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Adelaide Of Holland
ADELAIDE OF HOLLAND, COUNTESS OF HAINAUT (Dutch : Aleide (Aleidis) van Holland; c. 1230 – buried 9 April 1284) was a Dutch regent. She was a daughter of Floris IV, Count of Holland
Floris IV, Count of Holland
and Matilda of Brabant . She was also a sister of William II , Count of Holland
Count of Holland
and King of Germany . She acted as regent for her nephew Count Floris V during his minority. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Issue * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Sources * 6 External links LIFEOn 9 October 1246, Adelaide married John I of Avesnes , Count of Hainaut . Like her mother, she was a patron of religious houses. Her religious interest is reflected in that three of her sons became bishops, and her one daughter became an abbess. She also insisted on a bilingual education for them. Between 1258 and 1263, Adelaide was regent of Holland in the name of her nephew Floris V
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County Of Holland
HOLLAND is a region and former province on the western coast of the Netherlands
Netherlands
. The name Holland
Holland
is also frequently used informally to refer to the whole of the country of the Netherlands. This usage is commonly accepted in other countries, and not entirely uncommon among the Dutch themselves, though some in the Netherlands
Netherlands
and particularly in other regions of the country may find it undesirable or misrepresentative. From the 10th to the 16th century, Holland
Holland
proper was a unified political region within the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
as a county ruled by the Counts of Holland
Holland

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Jacob Van Maerlant
JACOB VAN MAERLANT (c. 1230–40 – c. 1288–1300) was the greatest Flemish poet of the 13th century and one of the most important Middle Dutch authors during the Middle Ages . CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Uncertainty about biography * 3 Attributed works * 4 See also * 5 Bibliography * 6 References * 7 External links BIOGRAPHYVan Maerlant was born near Bruges . He became sacristan of Maerlant , in the island of Oostvoorne , where he lived for some time, employed as a sexton , whence his surname "de Coster". Later he resided at Damme, near Bruges , where, according to tradition, he held the position of town clerk. His early works are Middle Dutch translations of French romances . Jacob's most serious work in the field of romance was his Historie van Troyen (c. 1264), a poem of some forty thousand lines, translated and amplified from the Roman de Troie of Benoît de Sainte-Maure
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Town Privileges
TOWN PRIVILEGES or BOROUGH RIGHTS were important features of European towns during most of the second millennium. Judicially, a borough (or burgh ) was distinguished from the countryside by means of a charter from the ruling monarch that defined its privileges and laws . Common privileges involved trade (marketplace, the storing of goods, etc.) and the establishment of guilds . Some of these privileges were permanent and could imply that the town obtained the right to be called a borough , hence the term BOROUGH RIGHTS (German Stadtrecht, Dutch stadsrechten). Some degree of self-government , representation by diet , and tax-relief could also be granted. Multiple tiers existed; for example, in Sweden, the basic royal charter establishing a borough enabled trade, but not foreign trade, which required a higher-tier charter granting staple right
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Regent
A REGENT (from the Latin
Latin
regens, " ruling" ) is "a person appointed to administer a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated." The rule of a regent or regents is called a REGENCY. A regent or regency council may be formed ad hoc or in accordance with a constitutional rule. "Regent" is sometimes a formal title. If the regent is holding his position due to his position in the line of succession , the compound term prince regent is often used; if the regent of a minor is his mother, she is often referred to as "queen regent". If the formally appointed regent is unavailable or cannot serve on a temporary basis, a Regent
Regent
ad interim may be appointed to fill the gap. In a monarchy, a regent usually governs due to one of these reasons, but may also be elected to rule during the interregnum when the royal line has died out
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Valenciennes
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting : residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. VALENCIENNES (French pronunciation: ​ ; Dutch : Valencijn, Latin
Latin
: Valentianae) is a commune in the Nord department in northern France. It lies on the Scheldt (French : Escaut) river. Although the city and region experienced a steady population decline between 1975 and 1990, it has since rebounded. The 1999 census recorded that the population of the commune of Valenciennes
Valenciennes
was 41,278, and that of the metropolitan area was 399,677
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Bishop Of Metz
The ROMAN CATHOLIC DIOCESE OF METZ ( Latin
Latin
: Dioecesis Metensis; French : Diocèse de Metz) is a diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
in France
France
. In the Middle Ages it was in effect an independent state (prince-bishopric), part of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
, ruled by the prince-bishop who had the ex officio title of count. It was annexed to France
France
by King Henry II in 1552; this was recognized by the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
in the Peace of Westphalia of 1648. It then was part of the province of the Three Bishoprics . Since 1801 the Metz diocese is a public-law corporation of cult (French : établissement public du culte)
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Bishop Of Cambrai
The ROMAN CATHOLIC ARCHDIOCESE OF CAMBRAI (Latin : Archdiocesis Cameracensis; French : Archidiocèse de Cambrai) is an archdiocese of the Latin Rite
