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Acoustic Homing
ACOUSTIC HOMING is a system which uses the acoustic signature (sound ) of a target to guide a moving object, such as a torpedo . Acoustic homing can be either Passive or Active in nature. Using Passive, the system is designed to move either toward or away from a sound, and may also be designed to move only toward certain types of sounds to the exclusion of others, while Active is a true Sonar
Sonar
. The system emits a sound pulse that reflects off objects and then back to the system, where the system processes the echos to determine the proper response. METHODAn object can be equipped with two or more acoustic transducers , which function as speakers and microphones . If a transducer receives a sound louder than that received by the other transducer, the object turns in the transducer's direction
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Acoustic Quieting
ACOUSTIC QUIETING is the process of making machinery quieter by damping vibrations to prevent them from reaching the observer. Machinery vibrates, causing sound waves in air, hydroacoustic waves in water, and mechanical stresses in solid matter. Quieting is achieved by absorbing the vibrational energy or minimizing the source of the vibration. It may also be redirected away from the observer. One of the major reasons for the development of acoustic quieting techniques was for making submarines difficult to detect by sonar . This military goal of the mid- and late-twentieth century allowed the technology to be adapted to many industries and products, such as computers (e.g. hard drive technology), automobiles (e.g. motor mounts ), and even sporting goods (e.g. golf clubs )
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Guidance System
A GUIDANCE SYSTEM is a virtual or physical device, or a group of devices implementing a guidance process used for controlling the movement of a ship , aircraft , missile , rocket , satellite , or any other moving object. Guidance is the process of calculating the changes in position, velocity, attitude , and/or rotation rates of a moving object required to follow a certain trajectory and/or attitude profile based on information about the object's state of motion. A guidance system is usually part of a Guidance, navigation and control system, whereas navigation refers to the systems necessary to calculate the current position and orientation based on sensor data like those from compasses , GPS
GPS
receivers , Loran-C , star trackers , inertial measurement units , altimeters , etc
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Weapon
A WEAPON, ARM, or ARMAMENT is any device used with intent to inflict damage or harm to living beings, structures, or systems. Weapons are used to increase the efficacy and efficiency of activities such as hunting , crime , law enforcement , self-defense , and warfare . In a broader context, weapons may be construed to include anything used to gain a strategic, material or mental advantage over an adversary. While just about any ordinary objects such as sticks, stones, cars, or pencils can be used as weapons, many are expressly designed for the purpose – ranging from simple implements such as clubs , swords and guns , to complicated modern intercontinental ballistic missiles , biological and cyberweapons . Something that has been re-purposed, converted, or enhanced to become a weapon of war is termed WEAPONIZED, such as a weaponized virus or weaponized lasers
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Weapons
A WEAPON, ARM, or ARMAMENT is any device used with intent to inflict damage or harm to living beings, structures, or systems. Weapons are used to increase the efficacy and efficiency of activities such as hunting , crime , law enforcement , self-defense , and warfare . In a broader context, weapons may be construed to include anything used to gain a strategic, material or mental advantage over an adversary. While just about any ordinary objects such as sticks, stones, cars, or pencils can be used as weapons, many are expressly designed for the purpose – ranging from simple implements such as clubs , swords and guns , to complicated modern intercontinental ballistic missiles , biological and cyberweapons . Something that has been re-purposed, converted, or enhanced to become a weapon of war is termed WEAPONIZED, such as a weaponized virus or weaponized lasers
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Microphones
A MICROPHONE, colloquially nicknamed MIC or MIKE (/ˈmaɪk/ ), is a transducer that converts sound into an electrical signal . Microphones are used in many applications such as telephones , hearing aids , public address systems for concert halls and public events, motion picture production, live and recorded audio engineering , sound recording , two-way radios , megaphones , radio and television broadcasting, and in computers for recording voice, speech recognition , VoIP , and for non-acoustic purposes such as ultrasonic sensors or knock sensors . Several different types of microphone are in use, which employ different methods to convert the air pressure variations of a sound wave to an electrical signal. The most common are the dynamic microphone , which uses a coil of wire suspended in a magnetic field; the condenser microphone , which uses the vibrating diaphragm as a capacitor plate, and the piezoelectric microphone , which uses a crystal of piezoelectric material
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Sound
In physics , SOUND is a vibration that typically propagates as an audible wave of pressure, through a transmission medium such as a gas, liquid or solid. In human physiology and psychology , sound is the reception of such waves and their perception by the brain . Humans can hear sound waves with frequencies between about 20 Hz and 20 kHz. Sound
Sound
above 20 kHz is ultrasound and below 20 Hz is infrasound . Different animal species have varying hearing ranges
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Sonar
SONAR (originally an acronym for SOund Navigation
Navigation
And Ranging) is a technique that uses sound propagation (usually underwater, as in submarine navigation ) to navigate , communicate with or detect objects on or under the surface of the water, such as other vessels. Two types of technology share the name "sonar": passive sonar is essentially listening for the sound made by vessels; active sonar is emitting pulses of sounds and listening for echoes. Sonar
