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Acilius Glabrio
MANIUS ACILIUS GLABRIO was a Roman general and consul of the Roman Republic in 191 BC. He came from an illustrious plebeian family (gens ) whose members held magistracies throughout the Republic and into the Imperial era . CAREERGlabrio was a tribune of the plebs in 201 BC, plebeian aedile in 197, and praetor peregrinus in 195. As consul, Glabrio defeated the Seleucid ruler Antiochus the Great at the Battle of Thermopylae , and compelled him to leave Greece . He then turned his attention to the Aetolian League , who had persuaded Antiochus to declare war against Rome, and was only prevented from crushing them by the intercession of Titus Quinctius Flamininus . In 189 BC, Glabrio was a candidate for the censorship , but was opposed by the patrician faction. He was accused by the tribunes of having concealed a portion of the Syrian spoils in his own house; his legate gave evidence against him, and he withdrew his candidature
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Legatus
A LEGATUS (anglicised as LEGATE) was a general in the Roman army
Roman army
, equivalent to a modern general officer . Being of senatorial rank, his immediate superior was the Proconsul
Proconsul
(provincial governor ), and he outranked all military tribunes . In order to command an army independently of the Proconsul, legates were required to be of praetorian rank or higher; a legate could be invested with propraetorian imperium (legatus pro praetore) in his own right. Legates received large shares of the army's booty at the end of a successful campaign, which made the position a lucrative one, so it could often attract even distinguished consuls (e.g., the consul Lucius Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
volunteered late in the Gallic Wars
Gallic Wars
as a legate under his first cousin once removed , Gaius Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
)
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Pontiff
A PONTIFF (from Latin
Latin
pontifex) was, in Roman antiquity , a member of the most illustrious of the colleges of priests of the Roman religion , the College of Pontiffs . The term "pontiff" was later applied to any high or chief priest and, in Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
ecclesiastical usage, to a bishop and more particularly to the Bishop
Bishop
of Rome , the Pope
Pope
or "Roman Pontiff". CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Ancient Rome * 3 Catholicism * 4 Other religions * 5 See also * 6 References ETYMOLOGYThe English term derives through Old French pontif from Latin pontifex, a word commonly held to come from the Latin
Latin
root words pons (bridge) + facere (to do, to make), and so to have the literal meaning of "bridge-builder"
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Tribune
TRIBUNUS, in English TRIBUNE, was the title of various elected officials in Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome
. The two most important were the tribunes of the plebs and the military tribunes . For most of Roman history, a college of ten tribunes of the plebs acted as a check on the authority of the senate and the annual magistrates , holding the power of ius intercessionis to intervene on behalf of the plebeians , and veto unfavourable legislation. There were also military tribunes , who commanded portions of the Roman army
Roman army
, subordinate to the higher magistrates, such as the consuls and praetors , promagistrates , and their legates . Various officers within the Roman army
Roman army
were also known as tribunes. The title was also used for several other positions and classes in the course of Roman history
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Patrician (ancient Rome)
The PATRICIANS (from Latin : patricius) were originally a group of ruling class families in ancient Rome . Although the distinction was highly significant in the early Republic , its relevance waned after the Conflict of the Orders
Conflict of the Orders
(494 BC to 287 BC), and by the time of the late Republic and Empire , membership in the patriciate was of only nominal significance. After the fall of the Western Empire it remained a high honorary title in the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
. Medieval patrician classes were once again formally defined groups of leading burgess families in many medieval Italian republics , such as Venice and Genoa , and subsequently "patrician" became a vague term used for aristocrats and the higher bourgeoisie in many countries. CONTENTS * 1 Origin * 2 Roman Republic
Roman Republic
and Empire * 2.1 Status * 2.2 Patricians vs
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Aetolian League
The AETOLIAN LEAGUE (also transliterated as AITOLIAN LEAGUE) was a confederation of tribal communities and cities in ancient Greece centered in Aetolia
Aetolia
in central Greece. It was established, probably during the early Hellenistic era, in opposition to Macedon
Macedon
and the Achaean League . Two annual meetings were held in Thermika and Panaetolika. It occupied Delphi
Delphi
from 290 BC and gained territory steadily until, by the end of the 3rd century BC, it controlled the whole of central Greece outside Attica
Attica
and Boeotia
Boeotia
. At its peak, the league's territory included Locris
Locris
, Malis , Dolopes, part of Thessaly , Phocis
Phocis
, and Acarnania
Acarnania

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Titus Quinctius Flamininus
TITUS QUINCTIUS FLAMININUS (/ˌflæmɪˈnaɪnəs/ FLAM-i-NY-nəs ; c. 229–174 BC) was a Roman politician and general instrumental in the Roman conquest of Greece
Greece
. A member of the patrician gens Quinctia , and brother to Lucius Quinctius Flamininus , he served as a military tribune in the Second Punic war and in 205 BC he was appointed propraetor in Tarentum . He was a curule aedile in Rome