Latin Rite
of the Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
Church in France, comprising the arrondissements of Avesnes-sur-Helpe , Cambrai
Cambrai
, Douai
Douai
, and Valenciennes
Valenciennes
within the département of Nord , in the region of Nord-Pas-de-Calais
Nord-Pas-de-Calais
. The current archbishop is François Charles Garnier, appointed in December 2000. Since 2002 the archdiocese has been a suffragan of the Archdiocese
Archdiocese
of Lille
Lille
, returning to the prior arrangement
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Biografisch Portaal
The BIOGRAFISCH PORTAAL (Biography Portal) is an initiative based at the Huygens Institute for Dutch History in The Hague , with the aim of making biographical texts of the Netherlands more accessible. The project was started in February 2010 with material for 40,000 digitized biographies, with the goal to grant digital access to all reliable information about (deceased) people of the Netherlands from the earliest beginnings of history up to modern times. The Netherlands as a geographic term includes former colonies, and the term "people" refers both to people born in the Netherlands and its former colonies, and also to people born elsewhere but active in the Netherlands and its former colonies. As of 2011 , only biographical information about deceased people is included
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Counts Of Holland Family Tree
This is a FAMILY TREE OF THE COUNTS OF HOLLAND from 916 to 1299, when a personal union was formed with the County of Hainaut . After this date, the diagram continues at Counts of Hainaut family tree
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Stadholder
In the Low Countries
Low Countries
, STADTHOLDER (Dutch : stadhouder, Dutch pronunciation: ), is an office of steward , designated a medieval official and then a national leader. The title was used for the official tasked with maintaining peace and provincial order in the early Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
and, at times, became de facto head of state of the Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
during the 16th to 18th centuries, which was an effectively hereditary role. For the last half century of its existence, it became an officially hereditary role and thus a monarchy (though maintaining republican pretence) under Prince William IV. His son, Prince William V, was the last stadtholder of the republic, whose own son, King William I, became the first king of the Netherlands
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List Of German Kings And Emperors
This is a list of monarchs who ruled over the German territories of central Europe from the division of the Frankish Empire in 843 (by which a separate Eastern Frankish Kingdom was created), until the collapse of the German Empire
German Empire
in 1918. It also includes heads of the various German confederations after the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation in 1806, and head of the first federation state, the North German Confederation
North German Confederation
, from 1867 to 1871
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Count Of Hainaut
The COUNT OF HAINAUT was the ruler of the county of Hainaut , a historical region in the Low Countries (including the modern countries of Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg and parts of northern France and western Germany). In English-language historical sources, the title is often given the archaic spelling HAINAULT. CONTENTS* 1 List of counts of Hainaut * 1.1 House of Reginar * 1.2 House of Flanders * 1.3 House of Avesnes * 1.4 House of Flanders * 1.5 House of Avesnes * 1.6 House of Bavaria * 1.7 House of Burgundy * 1.8 House of Habsburg * 2 Modern usage * 2.1 House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha * 3 See also LIST OF COUNTS OF HAINAUTHOUSE OF REGINAR Main article: House of Reginar * Reginar I (r. 870-898), also Count of Mons (from 870) and Count of Liège * Sigard (r. 898-908, m. 920), also Count of Liège * Reginar I (r. 908-915), second time * Reginar II (r. 915-after 932) * Reginar III (r. before 940-958) * Godfrey I (r
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William, King Of The Romans
WILLIAM II OF HOLLAND (February 1227 – 28 January 1256) was a Count of Holland and Zeeland (1234–56). He was elected as German anti-king in 1247 and remained king until his death. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Marriage and issue * 3 Death * 4 Ancestors * 5 References * 6 See also LIFE Coat of Arms of William II. in a medieval manuscript. He was the son of Floris IV and Matilda of Brabant . When his father was killed at a tournament at Corbie , William was only seven years old. His uncles, William and Otto (Bishop of Utrecht ), were his guardians until 1239. William II of Holland as "Willem van Henegouwen" in stained-glass window from 1588 by Willem Thibaut , located in the Museum De Lakenhal With the help of Henry II, Duke of Brabant and the archbishop of Cologne, he was elected as king of Germany after Emperor Frederick II was excommunicated. The next year, he decided to extend his father's hunting residence to a palace which met his new status
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Nobility
NOBILITY is a social class , normally ranked immediately under royalty , that possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in a society and with membership thereof typically being hereditary . The privileges associated with nobility may constitute substantial advantages over or relative to non-nobles, or may be largely honorary (e.g., precedence ), and vary by country and era. The Medieval
Medieval
chivalric motto "noblesse oblige ", meaning literally "nobility obligates", explains that privileges carry a lifelong obligation of duty to uphold various social responsibilities of, e.g., honorable behavior, customary service, or leadership roles or positions, that lives on by a familial or kinship bond
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