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Action Hero
The archetypal ACTION HERO or heroine is the protagonist of an action film or other entertainment which portrays action and adventure. Other media in which such heroes appear include swashbuckler films , Westerns on television , old-time radio , adventure novels , dime novels , pulp magazines , and folklore . CONTENTS * 1 See also * 2 Notes * 3 Further reading * 4 External links SEE ALSO * Anandalok Best Action Hero Award NOTES This article NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message ) * ^ Barna William Donovan (2010), Blood, guns, and testosterone: action films, audiences, and a thirst for violence, Scarecrow Press, ISBN 9780810872622 FURTHER READING * Osgerby, Bill, Anna Gough-Yates, and Marianne Wells
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Ivan The Fool
IVAN THE FOOL (Russian : Иван-дурак, diminutive : Иванушка-дурачок) or IVAN THE NINNY is a stock character of lucky fool who appears in Russian folklore , a very simple-minded, but, nevertheless, lucky young man. Ivan is described as a likeable fair-haired and blue-eyed youth. The approximate setting of Ivan The Fool's adventures is the 15th or 16th century Russia. When he appears in stories, Ivan The Fool is usually portrayed as either a peasant or the son of a poor family. He is usually the youngest of three brothers, and although they appear to be much smarter than he, they are sometimes unkind to and envious of him. Unlike typical heroes, it is Ivan's simplicity and lack of guile that turn out to help him in his adventures. For example, he listens to his heart, rather than his mind, and he easily forgets offence and endeavors to help others even at his own expense
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Folk Hero
A FOLK HERO or NATIONAL HERO is a type of hero –real, fictional or mythological –with the sole salient characteristic being the imprinting of his or her name, personality and deeds in the popular consciousness of a people . This presence in the popular consciousness is evidenced by its historical frequency in folk songs , folk tales and other folklore ; and its modern trope status in literature, art and films. Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc
depicted on horseback in an illustration from a 1505 manuscript. The martyr and saint Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc
is a national hero in France Giuseppe Garibaldi
Giuseppe Garibaldi
, one of Italy
Italy
's "fathers of the fatherland" Davy Crockett
Davy Crockett
, hero of the Alamo Statue of Pier Gerlofs Donia , a Frisian folk hero Although some folk heroes are historical public figures, many are not
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Mythological King
A MYTHOLOGICAL KING is an archetype in mythology . A king is considered a "mythological king" if he is included and described in the culture's mythology . Unlike a fictional king, aspects of their lives may have been real and legendary, or that the culture (through legend and story telling) believed to be real. In the myth, the legends that surround any historical truth might have evolved into symbols of "kinship" and leadership, and expanded with descriptions of spiritual, supernatural or magical chain of events. For example, in legend the king may have magical weapons and fight dragons or other mythological beasts. His archetypical role is usually to protect and serve the people. CONTENTS * 1 Archetypes of kings * 2 Mythemes of kings * 3 See also * 4 References ARCHETYPES OF KINGSOne mythological archetype is the "good king" (McConnel 1979), also sometimes called the "monarchical hero". The "good king" is often the epic hero who made his world safe for civilization
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Paladin
The PALADINS (latin : Palatine; "servant, or government official"), sometimes known as the TWELVE PEERS, were the foremost warriors of Charlemagne
Charlemagne
's court, according to the literary cycle known as the Matter of France . They first appear in the early chansons de geste such as The Song of Roland
Roland
, where they represent Christian
Christian
valour against the Saracen
Saracen
hordes inside Europe. The paladins and their associated exploits are largely later fictional inventions, with some basis in historical Frankish retainers of the 8th century and events such as the Battle of Roncevaux Pass in 778 and the confrontation of the Frankish Empire
Frankish Empire
with Umayyad Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
in the Marca Hispanica
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Youngest Son
