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Adam Mickiewicz
Adam Bernard Mickiewicz ([mit͡sˈkʲɛvit͡ʂ] ( listen); 24 December 1798 – 26 November 1855) was a Polish poet, dramatist, essayist, publicist, translator, professor of Slavic literature, and political activist. He is regarded as national poet in Poland, Lithuania
Lithuania
and Belarus. A principal figure in Polish Romanticism, he is counted as one of Poland's "Three Bards" ("Trzej Wieszcze")[1] and is widely regarded as Poland's greatest poet.[2][3][4] He is also considered one of the greatest Slavic[5] and European[6] poets and has been dubbed a "Slavic bard".[7] A leading Romantic dramatist,[8] he has been compared in Poland
Poland
and Europe to Byron and Goethe.[7][8] He is known chiefly for the poetic drama Dziady (Forefathers' Eve) and the national epic poem Pan Tadeusz. His other influential works include Konrad Wallenrod
Konrad Wallenrod
and Grażyna
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Grand Duchy Of Lithuania
The Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania
was a European state from the 13th century[1] until 1795,[2] when the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, and Austria. The state was founded by the Lithuanians, one of the polytheistic Baltic tribes
Baltic tribes
from Aukštaitija.[3][4][5] The Grand Duchy later expanded to include large portions of the former Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
and other Slavic lands, including territory of present-day Belarus, parts of Ukraine, Poland
Poland
and Russia
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Crimean War
223,513  Ottoman Empire 45,400[2] 10,100 killed in action 10,800 died of wounds 24,500 died of disease French Empire 135,485[2] 8,490 killed in action; 11,750 died of wounds; 75,375 died of disease 39,870 wounded  British Empire 40,462[2] 2,755 killed in action 1,847 died of wounds 17,580 died of disease 18,280 wounded  Kingdom of Sardinia 2,166[2] 28 killed in action 2,138 died of disease 530,125[2] 35,671 killed in action 37,454 died of wounds 377,000 died from non-combat causes 80,000 wounded[3][4]v t eCrimean WarBalkansOltenița Sinop Cetate Calafat SilistraCaucasusKurekdere KarsNaval OperationsSuomenlinna Bomarsund PetropavlovskCrimeaAlma Sevastopol Balaclava Inkerman Eupatoria Taganrog Chernaya Malakoff Great Redan Kinburnv t eRusso-Ottoman Wars1568–70 1676–81 1686–1700 1710–11 1735–39 1768–74 1787–92 1806–12 1828–29 1853–56 1877–78 1914–18Russ
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Montmorency, Val-d'Oise
Val-d' Oise
Oise
(French pronunciation: ​[val dwaz]) is a French department, created in 1968 after the split of the Seine-et-Oise department and located in the Île-de- France
France
region. In local slang, it is known as "quatre-vingt quinze" (i.e. "ninety-five") or "neuf cinq" (i.e. "nine five")
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Slavs
Slavs
Slavs
are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages
Slavic languages
of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group. They are native to Eurasia, stretching from Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe
Europe
all the way north and westwards to Northeast Europe
Europe
, Northern Asia (Siberia), the Caucasus, and Central Asia (especially Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and Turkmenistan) as well as historically in Western Europe
Europe
(particularly in East Germany) and Western Asia (including Anatolia)
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Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland
Poland
and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland
Poland
and Lithuania
Lithuania
ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland
Poland
and the Grand Duke
Duke
of Lithuania. It was one of the largest[2][3] and most populous countries of 16th- and 17th-century Europe
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Belarus
Coordinates: 53°N 23°E / 53°N 23°E / 53; 23 Republic
Republic
of Belarus Рэспубліка Беларусь (Belarusian) Республика Беларусь (Russian)FlagNational emblemAnthem: Дзяржаўны гімн Рэспублікі Беларусь (Belarusian) Dziaržaŭny himn Respubliki Bielaruś (English: State Anthem of Belarus)Location of  Belarus  (green) in Europe  (dark grey)  –  [Legend]Capital and largest city Minsk 53°55′N 27°33′E / 53.917°N 27.550°E / 53.917; 27.550Off
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Russian Partition
The Russian Partition
Russian Partition
(sometimes called Russian Poland) constituted the former territories of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
that were invaded by the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
in the course of late-18th-century Partitions of Poland.[1] The Russian acquisition encompassed the largest share of Poland's population, living on 463,200 km2 (178,800 sq mi) of land constituting the eastern and central territory of the previous commonwealth. The first partitioning led by imperial Russia took place in 1772; the next one in 1793, and the final one in 1795, resulting in Poland's elimination for the next 123 years.[2]Contents1 Terminology 2 History 3 Society 4 Economy 5 Administrative division 6 See also 7 References 8 Further readingTerminology[edit] To both Russians and Poles, the term Russian Poland was not acceptable
