the continuation of the stipe into this portion is called the rachis
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Ancient Greek
The Ancient Greek language
Greek language
includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece
Greece
and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
(Koine Greek, 3rd century BC to the 4th century AD). It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek and succeeded by medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek
Attic Greek
and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek
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Family (biology)
In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks; it is classified between order and genus. A family may be divided into subfamilies, which are intermediate ranks above the rank of genus. In vernacular usage, a family may be named after one of its common members; for example, walnuts and hickory trees belong to the family Juglandaceae, commonly known as the walnut family. What does or does not belong to a family—or whether a described family should be recognized at all—are proposed and determined by practicing taxonomists. There are no hard rules for describing or recognizing a family, or any taxa. Taxonomists often take different positions about descriptions of taxa, and there may be no broad consensus across the scientific community for some time
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Taxonomy (biology)
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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Waterfall
A waterfall is a place where water flows over a vertical drop or a series of steep drops in the course of a stream or river. Waterfalls also occur where meltwater drops over the edge of a tabular iceberg or ice shelf.Contents1 Formation 2 Researchers 3 Types 4 Examples 5 Image gallery 6 See also 7 ReferencesFormation[edit]Formation of a waterfallWaterfalls are commonly formed in the upper course of a river in steep mountains.[1] Because of their landscape position, many waterfalls occur over bedrock fed by little contributing area, so may be ephemeral and flow only during rainstorms or significant snowmelt. The further downstream, the more perennial a waterfall can be. Waterfalls can have a wide range of widths and depths, and this diversity is part of what makes them such a charismatic and interesting natural phenomenon
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Type Species
In zoological nomenclature, a type species (species typica) is the species name with which the name of a genus or subgenus is considered to be permanently taxonomically associated, i.e., the species that contains the biological type specimen(s).[1] A similar concept is used for suprageneric groups called a type genus. In botanical nomenclature, these terms have no formal standing under the code of nomenclature, but are sometimes borrowed from zoological nomenclature. In botany, the type of a genus name is a specimen (or, rarely, an illustration) which is also the type of a species name. The species name that has that type can also be referred to as the type of the genus name
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Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
Linnaeus
(/lɪˈniːəs, lɪˈneɪəs/;[1][2] 23 May[note 1] 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné[3] (Swedish pronunciation: [kɑːɭ fɔn lɪˈneː] ( listen)), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist, who formalised the modern system of naming organisms called binomial nomenclature. He is known by the epithet "father of modern taxonomy".[4] Many of his writings were in Latin
Latin
and his name is rendered in Latin
Latin
as Carolus Linnæus (after 1761 Carolus a Linné). Linnaeus
Linnaeus
was born in the countryside of Småland, in southern Sweden. He received most of his higher education at Uppsala University
Uppsala University
and began giving lectures in botany there in 1730
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Hardiness Zone
A hardiness zone is a geographically defined area in which a specific category of plant life is capable of growing, as defined by climatic conditions, including its ability to withstand the minimum temperatures of the zone (see the scale on the right or the table below). For example, a plant that is described as "hardy to zone 10" means that the plant can withstand a minimum temperature of -1°C (30.2°F) to 3.9°C (39.0°F). First developed by the United States Department of Agriculture
Agriculture
(USDA) as a rough guide to landscaping and gardening, the use of the zones has been adopted by other countries.Contents1 USDA hardiness zones1.1 Criticism 1.2 Alternatives2 European hardiness zones2.1 Ireland and UK 2.2 Northern Europe 2.3 Central Europe 2.4 Southern Europe 2.5 European cities3 United States hardiness zones3.1 Updates 3.2 U.S
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