The YOUNGEST SON is a stock character in fairy tales , where he features as the hero . He is usually the third son, but sometimes there are more brothers , and sometimes he has only one; usually, they have no sisters. In a family of many daughters, the YOUNGEST DAUGHTER may be an equivalent figure. CONTENTS * 1 Traits * 2 Plots * 3 Youngest daughters * 4 Sibling pairs * 5 Brothers with a sister * 6 Modern variants * 7 Fairy tales * 8 See also * 9 References TRAITSPrior to his adventures, he is often despised as weak and foolish by his brothers or father, or both — sometimes with reason, some youngest sons actually being foolish, and others being lazy and prone to sitting about the ashes doing nothing. Sometimes, as in Esben and the Witch , they scorn him as small and weak. Even when not scorned as small and weak, the youngest son is seldom distinguished by great strength, agility, speed, or other physical powers
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Tragic Hero
A TRAGIC HERO is the protagonist of a tragedy in drama . In his Poetics, Aristotle records the descriptions of the tragic hero to the playwright and strictly defines the place that the tragic hero must play and the kind of man he must be. Aristotle based his observations on previous dramas. Many of the most famous instances of tragic heroes appear in Greek literature, most notably the works of Sophocles and Euripides. CONTENTS * 1 Aristotle\'s tragic hero * 2 In other media * 3 References * 4 Sources ARISTOTLE\'S TRAGIC HERO Aristotle shared his view of what makes a tragic hero in his Poetics . Aristotle suggests that a hero of a tragedy must evoke in the audience a sense of pity or fear, saying, “the change of fortune presented must not be the spectacle of a virtuous man brought from prosperity to adversity." In other words, the focus of the tragic hero should not be in the loss of his prosperity
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Man Alone (stock Character)
The MAN ALONE is a literary stock character . Usually an antihero , he is similar to the Byronic hero . The man alone tends to epitomise existentialism , and, in the words of the academic E. H. McCormick may be defined as "the solitary, rootless nonconformist, who in a variety of forms crops up persistently in New Zealand writing". Men alone figure frequently in the literature of newly settled or recently colonised countries such as Australia and especially New Zealand , and the term is likely to have found popularity with the publication of the "Great Kiwi Novel", Man Alone by John Mulgan in 1939 (this novel's title itself originated in a quotation from Ernest Hemingway 's To Have and Have Not ). The man alone is, by nature, a loner , either by choice or as a result of circumstances beyond his control
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Reluctant Hero
The RELUCTANT HERO is a heroic archetype found in fiction . A summary of the archetype: “ "A reluctant hero is a tarnished or ordinary man with several faults or a troubled past, and he is pulled reluctantly into the story, or into heroic acts. During the story, he rises to the occasion, sometimes even vanquishing a mighty foe, sometimes avenging a wrong. But he questions whether he's cut out for the hero business. His doubts, misgivings, and mistakes add a satisfying layer of tension to a story". ”Another commentator notes, with respect to game design: “ The wonderful aspect of a reluctant hero is that he or she doesn't have to adhere to any stereotype, such as being incredibly strong or a trained kung-fu master. These can be average guys off the street; indeed, it's often their simple, homespun down-to-earth thinking that saves the day. This ordinariness is an important factor in allowing the audience to understand and bond with the hero
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Contender (stock Character)
A CONTENDER is a stock character found in stories , television series , films , and other works depicting the development and triumph of an individual through athletic achievement. The typical storyline of the contender is one of an (often young) individual with raw natural talent, who is hindered by a shortage of either knowledge of the sport, discipline, or indeed something as simple as confidence . Through the encouragement of a coach or other guiding figure, for instance a wise old man or a magical negro , the contender overcomes previously insurmountable limitations and achieves his or her potential or even beyond, usually by some sort of victory, for instance in an athletic competition. Alternatively, they may lose in the competition but nevertheless gain in some other, perhaps greater way, such as through genuine respect from their opponents for their endeavours. After all, what matters is "not the winning, but the taking part"
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Antihero
An ANTIHERO, or ANTIHEROINE, is a protagonist who lacks conventional heroic qualities such as idealism , courage , or morality . These characters are usually considered "conspicuously contrary to an archetypal hero". Although antiheroes may sometimes do the "right thing", it is often for the "wrong reasons" and because it serves their self-interest rather than being driven by moral convictions. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 Further reading * 5 External links HISTORYThe antihero archetype can be traced back as far as Homer
