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Academic Journal
An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication in which scholarship relating to a particular academic discipline is published. Academic
Academic
journals serve as permanent and transparent forums for the presentation, scrutiny and discussion of research. They are usually peer-reviewed or refereed.[1] Content typically takes the form of articles presenting original research, review articles, and book reviews. The purpose of an academic journal, according to the first editor of the world's oldest academic journal Henry Oldenburg, is to give researchers a venue to "impart their knowledge to one another, and contribute what they can to the Grand design of improving natural knowledge, and perfecting all Philosophical Arts, and Sciences."[2] The term academic journal applies to scholarly publications in all fields; this article discusses the aspects common to all academic field journals
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Economics
Economics
Economics
(/ɛkəˈnɒmɪks, iːkə-/)[1][2][3] is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.[4] Economics
Economics
focuses on the behaviour and interactions of economic agents and how economies work. Microeconomics
Microeconomics
analyzes basic elements in the economy, including individual agents and markets, their interactions, and the outcomes of interactions. Individual agents may include, for example, households, firms, buyers, and sellers. Macroeconomics analyzes the entire economy (meaning aggregated production, consumption, savings, and investment) and issues affecting it, including unemployment of resources (labour, capital, and land), inflation, economic growth, and the public policies that address these issues (monetary, fiscal, and other policies)
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Disciplinary Repository
A disciplinary repository (or subject repository) is an online archive containing works or data associated with these works of scholars in a particular subject area.[1][2] Disciplinary repositories can accept work from scholars from any institution. A disciplinary repository shares the roles of collecting, disseminating, and archiving work with other repositories, but is focused on a particular subject area. These collections can include academic and research papers. Disciplinary repositories can acquire their content in many ways. Many rely on author or organization submissions, such as SSRN. Others such as CiteSeerX crawl the web for scholar and researcher websites and download publicly available academic papers from those sites
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Anglosphere
The Anglosphere
Anglosphere
is a set of English-speaking nations which share common roots in British culture and history,[1][2] which today maintain close cultural, political, diplomatic and military cooperation. While the nations included in different sources vary, the Anglosphere
Anglosphere
is usually not considered to include all countries where English is an official language, although the nations that are commonly included were all once part of the British Empire.[3] The term covers the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand
New Zealand
and the United Kingdom,[4][5][6][7] countries which in the post-British Empire era maintain a close affinity of cultural, diplomatic and military links with one another
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Ranking
A ranking is a relationship between a set of items such that, for any two items, the first is either 'ranked higher than', 'ranked lower than' or 'ranked equal to' the second.[1] In mathematics, this is known as a weak order or total preorder of objects. It is not necessarily a total order of objects because two different objects can have the same ranking. The rankings themselves are totally ordered. For example, materials are totally preordered by hardness, while degrees of hardness are totally ordered
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Intellectual Capital
Intellectual capital is the intangible value of a business, covering its people (human capital), the value inherent in its relationships (Relational capital), and everything that is left when the employees go home[1](Structural capital), of which Intellectual property
Intellectual property
(IP) is but one component.[2] It is the sum of everything everybody in a company knows that gives it a competitive edge.[3] The term is used in academia in an attempt to account for the value of in
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San Francisco Declaration On Research Assessment
The San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment (DORA) intends to halt the practice of correlating the journal impact factor to the merits of a specific scientist's contributions. Also according to this statement, this practice creates biases and inaccuracies when appraising scientific research. It also states that the impact factor is not to be used as a substitute "measure of the quality of individual research articles, or in hiring, promotion, or funding decisions".[1] The declaration originated from the December 2012 meeting of the American Society for Cell Biology
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Subsidy
A subsidy is a form of financial aid or support extended to an economic sector (or institution, business, or individual) generally with the aim of promoting economic and social policy.[1] Although commonly extended from government, the term subsidy can relate to any type of support – for example from NGOs or as implicit subsidies. Subsidies come in various forms including: direct (cash grants, interest-free loans) and indirect (tax breaks, insurance, low-interest loans, accelerated depreciation, rent rebates).[2][3] Furthermore, they can be broad or narrow, legal or illegal, ethical or unethical. The most common forms of subsidies are those to the producer or the consumer. Producer/production subsidies ensure producers are better off by either supplying market price support, direct support, or payments to factors of production.[4] Consumer/consumption subsidies commonly reduce the price of goods and services to the consumer
