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Aceraceae
ACERACEAE were recognized as a family of flowering plants also called the MAPLE FAMILY. They contain two to four genera, depending upon the circumscription, of some 120 species of trees and shrubs . A common characteristic is that the leaves are opposite , and the fruit a schizocarp . The maples have long been known to be closely related to the family Sapindaceae
Sapindaceae
. Several taxonomists (including the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group ) now include both the Aceraceae
Aceraceae
and the Hippocastanaceae
Hippocastanaceae
in the Sapindaceae. Recent research (Harrington et al
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Sensu Stricto
SENSU is a Latin word meaning "in the sense of". It is used in a number of fields including biology , geology , linguistics , semiotics , and law . Commonly it refers to how strictly or loosely an expression is used in describing any particular concept, but it also appears in expressions that indicate the convention or context of the usage. CONTENTS * 1 Common qualifiers * 2 Qualifiers and contexts * 3 Circumscription * 4 Examples in practical taxonomy * 5 See also * 6 References COMMON QUALIFIERSSensu is the ablative case of the noun sensus, here meaning "sense". It is often accompanied by an adjective (in the same case). Three such phrases are: * sensu stricto – "in the strict sense", abbreviation s.s.; * sensu lato – "in the wide or broad sense", abbreviation s.l.; * sensu amplo – "in a relaxed, generous (or 'ample') sense", a similar meaning to sensu lato.Søren Kierkegaard uses the phrase sensu eminenti to mean "in the pre-eminent sense"
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Sensu Lato
SENSU is a Latin word meaning "in the sense of". It is used in a number of fields including biology , geology , linguistics , semiotics , and law . Commonly it refers to how strictly or loosely an expression is used in describing any particular concept, but it also appears in expressions that indicate the convention or context of the usage. CONTENTS * 1 Common qualifiers * 2 Qualifiers and contexts * 3 Circumscription * 4 Examples in practical taxonomy * 5 See also * 6 References COMMON QUALIFIERSSensu is the ablative case of the noun sensus, here meaning "sense". It is often accompanied by an adjective (in the same case). Three such phrases are: * sensu stricto – "in the strict sense", abbreviation s.s.; * sensu lato – "in the wide or broad sense", abbreviation s.l.; * sensu amplo – "in a relaxed, generous (or 'ample') sense", a similar meaning to sensu lato.Søren Kierkegaard uses the phrase sensu eminenti to mean "in the pre-eminent sense"
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Acer Campestre
ACER CAMPESTRE, known as the FIELD MAPLE, is a flowering plant species in the soapberry and lychee family Sapindaceae . It is native to much of Europe, the British Isles, southwest Asia from Turkey to the Caucasus, and north Africa in the Atlas Mountains. It has been widely planted, and is introduced outside its native range in Europe and areas of USA and Western Australia with suitable climate. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Distribution * 3 Ecology * 4 Cultivation * 4.1 Cultivars * 5 Bonsai * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links DESCRIPTIONIt is a deciduous tree reaching 15–25 m (49–82 ft) tall, with a trunk up to 1 m (3 ft 3 in) in diameter, with finely fissured, often somewhat corky bark . The shoots are brown, with dark brown winter buds
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Paraphyly
In taxonomy , a group is PARAPHYLETIC if it consists of the group's last common ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor excluding a few—typically only one or two—monophyletic subgroups. The group is said to be paraphyletic with respect to the excluded subgroups. The arrangement of the members of a paraphyletic group is called a PARAPHYLY. The term is commonly used in phylogenetics (a subfield of biology ) and in linguistics . The term was coined to apply to well-known taxa like reptiles (Reptilia) which, as commonly named and traditionally defined, is paraphyletic with respect to mammals and birds. Reptilia contains the last common ancestor of reptiles and all descendants of that ancestor—including all extant reptiles as well as the extinct synapsids —except for mammals and birds . Other commonly recognized paraphyletic groups include fish , monkeys and lizards . If many subgroups are missing from the named group, it is said to be polyparaphyletic