Homer
's Thersites . :197–198 The concept has also been identified in classical Greek drama , Roman satire, and Renaissance literature :197–198 such as Don Quixote
Don Quixote
and the picaresque rogue
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Byronic Hero
The BYRONIC HERO is a variant of the Romantic hero as a type of character , named after the English Romantic poet Lord Byron
Lord Byron
. Although there are traits and characteristics that exemplify the type, both Byron's own persona as well as characters from his writings are considered to provide defining features. CONTENTS * 1 Origins * 2 Public reaction and "fandom" * 3 Literary usage and influence * 4 Byronic heroine * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 External links ORIGINSThe Byronic hero
Byronic hero
first appears in Byron's semi-autobiographical epic narrative poem Childe Harold\'s Pilgrimage (1812–1818). Historian and critic Lord Macaulay described the character as "a man proud, moody, cynical, with defiance on his brow, and misery in his heart, a scorner of his kind, implacable in revenge, yet capable of deep and strong affection"
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Rogue (vagrant)
A ROGUE is a vagrant person who wanders from place to place. Like a drifter , a rogue is an independent person who rejects conventional rules of society in favor of following their own personal goals and values. In modern English language
English language
, the term rogue is used pejoratively to describe a dishonest or unprincipled person whose behavior one disapproves of, but who is nonetheless likeable and/or attractive. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Gaming * 3 See also * 4 References HISTORYThe word rogue was first recorded in print in John Awdely 's Fraternity of Vagabonds (1561), and then in Thomas Harman 's Caveat for Common Cursitors (1566). In England
England
, the 1572 Vagabonds Act defined a rogue as a person who has no land, no master, and no legitimate trade or source of income; it included rogues in the class of idle vagrants or vagabonds
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Lovable Rogue
The LOVABLE ROGUE is a literary trope in the form of a character , often from a dysfunctional or working-class upbringing, who tends to recklessly defy norms and social conventions but who still evokes empathy from the audience or other characters. The lovable rogue is generally male and is often trying to "beat the system" and better himself, though not by ordinary or widely accepted means. If the protagonist of a story is also a lovable rogue, he is frequently deemed an antihero . Lovable rogues are not the standard paragons of virtue because they frequently break the law or seem to act for their own personal profit; however, they are charming or sympathetic enough to convince the audience to root for them
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Bad Boy (archetype)
The BAD BOY is a cultural archetype that is variously defined, and is often used synonymously with the historic terms rake or cad: a male who behaves badly, especially within societal norms. DEFINITIONSThe stereotypical "bad boy" was described by Kristina Grish in her book Addickted as "the irresistible rogue who has the dizzying ability to drive women wild" with a "laissez-faire attitude about life and love". An article in The Independent
The Independent
compared the term "bad boys" with men who had a particular combination of personality traits, sometimes referred to as a "dark triad ", and reported that a study found that such men were likely to have a greater number of sexual affairs . SEE ALSO * Boy next door * Dark triad
Dark triad
* Nice guy * Playboy (lifestyle) REFERENCES * ^ Kristina Grish, Addickted: 12 Steps to Kicking Your Bad Boy Habit (2007) p
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Outlaw (stock Character)
Though the judgment of outlawry is obsolete, romanticised OUTLAWS became stock characters in several fictional settings. This was particularly so in the United States, where outlaws were popular subjects of newspaper coverage and stories in the 19th century, and 20th century fiction and Western movies . Thus, "outlaw" is still commonly used to mean those violating the law or, by extension, those living that lifestyle, whether actual criminals evading the law or those merely opposed to "law-and-order" notions of conformity and authority (such as the "outlaw country " music movement in the 1970s). The colloquial sense of an outlaw as bandit or brigand is the subject of a monograph by British author Eric Hobsbawm
Eric Hobsbawm
:. Hobsbawm's book discusses the bandit as a symbol, and mediated idea, and many of the outlaws he refers to, such as Ned Kelly, Mr. Dick Turpin, and Billy the Kid, are also listed below
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