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Internet
The Internet
Internet
is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite
Internet protocol suite
(TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of private, public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope, linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless, and optical networking technologies
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Academic Library
An academic library is a library that is attached to a higher education institution which serves two complementary purposes to support the school's curriculum, and to support the research of the university faculty and students.[1] It is unknown how many academic libraries there are internationally. An academic and research portal maintained by UNESCO
UNESCO
links to 3,785 libraries. According to the National Center for Education Statistics, there are an estimated 3,700 academic libraries in the United States.[1] The support of teaching and learning requires material for class readings and for student papers. In the past, the material for class readings, intended to supplement lectures as prescribed by the instructor, has been called reserves
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Google Scholar
Google
Google
Scholar is a freely accessible web search engine that indexes the full text or metadata of scholarly literature across an array of publishing formats and disciplines
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Self-archiving
Self-archiving is the act of (the author's) depositing a free copy of an electronic document online in order to provide open access to it.[1] The term usually refers to the self-archiving of peer-reviewed research journal and conference articles, as well as theses and book chapters, deposited in the author's own institutional repository or open archive for the purpose of maximizing its accessibility, usage and citation impact
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Institutional Repository
An institutional repository is an archive for collecting, preserving, and disseminating digital copies of the intellectual output of an institution, particularly a research institution.[1][2][3][4] An institutional repository can be viewed as a "...a set of services that a university offers to members of its community for the management and dissemination of digital materials created by the institution and its community members."[5] For a university, this includes materials such as monographs, eprints of academic journal articles—both before (preprints) and after (postprints) undergoing peer review—as well as electronic theses and dissertations. An institutional repository might also include other digital assets generated by academics, such as datasets, administrative documents, course notes, learning objects, or conference proceedings
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Science Citation Index
The Science
Science
Citation Index (SCI) is a citation index originally produced by the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) and created by Eugene Garfield. It was officially launched in 1964. It is now owned by Clarivate Analytics
Clarivate Analytics
(previously the Intellectual Property and Science
Science
business of Thomson Reuters).[1][2][3][4] The larger version ( Science
Science
Citation Index Expanded) covers more than 8,500 notable and significant journals, across 150 disciplines, from 1900 to the present. These are alternatively described as the world's leading journals of science and technology, because of a rigorous selection process.[5][6][7] The index is made available online through different platforms, such as the Web of Science[8][9] and SciSearch.[10] (There are also CD and printed editions, covering a smaller number of journals)
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Open Access Journal
Open access
Open access
(OA) journals are scholarly journals that are available online to the reader "without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself."[1] They remove price barriers (e.g. subscription, licensing fees, pay-per-view fees) and most permission barriers (e.g. copyright and licensing restrictions).[1] While open access journals are freely available to the reader, there are still costs associated with the publication and production of such journals. Some are subsidized, and some require payment on behalf of the author.[1] Some open access journals are subsidized and are financed by an academic institution, learned society or a government information center
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Subscription Business Model
The subscription business model is a business model where a customer must pay a subscription price to have access to a product or service. The model was pioneered by magazines and newspapers, but is now used by many businesses and websites.Contents1 Subscriptions1.1 Types2 Effects2.1 Vendors 2.2 Customers2.2.1 Legal2.3 Environment3 See also 4 ReferencesSubscriptions[edit] Rather than selling products individually, a subscription sells periodic (monthly or yearly or seasonal) use or access to a product or service, or, in the case of such non-profit organizations as opera companies or symphony orchestras, it sells tickets to the entire run of some set number of (eg., five to fifteen) scheduled performances for an entire season. Thus, a one-time sale of a product can become a recurring sale and can build brand loyalty
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