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Adam Mickiewicz
ADAM BERNARD MICKIEWICZ ( ( listen ); 24 December 1798 – 26 November 1855) was a Polish poet, dramatist, essayist, publicist, translator, professor of Slavic literature, and political activist. He is regarded as national poet in Poland, Lithuania
Lithuania
and Belarus. A principal figure in Polish Romanticism
Romanticism
, he is counted as one of Poland's " Three Bards " ("Trzej Wieszcze") and is widely regarded as Poland's greatest poet. He is also considered one of the greatest Slavic and European poets and has been dubbed a "Slavic bard". A leading Romantic dramatist, he has been compared in Poland
Poland
and Europe to Byron and Goethe . He is known chiefly for the poetic drama Dziady (Forefathers' Eve) and the national epic poem Pan Tadeusz . His other influential works include Konrad Wallenrod
Konrad Wallenrod
and Grażyna
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Crimean War
223,513 Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
45,400 10,100 killed in action 10,800 died of wounds 24,500 died of disease French Empire 135,485 8,490 killed in action; 11,750 died of wounds; 75,375 died of disease 39,870 wounded British Empire
British Empire
40,462 2,755 killed in action 1,847 died of wounds 17,580 died of disease 18,280 wounded Kingdom of Sardinia 2,166 28 killed in action 2,138 died of disease 530,125 35,671 killed in action 37,454 died of wounds 377,000 died from non-combat causes 80,000 wounded For other uses, see Crimean War (other)
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Montmorency, Val-d'Oise
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting : residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. MONTMORENCY (French pronunciation: ​ ) is a commune in the northern suburbs of Paris
Paris
, France
France
. It is located 15.3 km (9.5 mi) from the center of Paris
Paris
. Montmorency was the fief of the Montmorency family , one of the oldest and most distinguished families of the French nobility
French nobility
. It is now a wealthy suburb of Paris. CONTENTS * 1 Name * 2 History * 3 Transport * 4 Education * 5 Personalities * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links NAMEThe name Montmorency was recorded for the first time in Medieval Latin as Mons Maurentiacus (attested in 993)
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Lithuania Proper
LITHUANIA PROPER (Latin : Lithuania
Lithuania
propria, literally: "Genuine Lithuania
Lithuania
"; Lithuanian : Didžioji Lietuva; Yiddish : ליטע‎, Lite) refers to a region which existed within the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania
, and where the Lithuanian language
Lithuanian language
was spoken. The primary meaning is identical to the Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania
, a land around which the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania
evolved. The territory can be traced by Catholic
Catholic
Christian
Christian
parishes established in pagan Baltic lands of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania
subsequent to the Christianization of Lithuania
Lithuania
in 1387
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Cholera
CHOLERA is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae
Vibrio cholerae
. Symptoms may range from none, to mild, to severe. The classic symptom is large amounts of watery diarrhea that lasts a few days. Vomiting
Vomiting
and muscle cramps may also occur. Diarrhea can be so severe that it leads within hours to severe dehydration and electrolyte imbalance . This may result in sunken eyes , cold skin, decreased skin elasticity, and wrinkling of the hands and feet. Dehydration
Dehydration
can cause the skin to turn bluish . Symptoms start two hours to five days after exposure. Cholera
Cholera
is caused by a number of types of Vibrio cholerae, with some types producing more severe disease than others. It is spread mostly by unsafe water and unsafe food that has been contaminated with human feces containing the bacteria
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Slavs
SLAVS are the largest Indo-European ethno-linguistic group in Europe . They are native to Central Europe
Europe
, Eastern Europe
Europe
, Southeastern Europe
Europe
, Northeastern Europe
Europe
, North Asia , Central Asia
Central Asia
and West Asia . Slavs
Slavs
speak Slavic languages of the Balto-Slavic language group. From the early 6th century they spread to inhabit most of Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe. States with Slavic languages comprise over 50% of the territory of Europe, therefore it is the largest ethno-linguistic group in Europe by land area
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Russian Partition
The RUSSIAN PARTITION (sometimes called RUSSIAN POLAND) constituted the former territories of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
that were invaded by the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
in the course of late-18th-century Partitions of Poland
Partitions of Poland
. The Russian acquisition encompassed the largest share of Poland's population, living on 463,200 km2 (178,800 sq mi) of land constituting the eastern and central territory of the previous commonwealth. The first partitioning led by imperial Russia took place in 1772; the next one in 1793, and the final one in 1795, resulting in Poland's elimination for the next 123 years. CONTENTS * 1 Terminology * 2 History * 3 Society * 4 Economy * 5 Administrative division * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Further reading TERMINOLOGYTo both Russians and Poles, the term Russian Poland was not acceptable
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Grand Duchy Of Lithuania
2. Internationally recognized as part of Moldova
Moldova
. The GRAND DUCHY OF LITHUANIA was a European state from the 13th century until 1795. The state was founded by the Lithuanians
Lithuanians
, one of the polytheistic Baltic tribes
Baltic tribes
from Aukštaitija . The Grand Duchy later expanded to include large portions of the former Kievan Rus\' and other Slavic lands, including territory of present-day Belarus
Belarus
, parts of Ukraine
Ukraine
, Poland
Poland
and Russia
Russia
. At its greatest extent in the 15th century, it was the largest state in Europe. It was a multi-ethnic and multi-confessional state with great diversity in languages, religion, and cultural heritage
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Third Partition Of Poland
