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Act To Stop The Decline
ACT TO STOP THE DECLINE (Italian : Fare per Fermare il Declino, FARE or FID) was a liberal political party in Italy
Italy
, founded in 2012 as STOP THE DECLINE (Fermare il Declino, FID). Oscar Giannino
Oscar Giannino
and Michele Boldrin have been its main leaders. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Electoral results * 2.1 Italian Parliament * 2.2 European Parliament
European Parliament
* 3 Leadership * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYFiD was launched in July 2012 by a group of seven economists: Oscar Giannino , Michele Boldrin , Sandro Brusco , Alessandro De Nicola , Andrea Moro , Carlo Stagnaro and Luigi Zingales . The manifesto of the association was signed by 240 personalities and, as of May 2013, has attracted more than 70,000 signatures
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Privatization
PRIVATIZATION, also spelt PRIVATISATION (in British English), has several meanings. Primarily, it is the process of transferring OWNERSHIP of a business , enterprise, agency, public service, or public property from the public sector (a government) to the private sector , either to a business that operates for profit or to a nonprofit organization . It may also mean the government outsourcing of services or functions to private firms, for example, revenue collection, law enforcement , and prison management . PRIVATIZATION may also describe ownership changes not involving the public/government sector. The first is the purchase of all outstanding shares of a publicly traded company by private investors. The shares are then no longer traded at a stock exchange, as the company became private through private equity . The second such type of privatization is the demutualization of a mutual organization or cooperative in order to form a joint-stock company
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Member Of The European Parliament
This article is part of a series on the politics and government of the European Union
European Union
Executive * Juncker Commission President Juncker (EPP) * Vice Presidents * College * Civil Service Secretary-General Italianer Legislative Parliament President Tajani (EPP) * Largest groups; * EPP (Manfred Weber) * S">(Gianni Pittella) * 8th session (2014-19) * 751 MEPs *
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Liberalization
LIBERALIZATION (or LIBERALISATION) of the economy means to free it from direct or physical controls imposed by the government. This may be similar to deregulation . Liberalization of autocratic regimes may precede democratization (or not, as in the case of the Prague Spring ). CONTENTS * 1 In law * 2 In economy and trade * 3 Comparison with democratization * 4 See also * 5 References IN LAWIn social policy, liberalization may refer to a relaxation of laws restricting, for example, divorce, abortion, or psychoactive drugs. Regarding civil rights , it may refer to the elimination of laws prohibiting homosexuality, property rights, private ownership of firearms, same-sex marriage, inter-racial marriage, or inter-faith marriage
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Federalism
FEDERALISM is the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government (the central or 'federal' government) with regional governments (provincial, state, cantonal, territorial or other sub-unit governments) in a single political system. Its distinctive feature, exemplified in the founding example of modern federalism by the United States of America under the Constitution of 1787, is a relationship of parity between the two levels of government established. It can thus be defined as a form of government in which there is a division of powers between two levels of government of equal status. Federalism differs from confederalism , in which the general level of government is subordinate to the regional level, and from devolution within a unitary state, in which the regional level of government is subordinate to the general level
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Liberalism
LIBERALISM is a political philosophy or worldview founded on ideas of liberty and equality . Liberals espouse a wide array of views depending on their understanding of these principles, but generally they support ideas and programmes such as freedom of speech , freedom of the press , freedom of religion , free markets , civil rights , democratic societies, secular governments, gender equality and international cooperation . Liberalism
Liberalism
first became a distinct political movement during the Age of Enlightenment , when it became popular among philosophers and economists in the Western world
Western world
. Liberalism
Liberalism
rejected the prevailing social and political norms of hereditary privilege , state religion , absolute monarchy and the divine right of kings
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Guy Verhofstadt