Sonar
may be used as a means of acoustic location and of measurement of the echo characteristics of "targets" in the water. Acoustic location
Acoustic location
in air was used before the introduction of radar . Sonar
Sonar
may also be used in air for robot navigation, and SODAR (an upward looking in-air sonar) is used for atmospheric investigations
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Transducers
A TRANSDUCER is a device that converts energy from one form to another. Usually a transducer converts a signal in one form of energy to a signal in another. Transducers are often employed at the boundaries of automation , measurement , and control systems , where electrical signals are converted to and from other physical quantities (energy, force, torque, light, motion, position, etc.). The process of converting one form of energy to another is known as transduction. CONTENTS* 1 Transducer types * 1.1 Passive * 1.2 Active * 1.3 Sensors * 1.4 Actuators * 1.5 Bidirectional * 2 Ideal characteristics * 3 Applications * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links TRANSDUCER TYPESPASSIVEPassive sensors require an external power source to operate, which is called an excitation signal. The signal is modulated by the sensor to produce an output signal
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Loudspeaker
A LOUDSPEAKER (or LOUD-SPEAKER or SPEAKER) is an electroacoustic transducer ; which converts an electrical audio signal into a corresponding sound . The most widely used type of speaker in the 2010s is the DYNAMIC SPEAKER, invented in 1925 by Edward W. Kellogg and Chester W. Rice . The dynamic speaker operates on the same basic principle as a dynamic microphone , but in reverse, to produce sound from an electrical signal. When an alternating current electrical audio signal is applied to its voice coil , a coil of wire suspended in a circular gap between the poles of a permanent magnet , the coil is forced to move rapidly back and forth due to Faraday\'s law of induction , which causes a diaphragm (usually conically shaped) attached to the coil to move back and forth, pushing on the air to create sound waves . Besides this most common method, there are several alternative technologies that can be used to convert an electrical signal into sound
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Acoustic Signature
ACOUSTIC SIGNATURE is used to describe a combination of acoustic emissions of sound emitters, such as those of ships and submarines. In addition, aircraft, machinery, and living animals can be described as having their own characteristic acoustic signatures or sound attributes, which can be used to study their condition, behavior, and physical location. CONTENTS* 1 Military use * 1.1 Sound characteristics * 1.2 Targeting * 1.3 Countermeasures and acoustic quieting * 1.4 Trimaran
Trimaran
warships * 2 Machinery monitoring and diagnosis * 3 Tracking and study of animals * 4 See also MILITARY USE Main articles: Acoustic homing and Acoustic torpedo The analysis of acoustic signatures is an important adjunct to passive sonar used to track naval warships and weapons. Similar methods have been used to identify aircraft, especially before the development of sophisticated radar tracking
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Acoustic Torpedo
An ACOUSTIC TORPEDO is a torpedo that aims itself by listening for characteristic sounds of its target or by searching for it using sonar (acoustic homing ). Acoustic torpedoes are usually designed for medium-range use, and often fired from a submarine . The first passive acoustic torpedoes were developed independently and nearly simultaneously by the Allies and the Germans during World War II . The Germans developed the G7e/T4 Falke , which was first deployed in March 1943. However, this early model was actually used in combat by only three German U-Boats . It was not until after the deployment of the T-4's successor, the G7es T-5 Zaunkönig torpedo in August 1943 that Germany began to use passive acoustic torpedoes in substantial numbers; the T-5 first saw widespread use in September 1943. This weapon was developed to attack escort vessels and merchant ships in convoys
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Torpedo
The modern TORPEDO is a self-propelled weapon with an explosive warhead , launched above or below the water surface, propelled underwater towards a target, and designed to detonate either on contact with its target or in proximity to it. Historically, it was called an automotive, automobile, locomotive or fish torpedo; colloquially called a fish. The term torpedo was originally employed for a variety of devices, most of which would today be called mines . From about 1900, torpedo has been used strictly to designate an underwater self-propelled weapon. While the battleship had evolved primarily around engagements between armoured ships with large-caliber guns , the torpedo allowed torpedo boats and other lighter surface ships, submersibles , even ordinary fishing boats or frogmen , and later, aircraft, to destroy large armoured ships without the need of large guns, though sometimes at the risk of being hit by longer-range shellfire
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Acoustic Homing
ACOUSTIC HOMING is a system which uses the acoustic signature (sound ) of a target to guide a moving object, such as a torpedo . Acoustic homing can be either Passive or Active in nature. Using Passive, the system is designed to move either toward or away from a sound, and may also be designed to move only toward certain types of sounds to the exclusion of others, while Active is a true Sonar
Sonar
. The system emits a sound pulse that reflects off objects and then back to the system, where the system processes the echos to determine the proper response. METHODAn object can be equipped with two or more acoustic transducers , which function as speakers and microphones . If a transducer receives a sound louder than that received by the other transducer, the object turns in the transducer's direction
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