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Academic
Academy
Academy
is a type of secondary or tertiary education institutions.Contents1 Etymology 2 History2.1 Ancient world2.1.1 Greece and early Europe 2.1.2 Africa 2.1.3 China 2.1.4 India 2.1.5 Islamic world2.2 Medieval Europe 2.3 Academic societies 2.4 United States 2.5 Germany3 Academic personnel 4 Structure4.1 Qualifications 4.2 Academic conferences 4.3 Conflicting goals4.3.1 Practice and theory 4.3.2 Town and gown 4.3.3 Commerce and scholarship5 Academic publishing5.1 History of academic journals 5.2 Current status and development6 Academic dress 7 See also 8 References 9 Bibliography 10 External linksEtymology[edit] The word comes from the Academy
Academy
in ancient Greece, which derives from the Athenian
Athenian
hero, Akademos. Outside the city walls of Athens, the gymnasium was made famous by Plato
Plato
as a center of learning
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Sri Lanka
Coordinates: 7°N 81°E / 7°N 81°E / 7; 81Democratic Socialist Republic
Republic
of Sri Lanka ශ්‍රී ලංකා ප්‍රජාතාන්ත්‍රික සමාජවාදී ජනරජය (Sinhalese) Srī Lankā prajātāntrika samājavādī janarajaya இலங்கை ஜனநாயக சோசலிச குடியரசு (Tamil) Ilaṅkai jaṉanāyaka sōsalisa kuṭiyarasuFlagEmblemAnthem: "Sri Lanka
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Grove (nature)
A grove is a small group of trees with minimal or no undergrowth, such as a sequoia grove, or a small orchard planted for the cultivation of fruits or nuts. Other words for groups of trees include woodland, woodlot, thicket, or stand.Look up grove in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.The main meaning of "grove" is a group of trees that grow close together, generally without many bushes or other plants underneath. It is an old word in English, with records of its use dating as far back as 1,000 years ago, although the word's true origins are unknown. Naturally-occurring groves are typically small, perhaps a few acres at most. Orchards, by contrast, may be small or very large, like the apple orchards in Washington state, and orange groves in Florida. Historically, groves were considered sacred in pagan, pre-Christian Germanic, Nordic and Celtic cultures. Helen F
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Youyu
Youyu County, also known by its Chinese name Youyuxian, is a county in Shuozhou
Shuozhou
Prefecture, Shanxi
Shanxi
Province, China. It borders Inner Mongolia to the north and west.Contents1 History 2 Geography2.1 Climate3 References3.1 Citations 3.2 BibliographyHistory[edit] Shanwu,[1] south of present-day Youyuxian, was the seat of Yanmen Commandery during the Qin and Western Han.[2] The post moved to Yinguan southeast of present-day Shuozhou
Shuozhou
under the Eastern Han
Eastern Han
and further south to Daixian
Daixian
under the Kingdom of Wei.[1] Geography[edit] Elevations are generally higher in the south of the county, in which flows the Cangtou River (苍头河); Youyu reaches a north-south extent of 67.7 km (42.1 mi) and east-west width of 45.7 km (28.4 mi)
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Shun (Chinese Leader)
Shun (Chinese: 舜; pinyin: Shùn), also known as Emperor Shun (Chinese: 帝舜; pinyin: Dìshùn) and Chonghua (Chinese: 重華; pinyin: Chónghuá), was a legendary leader of ancient China, regarded by some sources as one of the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors. Oral tradition holds that he lived sometime between 2294 and 2184 BC.Contents1 Names 2 Life of Shun 3 Legends 4 Alternative biography 5 Events of Shun's reign 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External linksNames[edit] Shun's ancestral name (姓) is Yao (姚), his clan name (氏) is Youyu (有虞). His given name was Chonghua (重華). Shun is sometimes referred to as the Great Shun (大舜) or as Yu Shun (虞舜)
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Shang Xiang
Shang Xiang (Chinese: 上庠; pinyin: shàng xiáng; Wade–Giles: Shang Hsiang), was a school founded in the Yu Shun (虞舜) era in China. Shun (2257 BCE–2208 BCE), the Emperor of the Kingdom of Yu (虞, or 有虞/Youyu), founded two schools. One was Shang Xiang (shang (上), means up, high), and the other one was Xia Xiang (下庠, xia (下) means down, low).[1][2] Shang Xiang was a place to educate noble youth. Teachers at Shang Xiang were generally erudite, elder and noble persons. The original meaning of Xiang (庠) is provide for (養), and Xiang, including Shang Xiang and Xia Xiang, were initially places to provide for the aged persons, and then became places for aged persons with their knowledge and experiences to teach youth. Shang Xiang is classified as a kind of Guo Xue (國學), meaning the National School in capital city, which is the imperial central school, the nation's supreme school in China, in contrast with regional schools
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Timbuktu
Timbuktu
Timbuktu
(/ˌtɪmbʌkˈtuː/), also spelt Tinbuktu, Timbuctoo and Timbuktoo (Berber languages: ⵜⵉⵏⴱⵓⴽⵜⵓ; French: Tombouctou; Koyra Chiini: Tumbutu), is an ancient city in Mali, situated 20 km (12 mi) north of the Niger
Niger
River. The town is the capital of the Timbuktu
Timbuktu
Region, one of the eight administrative regions of Mali. It had a population of 54,453 in the 2009 census. Starting out as a seasonal settlement, Timbuktu
Timbuktu
became a permanent settlement early in the 12th century. After a shift in trading routes, Timbuktu
Timbuktu
flourished from the trade in salt, gold, ivory and slaves. It became part of the Mali Empire