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Xanthoceras
XANTHOCERAS SORBIFOLIUM (YELLOWHORN, SHINY LEAF YELLOWHORN, GOLDENHORN, CHINESE FLOWERING CHESTNUT) is a woody perennial in the soapberry family, Sapindaceae , and the only species in the genus XANTHOCERAS. It is native to northern China in the provinces of Gansu , Hebei , Henan , Liaoning , Nei Monggol , Ningxia , Shaanxi , and Shandong . It is also cultivated in Russia , having been imported there since the 19th Century. It is a large shrub or small tree growing to 8 m tall. The leaves are arranged alternately, 12–30 cm long, and are pinnate, with 9–17 leaflets, the leaflets 3–6 cm long, with a sharly serrated margin. The flowers are 2–3 cm diameter, with five white petals, and are produced in erect panicles 10–20 cm long in mid spring. The fruit is an oval leathery capsule 5–6 cm diameter, which splits into three sections at maturity to release the 6–18 seeds ; the seeds are black, 1.5 cm diameter, resembling a small horse chestnut seed
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Acer Palmatum
ACER PALMATUM, commonly known as PALMATE MAPLE, JAPANESE MAPLE or SMOOTH JAPANESE-MAPLE (Japanese: irohamomiji, イロハモミジ, or momiji, 紅葉), is a species of woody plant native to Japan
Japan
, China
China
, Korea
Korea
, eastern Mongolia
Mongolia
, and southeast Russia
Russia
. Many different cultivars of this maple have been selected and they are grown worldwide for their large variety of attractive forms, leaf shapes, and spectacular colors
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Acer Saccharinum
ACER SACCHARINUM, commonly known as SILVER MAPLE, CREEK MAPLE, SILVERLEAF MAPLE, SOFT MAPLE, LARGE MAPLE, WATER MAPLE, SWAMP MAPLE, or WHITE MAPLE —is a species of maple native to eastern and central North America
North America
in the eastern United States
United States
and Canada
Canada
. It is one of the most common trees in the United States
United States
. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Cultivation and uses * 3 Cultural references * 4 References * 5 External links DESCRIPTION Silver maple leaf The silver maple tree is a relatively fast-growing deciduous tree , commonly reaching a height of 15–25 m (49–82 ft), exceptionally 35 m (115 ft). Its spread will generally be 11–15 m (36–49 ft) wide. A 10-year-old sapling will stand about 8 m (26 ft) tall. It is often found along waterways and in wetlands, leading to the colloquial name "water maple"
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Wayback Machine
The WAYBACK MACHINE is a digital archive of the World Wide Web
World Wide Web
and other information on the Internet
Internet
created by the Internet Archive
Internet Archive
, a nonprofit organization , based in San Francisco
San Francisco
, California
California
, United States . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Technical details * 2.1 Storage capabilities * 2.2 Growth * 2.3 Website exclusion policy * 2.3.1 Oakland Archive
Archive
Policy * 3 Uses * 3.1 In legal evidence * 3.1.1 Civil litigation * 3.1.1.1 Netbula LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. * 3.1.1.2 Telewizja Polska
Telewizja Polska
* 3.1.2 Patent law * 3.1.3 Limitations of utility * 4 Legal status * 5 Archived content legal issues * 5.1 Scientology
Scientology
* 5.2 Healthcare Advocates, Inc
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Angiosperm Phylogeny Group
The ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP, or APG, refers to an informal international group of systematic botanists who collaborate to establish a consensus on the taxonomy of flowering plants (angiosperms) that reflects new knowledge about plant relationships discovered through phylogenetic studies. As of 2016 , four incremental versions of a classification system have resulted from this collaboration, published in 1998, 2003, 2009 and 2016. An important motivation for the group was what they considered deficiencies in prior angiosperm classifications since they were not based on monophyletic groups (i.e., groups that include all the descendants of a common ancestor). APG publications are increasingly influential, with a number of major herbaria changing the arrangement of their collections to match the latest APG system
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain , kingdom , phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class , order , family , genus and species . The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
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Tree
