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Addiction
Addiction
Addiction
is a brain disorder characterized by compulsive engagement in rewarding stimuli despite adverse consequences.[8] Despite the involvement of a number of psychosocial factors, a biological process – one which is induced by repeated exposure to an addictive stimulus – is the core pathology that drives the development and maintenance of an addiction.[1][9] The two properties that characterize all addictive stimuli are that they are reinforcing (i.e., they increase the likelihood that a person will seek repeated exposure to them) and intrinsically rewarding (i.e., they are perceived as being inherently positive, desirable,
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Dysphoria
Dysphoria (from Greek: δύσφορος (dysphoros), δυσ-, difficult, and φέρειν, to bear) is a profound state of unease or dissatisfaction. In a psychiatric context, dysphoria may accompany depression, anxiety, or agitation. It can also refer to a state of not being comfortable in one's current body, particularly in cases of gender dysphoria. Common reactions to dysphoria include emotional distress; in some cases, even physical distress is seen. The opposite state of mind is known as euphoria.Contents1 In psychiatry1.1 Gender
Gender
dysphoria 1.2 Related conditions2 Drug-induced (dysphoriants) 3 In popular culture 4 See also 5 Notes 6 ReferencesIn psychiatry[edit] Intense states of distress and unease increase the risk of suicide, as well as being unpleasant in themselves. Relieving dysphoria is therefore a priority of psychiatric treatment
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Anhedonia
Anhedonia is the inability to experience pleasure from activities usually found enjoyable, e.g. exercise, hobbies, singing, playing an instrument, sexual activities or social interactions. While earlier definitions of anhedonia emphasized pleasurable experience, more recent models have highlighted the need to consider different aspects of enjoyable behavior, such as motivation or desire to engage in activities (motivational anhedonia), as compared to the level of enjoyment of the activity itself (consummatory anhedonia).[1] According to William James, the term was coined by Théodule-Armand Ribot.One can distinguish many kinds of pathological depression. Sometimes it is mere passive joylessness and dreariness, discouragement, dejection, lack of taste and zest and spring. Professor Ribot proposed the name anhedonia to designate this condition
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Lung Cancer
Lung
Lung
cancer, also known as lung carcinoma,[7] is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.[10] This growth can spread beyond the lung by the process of metastasis into nearby tissue or other parts of the body.[11] Most cancers that start in the lung, known as primary lung cancers, are carcinomas.[12] The two main types are small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC).[3] The most common symptoms are coughing (including coughing up blood), weight loss, shortness of breath, and chest pains.[1] The vast majority (85%) of cases of lung cancer are due to long-t
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Biomarker (medicine)
In medicine, a biomarker is a measurable indicator of the severity or presence of some disease state. More generally a biomarker is anything that can be used as an indicator of a particular disease state or some other physiological state of an organism. A biomarker can be a substance that is introduced into an organism as a means to examine organ function or other aspects of health. For example, rubidium chloride is used in isotopic labeling to evaluate perfusion of heart muscle. It can also be a substance whose detection indicates a particular disease state, for example, the presence of an antibody may indicate an infection. More specifically, a biomarker indicates a change in expression or state of a protein that correlates with the risk or progression of a disease, or with the susceptibility of the disease to a given treatment. Biomarkers can be characteristic biological properties or molecules that can be detected and measured in parts of the body like the blood or tissue
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Transcriptional
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase. Both DNA and RNA are nucleic acids, which use base pairs of nucleotides as a complementary language. During transcription, a DNA sequence is read by an RNA polymerase, which produces a complementary, antiparallel RNA strand called a primary transcript. Transcription proceeds in the following general steps:RNA polymerase, together with one or more general transcription factors, binds to promoter DNA. RNA polymerase creates a transcription bubble, which separates the two strands of the DNA helix
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Meth Mouth
Meth mouth
Meth mouth
is severe tooth decay and tooth loss, as well as tooth fracture, acid erosion, and other oral problems, potentially symptomatic of extended use of the drug methamphetamine. The condition is thought to be caused by a combination of side effects of the drug (clenching and grinding of teeth, dry mouth) and lifestyle factors (infrequent oral hygiene, frequent consumption of sugary drinks, as well as neglecting regular dental cleanings and preventative care), which may be present in long term users. However, the legitimacy of meth mouth as a unique condition has been questioned because of the similar effects of some other drugs on teeth. Images of diseased mouths are often used in anti-drug campaigns. The condition is difficult to treat, and may involve fillings, fluoride to fight tooth decay and drugs that increase saliva for dry mouth, as well as oral hygiene instruction
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Neural Plasticity
Neuroplasticity, also known as brain plasticity and neural plasticity, is the ability of the brain to change throughout an individual's life, e.g., brain activity associated with a given function can be transferred to a different location, the proportion of grey matter can change, and synapses may strengthen or weaken over time. Research in the latter half of the 20th century showed that many aspects of the brain can be altered (or are "plastic") even through adulthood.[1][2][3] This notion is in contrast with the previous scientific consensus that the brain develops during a critical period in early childhood and then remains relatively unchanged (or "static").[4] Neuroplasticity can be observed at multiple scales, from microscopic changes in individual neurons to larger-scale changes such as cortical remapping in response to injury.[5] Behavior, environmental stimuli, thought, and emotions may also cause neuroplastic change through activity-dependent plasticity, which has significant