Mali Empire
early in the 14th century
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University Of Timbuktu
The University
University
of Timbuktu
Timbuktu
is a collective term for the teaching associated with three mosques in the city of Timbuktu
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Bailudong Shuyuan
The White Deer Grotto Academy
White Deer Grotto Academy
(Chinese: 白鹿洞書院; pinyin: Báilùdòng Shūyuàn, Gan: Pak-Luk-Tung Su-yon, sometimes translated as White Deer Cave Academy or White Deer Hollow Academy) is a former school at the foot of Wulou Peak in Lushan, now in Jiujiang, Jiangxi province. It was one of the Four Great Academies of China, and today it is maintained as an important landmark. History[edit] The academy had its beginnings as a place for the pursuit of learning by the Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
poet Li Bo (李渤 Lǐ Bó, d. 831, not to be confused with the more famous Tang poet Li Po
Li Po
or Li Bai) when he was living in retirement. As Li Bo kept a white deer, he was known as the White Deer Teacher and the school premises themselves as the White Deer Grotto
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Library Of Alexandria
The Royal Library of Alexandria
Alexandria
or Ancient Library of Alexandria
Alexandria
in Alexandria, Egypt, was one of the largest and most significant libraries of the ancient world. It was dedicated to the Muses, the nine goddesses of the arts.[1] It flourished under the patronage of the Ptolemaic dynasty
Ptolemaic dynasty
and functioned as a major center of scholarship from its construction in the 3rd century BC until the Roman conquest of Egypt
Egypt
in 30 BC, with collections of works, lecture halls, meeting rooms, and gardens
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Lyceum
The lyceum is a category of educational institution defined within the education system of many countries, mainly in Europe
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Yuelu Shuyuan
The Yuelu Academy
Yuelu Academy
(also as known as the Yuelu Academy
Yuelu Academy
of Classical Learning, simplified Chinese: 岳麓书院; traditional Chinese: 嶽麓書院; pinyin: Yuèlǔ Shūyuàn) is on the east side of Yuelu Mountain in Changsha, the capital of Hunan
Hunan
province, China, on the west bank of the Xiang River. As one of the four most prestigious academies over the last 1000 years in China, Yuelu Academy
Yuelu Academy
has been a famous institution of higher learning as well as a centre of academic activities and cultures since it was formally set up during the Northern Song dynasty. The academy was converted into Hunan
Hunan
Institute of Higher Learning in 1903
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Taxila (ancient)
Taxila or Takshashila was an ancient city in what is now northern Pakistan. It is an important archaeological site and in 1980, was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[6] Its ruins lie near modern Taxila, in Punjab, Pakistan, about 35 km (22 mi) northwest of Rawalpindi.[7] Taxila was situated at the pivotal junction of the Indian subcontinent and Central Asia. Its origin as a city goes back to c. 1000 BCE. Some ruins at Taxila date to the time of the Achaemenid Empire in the 6th century BCE, followed successively by Mauryan, Indo-Greek, Indo-Scythian, and Kushan periods. Owing to its strategic location, Taxila has changed hands many times over the centuries, with many empires vying for its control. When the great ancient trade routes connecting these regions ceased to be important, the city sank into insignificance and was finally destroyed by the nomadic Hunas in the 5th century
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Ancient Higher-learning Institutions
A variety of ancient higher-learning institutions were developed in many cultures to provide institutional frameworks for scholarly activities
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France
France
France
(French: [fʁɑ̃s]), officially the French Republic (French: République française [ʁepyblik fʁɑ̃sɛz]), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France
France
in western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France
France
extends from the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the English Channel
English Channel
and the North Sea, and from the Rhine
Rhine
to the Atlantic Ocean. The overseas territories include French Guiana
French Guiana
in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans
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Shuyuan
The Shūyuàn (simplified Chinese: 书院; traditional Chinese: 書院; pinyin: shūyuàn), usually known in English as Academies or Academies of Classical Learning, were a type of school in ancient China. Unlike national academy and district schools, shuyuan were usually private establishments built away from cities or towns, providing a quiet environment where scholars could engage in studies and contemplation without restrictions and worldly distractions.Contents1 History 2 Shuyuan as a modern term 3 Notable academies3.1 The Four Great Academies 3.2 The Four Great Academies of the Early Song 3.3 The Four Great Academies of the Southern Song 3.4 The Six Great Academies 3.5 The Eight Great Academies of the Northern Song4 See also 5 ReferencesHistory[edit] Further information: Taixue and Ancient higher-learning institutions The shuyuan originated in 725 during the Tang dynasty
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