GUY MAURICE MARIE LOUISE VERHOFSTADT (Dutch: ( listen ); born 11 April 1953) is a Belgian politician. He is the Leader of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Group and Member of the European Parliament (MEP) from Belgium
Belgium
since 2009. He served as the 47th Prime Minister of Belgium
Belgium
from 1999 to 2008, Deputy Prime Minister of Belgium
Belgium
from 1985 to 1992 and Minister of Budget from 1985 to 1992. He was a Member of the Chamber of Representatives from 1985 to 2009. Since 2009 he has served as a Member of the European Parliament
Member of the European Parliament
where he is the leader of the Group of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (ALDE) and founded the inter-parliamentarian federalist Spinelli Group
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Italian Revolutionary Socialist Party
The ITALIAN REVOLUTIONARY SOCIALIST PARTY (Partito Socialista Rivoluzionario Italiano, PSRI) was a socialist political party in Italy . It was founded in 1881 as REVOLUTIONARY SOCIALIST PARTY OF ROMAGNA by Andrea Costa , a former anarchist converted to democratic socialism , after his marriage with Anna Kuliscioff . In the 1882 general election Costa was elected to the Italian Chamber of Deputies
Italian Chamber of Deputies
in Romagna
Romagna
and he later served also as Mayor of Imola
Imola
. In 1892 the PSRI was merged with the Italian Labour Party to form the Italian Socialist Party
Italian Socialist Party
, under the leadership of Filippo Turati . REFERENCES * ^ Massimo L
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Italian Labour Party
The ITALIAN LABOUR PARTY (Partito Operaio Italiano, POI) was a socialist political party in Italy . It was founded in 1882 in Milan
Milan
by Giuseppe Croce and Costantino Lazzari and was supported externally by the Milanese Socialist League of Filippo Turati . In 1892 the party was merged with the Italian Revolutionary Socialist Party of Andrea Costa and the Socialist League to form the Italian Socialist Party
Italian Socialist Party
, led by Filippo Turati. REFERENCES * ^ Massimo L
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Italy
Coordinates : 43°N 12°E / 43°N 12°E / 43; 12 Italian Republic Repubblica Italiana (Italian ) Flag Emblem ANTHEM: Il Canto degli Italiani (Italian ) "The Song of the Italians" Location of Italy
Italy
(dark green) – in Europe
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Italian Language
ITALIAN ( italiano (help ·info ) or lingua italiana ) is a Romance language
Romance language
. By most measures, Italian, together with Sardinian , is the closest to Latin
Latin
of the Romance languages. Italian is an official language in Italy
Italy
, Switzerland
Switzerland
, San Marino
San Marino
, Vatican City and western Istria
Istria
(in Slovenia
Slovenia
and Croatia
Croatia
)
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Luigi Zingales
LUIGI G. ZINGALES (Italian pronunciation: ; born February 8, 1963 in Padua, Italy ), is a finance professor at the University of Chicago Booth School of Business , and the author of two widely reviewed books. Saving Capitalism from the Capitalists (2003) is a study of "relationship capitalism". In A Capitalism for the People : Recapturing the Lost Genius of American Prosperity (2012), Zingales "suggests that channeling populist anger can reinvigorate the power of competition and reverse the movement toward a 'crony system'." CONTENTS * 1 Career * 2 Positions * 3 Studies * 4 Awards * 5 Books * 6 References * 7 External links CAREERZingales received a bachelor's degree in economics, from Bocconi University in Milan . In 1992 he earned a Ph.D. in Economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology for thesis titled The value of corporate control under the supervision of James M. Poterba and Oliver Hart
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Classical Liberalism
CLASSICAL LIBERALISM is a political ideology , a branch of liberalism which advocates civil liberties under the rule of law with an emphasis on economic freedom . It is closely related to libertarianism and to free market capitalism . Classical liberalism
Classical liberalism
developed in the early 19th century, building on ideas from the previous century. It was a response to urbanization, and to the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
in Europe
Europe
and the United States
United States
. Notable individuals whose ideas contributed to classical liberalism include John Locke
John Locke
, Jean-Baptiste Say , Thomas Malthus and David Ricardo . It drew on the economics of Adam Smith
Adam Smith
and on a belief in natural law , utilitarianism and progress
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Political Groups Of The European Parliament
This article is part of a series on the politics and government of the European Union
European Union
Executive * Juncker Commission President Juncker (EPP) * Vice Presidents * College * Civil Service Secretary-General Italianer Legislative Parliament President Tajani (EPP) * Largest groups; * EPP (Manfred Weber) * S">(Gianni Pittella) * 8th session (2014-19) * 751 MEPs *
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