Rome
in 203 BC and a quaestor in 199 BC. He became consul in 198 BC, despite being only about thirty years old, younger than the constitutional age required to serve in that position. As Livy
Livy
records, two tribunes, Marcus Fulvius and Manius Curius , publicly opposed his candidacy for consulship, as he was just a quaestor, but the Senate overrode the opposition and he was elected along with Sextus Aelius Paetus
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Intercalation (timekeeping)
INTERCALATION or EMBOLISM in timekeeping is the insertion of a leap day, week, or month into some calendar years to make the calendar follow the seasons or moon phases. Lunisolar calendars may require intercalations of both days and months. CONTENTS * 1 Solar calendars * 2 Lunisolar calendars * 3 Islamic calendars * 4 Leap seconds * 5 Other uses * 6 See also * 7 References SOLAR CALENDARS Further information: Egyptian intercalary month The solar or tropical year does not have a whole number of days (it is about 365.24 days), but a calendar year must have a whole number of days. The most common way to reconcile the two is to vary the number of days in the calendar year. In solar calendars, this is done by adding to a common year of 365 days, an extra day ("leap day" or "intercalary day") about every four years, causing a leap year to have 366 days (Julian , Gregorian and Indian national calendars )
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Roman Calendar
The ROMAN CALENDAR is the calendar used by the Roman kingdom
Roman kingdom
and republic . It is often inclusive of the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
established by the reforms of the dictator Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
and emperor Augustus
Augustus
in the late 1st century BC and sometimes inclusive of any system dated by inclusive counting towards months' kalends , nones , and ides in the Roman manner
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Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus (consul 192 BC)
AHENOBARBUS was a cognomen used by a plebeian branch of the gens Domitia
Domitia
in the late Roman Republic
Roman Republic
and early Empire . The name means "red-beard" (literally, "bronze-beard") in Latin
Latin
. According to legend, Castor and Pollux
Castor and Pollux
announced to one of their ancestors the victory of the Romans over the Latins at the battle of Lake Regillus , and, to confirm the truth of what they had just said, they stroked his black hair and beard, which immediately became red
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition
The ENCYCLOPæDIA BRITANNICA ELEVENTH EDITION (1910–11) is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication. Some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia is now in the public domain , but the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic. Some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries. Tens of thousands of its articles were copied directly into , where they still can be found
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Public Domain
The legal term PUBLIC DOMAIN refers to works whose exclusive intellectual property rights have expired, have been forfeited, have been expressly waived, or are inapplicable. For example, the works of Shakespeare
Shakespeare
and Beethoven , and most of the early silent films , are all now in the public domain by either being created before copyrights existed or by their copyright term expiring. Examples for works not covered by copyright which are therefore in the public domain, are the formulae of Newtonian physics , cooking recipes , and all software before 1974. Examples for works actively dedicated into public domain by their authors are reference implementations of cryptographic algorithms , NIH 's ImageJ , and the CIA
CIA
's World Factbook
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Thomas Robert Shannon Broughton
THOMAS ROBERT SHANNON BROUGHTON, FBA (17 February 1900 – 17 September 1993) was a Canadian
Canadian
classical scholar and leading Latin prosopographer of the twentieth century. He is especially noted for his definitive three-volume work, Magistrates of the Roman Republic (1951-1986). CONTENTS * 1 Life and career * 2 Magistrates of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
* 3 Achievements and awards * 4 Works * 5 Students * 6 References * 7 External links LIFE AND CAREERBroughton was born in 1900 in Corbetton, Ontario . He attended Victoria College at the University of Toronto
University of Toronto
. There he received a B.A. in 1921 with honors in classics. He earned his M.A
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Regions Of Ancient Greece
The REGIONS OF ANCIENT GREECE were areas identified by the ancient Greeks
Greeks
as geographical sub-divisions of the Hellenic world. These regions are described in the works of ancient historians and geographers, and in the legends and myths of the ancient Greeks. Conceptually, there is no clear theme to the structure of these regions. Some, particularly in the Peloponnese
Peloponnese
, can be seen primarily as distinct geo-physical units, defined by physical boundaries such as mountain ranges and rivers. These regions retained their identity, even when the identity of the people living there changed during the Greek Dark Ages
Greek Dark Ages
(or at least, was conceived by the Greeks
Greeks
to have changed)
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Roman Censor
The CENSOR was an officer in ancient Rome
Rome
who was responsible for maintaining the census , supervising public morality , and overseeing certain aspects of the government's finances. The censors' regulation of public morality is the origin of the modern meaning of the words "censor" and "censorship"
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