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Stimulus (psychology)
In psychology, a stimulus is any object or event that elicits a sensory or behavioral response in an organism.In perceptual psychology, a stimulus is an energy change (e.g., light or sound) which is registered by the senses (e.g., vision, hearing, taste, etc.) and constitutes the basis for perception.[1] In behavioral psychology (i.e., classical and operant conditioning), a stimulus constitutes the basis for behavior.[1] In this context, a distinction is made between the distal stimulus (the external, perceived object) and the proximal stimulus (the stimulation of sensory organs).[2] In experimental psychology, a stimulus is the event or object to which a response is measured. Thus, not everything that is presented to participants qualifies as stimulus. For example, a cross mark at the center of a screen is not said to be a stimulus, because it merely serves to center participants' gaze on the screen. Also, it is uncommon to refer to longer events (e.g
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Preclinical Research
In drug development, preclinical development, also named preclinical studies and nonclinical studies, is a stage of research that begins before clinical trials (testing in humans) can begin, and during which important feasibility, iterative testing and drug safety data are collected. The main goals of pre-clinical studies are to determine the safe dose for first-in-man study and assess a product's safety profile. Products may include new medical devices, drugs, gene therapy solutions and diagnostic tools. On average, only one in every 5,000 compounds that enters drug discovery to the stage of preclinical development becomes an approved drug.[1]Contents1 Types of preclinical research 2 Animal testing2.1 Choice of species 2.2 Ethical issues3 No observable effect levels 4 See also 5 ReferencesTypes of preclinical research[edit] Each class of product may undergo different types of preclinical research
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ICD-10
ICD-10 is the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), a medical classification list by the World Health Organization
World Health Organization
(WHO). It contains codes for diseases, signs and symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances, and external causes of injury or diseases.[1] Work on ICD-10 began in 1983 and was completed in 1992.[1] The code set in the base classification allows for more than 14,400 different codes,[citation needed] and permits the tracking of many new diagnoses compared to ICD-9)
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International Statistical Classification Of Diseases And Related Health Problems
The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is the international "standard diagnostic tool for epidemiology, health management and clinical purposes". Its full official name is International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems.[1] The ICD is maintained by the World Health Organization
World Health Organization
(WHO), the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations System.[2] The ICD is designed as a health care classification system, providing a system of diagnostic codes for classifying diseases, including nuanced classifications of a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances, and external causes of injury or disease. This system is designed to map health conditions to corresponding generic categories together with specific variations, assigning for these a designated code, up to six characters long
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Transcription Factor
In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA
DNA
to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA
DNA
sequence.[1][2] The function of TFs is to regulate - turn on and off - genes in order to make sure that they are expressed in the right cell at the right time and in the right amount throughout the life of the cell and the organism. Groups of TFs function in a coordinated fashion to direct cell division, cell growth, and cell death throughout life; cell migration and organization (body plan) during embryonic development; and intermittently in response to signals from outside the cell, such as a hormone
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Overexpression
Karyoptyping L[edit]Library – a collection of DNA or oligonucleotide probes, often stored in a microtiter plate, which are transferred to the array during fabrication.M[edit]MAGE – MicroArray and Gene Expression, a group that "aims to provide a standard for the representation of DNA microarray gene expression data that would facilitate the exchange of microarray information between different data systems".[3] MIAME – a commercial standard developed by FGED based on MAGE to facilitate storage and sharing of gene expression data It stands for Minimum information about a microarray experiment.[4][5] MINSEQE – commercial standard developed by FGED for storage and sharing of high-throughput sequencing data
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D1-type
The D1-like receptors are a subfamily of dopamine receptors that bind the endogenous neurotransmitter dopamine. The D1-like subfamily consists of two G-protein coupled receptors that are coupled to Gs and mediate excitatory neurotransmission, of which include D1 and D5. For more information, please see the respective main articles of the individual subtypes: Main article: D1 receptor Main article: D5 receptor See also[edit]D2-like receptorReferences[edit]This article does not cite any sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Addictive (other)
Addictive refers to things characterized by, or causing, addiction. Addictive may also refer to:Addictive (Australian band), an Australian thrash metal band Addictive (English band), a pop/dance duo "Addictive" (song), a 2002 song by Truth Hurts Addictive TV, a UK media production company Addictiv (born 1984), Canadian singerSee also[edit]Addicted (other) Addiction (other) Addict (soundtrack), a soundtrack album from the anime series FLCL "Addicts" (Undeclared episode), a 2001 episode of American sitcom UndeclaredThis disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Addictive. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the
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