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Partitions Of Poland
The Partitions of Poland[nb 1] were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
that took place towards the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland
Poland
and Lithuania
Lithuania
for 123 years. The partitions were conducted by Habsburg Austria, the Kingdom of Prussia, and the Russian Empire, which divided up the Commonwealth lands among themselves progressively in the process of territorial seizures and annexations.[1][2][3][4] The First Partition of Poland
Poland
was decided on August 5, 1772. Two decades later, Russian and Prussian troops entered the Commonwealth again and the Second Partition was signed on January 23, 1793. Austria did not participate in the Second Partition
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Lithuania Proper
Lithuania
Lithuania
proper (Latin: Lithuania
Lithuania
propria, literally: "Genuine Lithuania"; Lithuanian: Didžioji Lietuva; Yiddish: ליטע‎, Lite) refers to a region which existed within the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and where the Lithuanian language
Lithuanian language
was spoken.[1] The primary meaning is identical to the Duchy of Lithuania, a land around which the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Duchy of Lithuania
evolved. The territory can be traced by Catholic Christian
Christian
parishes established in pagan Baltic lands of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Duchy of Lithuania
subsequent to the Christianization of Lithuania
Christianization of Lithuania
in 1387
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Third Partition Of Poland
The Third Partition of Poland (1795) was the last in a series of the Partitions of Poland and the land of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth among Prussia, the Austrian Empire, and the Russian Empire which effectively ended Polish–Lithuanian national sovereignty until 1918. Accordingly, the partitioning powers agreed to permanently erase Poland's name from existence in any historical context,[1] including from their respective encyclopedias, in an attempt to curb Polish dissidence and nationalistic fervor. When such sources or legal texts needed to refer to Poland or the Polish people, names of Poland's various historical regions, such as Masovia, were used instead
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Epic Poetry
An epic poem, epic, epos, or epopee is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily concerning a serious subject containing details of heroic deeds and events significant to a culture or nation.[1] The ancient Indian Mahabharata
Mahabharata
is the longest epic written[2][3]. The Mahabharat is comprised of 100,000 śloka or over 200,000 verse lines (each shloka is a couplet), as well as long prose passages. At about 1.8 million words in total, the Mahābhārata is roughly ten times the length of the Iliad
Iliad
and the Odyssey
Odyssey
combined, or about four times the length of the Rāmāyaṇa[4]. Another type of epic poetry is epyllion (plural: epyllia), which is a brief narrative poem with a romantic or mythological theme. The term, which means "little epic", came into use in the nineteenth century
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Europea
Europe
Europe
is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe
Europe
is most commonly considered as separated from Asia
Asia
by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits.[5] Though the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity
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Slavic Language
The Slavic languages
Slavic languages
(also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
spoken by the Slavic peoples. They are thought to descend from a proto-language called Proto-Slavic spoken during the Early Middle Ages, which in turn is thought to have descended from the earlier Proto-Balto-Slavic language, linking the Slavic languages
Slavic languages
to the Baltic languages
Baltic languages
in a Balto-Slavic group within the Indo-European family. The Slavic languages
Slavic languages
are divided intro three subgroups: East, West, and South, which together constitute more than twenty languages
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Polonization
Polonization
Polonization
(or Polonisation; Polish: polonizacja)[1] was the acquisition or imposition of elements of Polish culture, in particular the Polish language, as experienced in some historic periods by the non-Polish populations of territories controlled or substantially under the influence of Poland. As with other examples of cultural assimilation, it could either be voluntary or forced and is most visible in the case of territories where the Polish language
Polish language
or culture were dominant or where their adoption could result in increased prestige or social status, as was the case of the nobility of Ruthenia
Ruthenia
and Lithuania
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Szlachta
The szlachta ([ˈʂlaxta] ( listen), exonym: Nobility) was a legally privileged noble class in the Kingdom of Poland, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Ruthenia, Samogitia
Samogitia
(both after Union of Lublin
Union of Lublin
became a sin
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