In botany , a TREE is a perennial plant with an elongated stem, or trunk , supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a tree may be narrower, including only woody plants with secondary growth , plants that are usable as lumber or plants above a specified height. Trees are not a taxonomic group but include a variety of plant species that have independently evolved a woody trunk and branches as a way to tower above other plants to compete for sunlight. In looser senses, the taller palms , the tree ferns , bananas and bamboos are also trees. Trees tend to be long-lived, some reaching several thousand years old. The tallest known tree, a coast redwood named Hyperion , stands 115.6 m (379 ft) high. Trees have been in existence for 370 million years. It is estimated that there are just over 3 trillion mature trees in the world. A tree typically has many secondary branches supported clear of the ground by the trunk
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Species
In biology , a SPECIES is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank , as well as a unit of biodiversity , but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition. Scientists and conservationists need a species definition which allows them to work, regardless of the theoretical difficulties. If as Linnaeus
Linnaeus
thought, species were fixed, there would be no problem, but evolutionary processes cause species to change continually, and to grade into one another. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which two individuals can produce fertile offspring , typically by sexual reproduction . While this definition is often adequate, when looked at more closely it is problematic . For example, with hybridisation , in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies , or in a ring species , the boundaries between closely related species become unclear
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Flowering Plant
sweet bay SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION Kingdom: Plantae
Plantae
Subkingdom: Embryophyta
Embryophyta
(unranked): Spermatophyta
Spermatophyta
(unranked): ANGIOSPERMS GROUPS (APG IV) Basal angiosperms * Amborellales * Nymphaeales
Nymphaeales
* Austrobaileyales
Austrobaileyales
Core angiosperms * magnoliids * Chloranthales * monocots * Ceratophyllales * eudicots SYNONYMS * Anthophyta Cronquist * Angiospermae Lindl. * Magnoliophyta Cronquist , Takht. in other words, a fruiting plant. The term comes from the Greek words angeion ("case" or "casing") and sperma ("seed")
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Shrub
A SHRUB or BUSH is a small to medium-sized woody plant. Unlike herbs , shrubs have persistent woody stems above the ground. They are distinguished from trees by their multiple stems and shorter height , and are usually under 6 m (20 ft) tall. Plants of many species may grow either into shrubs or trees, depending on their growing conditions. Small, low shrubs, generally less than 2 m (6.6 ft) tall, such as lavender , periwinkle and most small garden varieties of roses , are often termed "subshrubs ". CONTENTS * 1 Use in parks * 2 Botanical structure * 3 List of shrubs (bushes) * 4 References USE IN PARKSAn area of cultivated shrubs in a park or a garden is known as a shrubbery . When clipped as topiary , suitable species or varieties of shrubs develop dense foliage and many small leafy branches growing close together. Many shrubs respond well to renewal pruning , in which hard cutting back to a "stool " results in long new stems known as "canes"
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Phyllotaxis
In botany , PHYLLOTAXIS or PHYLLOTAXY is the arrangement of leaves on a plant stem (from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
phýllon "leaf" and táxis "arrangement"). Phyllotactic spirals form a distinctive class of patterns in nature . CONTENTS * 1 Leaf
Leaf
arrangement * 2 Repeating spiral * 3 Determination * 4 History * 5 Mathematics
Mathematics
* 6 In art and architecture * 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 References * 10 External links LEAF ARRANGEMENT Opposite leaf pattern Whorled leaf pattern Two different examples of the alternate (spiral) leaf pattern The basic arrangements of leaves on a stem are OPPOSITE, or ALTERNATE = SPIRAL. Leaves may also be WHORLED if several leaves arise, or appear to arise, from the same level (at the same node ) on a stem. This arrangement is fairly unusual on plants except for those with particularly short internodes
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