The THIRD PARTITION OF POLAND (1795) was the last in a series of the Partitions of Poland
Partitions of Poland
and the land of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth among Prussia
Prussia
, the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
, and the Russian Empire which effectively ended Polish–Lithuanian national sovereignty until 1918. Accordingly, the partitioning powers agreed to permanently erase Poland's name from existence in any historical context, including from their respective encyclopedias, in an attempt to curb Polish dissidence and nationalistic fervor. When such sources or legal texts needed to refer to Poland or the Polish people, names of Poland's various historical regions, such as Masovia , were used instead. This prevarication ultimately resulted in numerous Polish uprisings during the period
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Polonization
POLONIZATION (or POLONISATION; Polish : polonizacja) was the acquisition or imposition of elements of Polish culture , in particular the Polish language
Polish language
, as experienced in some historic periods by the non-Polish populations of territories controlled or substantially under the influence of Poland
Poland
. As with other examples of cultural assimilation , it could either be voluntary or forced and is most visible in the case of territories where the Polish language or culture were dominant or where their adoption could result in increased prestige or social status, as was the case of the nobility of Ruthenia
Ruthenia
and Lithuania . To a certain extent Polonization
Polonization
was also administratively promoted by the authorities, particularly in the period following World War II
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Neoclassicism
NEOCLASSICISM (from Greek νέος nèos, "new" and Latin
Latin
classicus, "of the highest rank") is the name given to Western movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that draw inspiration from the "classical" art and culture of classical antiquity . Neoclassicism
Neoclassicism
was born in Rome
Rome
in the mid-18th century, at the time of the rediscovery of Pompeii
Pompeii
and Herculaneum
Herculaneum
, but its popularity spread all over Europe as a generation of European art students finished their Grand Tour
Grand Tour
and returned from Italy to their home countries with newly rediscovered Greco-Roman ideals
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Vilnius
VILNIUS (Lithuanian pronunciation: ( listen ), see also other names ) is the capital of Lithuania
Lithuania
and its largest city, with a population of 542,664 as of 2015 . Vilnius
Vilnius
is located in the southeast part of Lithuania
Lithuania
and is the second largest city in the Baltic states
Baltic states
. Vilnius
Vilnius
is the seat of the main government institutions of Lithuania as well as of the Vilnius District Municipality
Vilnius District Municipality
. Vilnius
Vilnius
is classified as a Gamma global city according to GaWC
GaWC
studies, and is known for the architecture in its Old Town , declared a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site in 1994
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Sentimentalism (literature)
SENTIMENTALISM is the practice of being sentimental , or the tendency to base actions and reactions from emotions and feelings as opposed to reason. As a literary mode , sentimentalism has been a recurring aspect of world literature, and is important to the traditions of India , China , and Vietnam . Sentimentalism may refer to a variety of aspects in literature, such as sentimental poetry, the sentimental novel, or the German sentimentalist music movement, Empfindsamkeit. European sentimentalism arose during the Age of Enlightenment
Age of Enlightenment
, partly as a response to sentimentalism in philosophy. In eighteenth-century England
England
, the sentimental novel was a major literary genre
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Ministry Of Education
An EDUCATION MINISTRY is a national or subnational government agency politically responsible for education. Various other names are commonly used to identify such agencies, such as MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, MINISTRY OF PUBLIC EDUCATION, and so forth, and the head of such an agency may be a MINISTER OF EDUCATION or SECRETARY OF EDUCATION. Such agencies typically address educational concerns such as the quality of schools or standardization of curriculum. The first such ministry ever is considered to be the Commission of National Education (pl. Komisja Edukacji Narodowej, lt. Edukacinė komisija) founded in 1773 in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth . Following is a list of education ministries by country: This list is incomplete ; you can help by expanding it
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Szlachta
The SZLACHTA ( ( listen ), exonym : Nobility) was a legally privileged noble class in the Kingdom of Poland
Poland
, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Ruthenia, Samogitia (both after Union of Lublin
Union of Lublin
became a single state, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
) and the Zaporozhian Host . It originated and gained considerable institutional privileges between 1333 and 1370 in Kingdom of Poland during the reign of King Casimir III the Great . :211 In 1413, following a series of tentative personal unions between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Crown Kingdom of Poland, the existing Lithuanian - Ruthenian nobility formally joined this class
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Dominican Order
The ORDER OF PREACHERS ( Latin
Latin
: Ordo Praedicatorum, postnominal abbreviation O.P.), also known as the DOMINICAN ORDER, is a mendicant Catholic religious order founded by the Spanish priest Dominic of Caleruega in France
France
, approved by Pope Honorius III
Pope Honorius III
via the papal bull Religiosam vitam on 22 December 1216. Members of the order, who are referred to as Dominicans, generally carry the letters O.P. after their names, standing for Ordinis Praedicatorum, meaning of the Order of Preachers. Membership in the order includes friars , nuns , active sisters, and affiliated lay or secular Dominicans (formerly known as tertiaries , though recently there has been a growing number of associates who are unrelated to the tertiaries )
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