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Abu Al-Qasim Al-Zahrawi
Abū al-Qāsim Khalaf ibn al-‘Abbās al-Zahrāwī (Arabic: أبو القاسم خلف بن العباس الزهراوي‎;‎ 936–1013), popularly known as Al-Zahrawi
Al-Zahrawi
(الزهراوي), Latinised as Abulcasis (from Arabic Abū al-Qāsim), was an Arab Muslim
Muslim
physician, surgeon and chemist who lived in
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Medina Azahara
Medina Azahara
Medina Azahara
(Arabic: مدينة الزهراء‎ Madīnat az-Zahrā: literal meaning "the shining city") is the ruins of a vast, fortified Arab Muslim medieval palace-city built by Abd-ar-Rahman III (912–961), the first Umayyad Caliph
Caliph
of Córdoba, and located on the western outskirts of Córdoba, Spain. It was an Arab Muslim medieval town and the de facto capital of al-Andalus, or Muslim Spain, as the heart of the administration and government was within its walls. Built beginning in 936-940, the city included ceremonial reception halls, mosques, administrative and government offices, gardens, a mint, workshops, barracks, residences and baths. Water was supplied through aqueducts.[1] The main reason for its construction was politico-ideological: the dignity of the Caliph
Caliph
required the establishment of a new city, a symbol of his power, imitating other Eastern Caliphates
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Throat
In vertebrate anatomy, the throat is the front part of the neck, positioned in front of the vertebra. It contains the pharynx and larynx. An important section of it is the epiglottis, which is a flap separating the esophagus from the trachea (windpipe) preventing food and drink being inhaled into the lungs.[1] The throat contains various blood vessels, pharyngeal muscles, the nasopharyngeal tonsil, the tonsils, the palatine uvula, the trachea, the esophagus, and the vocal cords.[2] Mammal throats consist of two bones, the hyoid bone and the clavicle. The "throat" is sometimes thought to be synonymous for the isthmus of the fauces.[3] It works with the mouth, ears and nose, as well as a number of other parts of the body. Its pharynx is connected to the mouth, allowing speech to occur, and food and liquid to pass down the throat
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Haemophilia
Haemophilia, also spelled hemophilia, is a mostly inherited genetic disorder that impairs the body's ability to make blood clots, a process needed to stop bleeding.[2][3] This results in people bleeding longer after an injury, easy bruising, and an increased risk of bleeding inside joints or the brain.[1] Those with a mild case of the disease may have symptoms only after an accident or during surgery.[1] Bleeding
Bleeding
into a joint can result in permanent damage while bleeding in the brain can result in long term headaches, seizures, or a decreased level of consciousness.[1] There are two main types of haemophilia: haemophilia A, which oc
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Córdoba, Spain
Córdoba (/ˈkɔːrdəbə/, Spanish: [ˈkoɾðoβa]),[4] also called Cordoba (/ˈkɔːrdəbə/) in English,[5] is a city in Andalusia, southern Spain, and the capital of the province of Córdoba. It was a Roman settlement, then colonized by Muslim armies in the eighth century. It became the capital of the Islamic Emirate, and then of the Caliphate of Córdoba, including most of the Iberian Peninsula. Córdoba consisted of hundreds of workshops that created goods such as silk. It was a center of culture and learning during the Islamic Golden Age. Caliph
Caliph
Al Hakam II opened many libraries in addition to the many medical schools and universities which existed at the time, making Córdoba a centre for education. During these centuries it became the center of a society ruled by Muslims, in which all other groups had a second-class status.[6] It was recaptured by Christian forces in 1236, during the Reconquista
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Andalusia
Andalusia
Andalusia
(/ˌændəˈluːsiə, -ziə, -ʒə/; Spanish: Andalucía [andaluˈθi.a, -si.a]; Portuguese: Andaluzia; Arabic: أندلوسيا‎) is an autonomous community in southern Spain. It is the most populous and the second largest in area of the autonomous communities in the country. The Andalusian autonomous community is officially recognised as a "historical nationality".[4] The territory is divided into eight provinces: Almería, Cádiz, Córdoba, Granada, Huelva, Jaén, Málaga
Málaga
and Seville
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Nisbat (onomastics)
In Arabic names, a nisba (also spelled nesba, sometimes nesbat ; Arabic: نسبة‎ nisbah, "attribution") is an adjective indicating the person's place of origin, tribal affiliation, or ancestry, used at the end of the name and occasionally ending in the suffix -iyy(ah). Nisbah is originally an Arabic word that was passed to many other languages such as Turkish, Persian and Urdu. In the usage of Persian, Turkish and Urdu, it is pronounced/written exclusively nisbat. In Arabic usage, that pronunciation occurs when the word is uttered in its construct state only. The practice has been adopted in Iranian names and South Asian Muslim names
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Medinian
Medina (/məˈdiːnə/; Arabic: المدينة المنورة‎, al-Madīnah al-Munawwarah, "the radiant city"; or المدينة, al-Madīnah (Hejazi pronunciation: [almaˈdiːna]), "the city"), also transliterated as Madīnah, is a city in the Hejaz region of the Arabian Peninsula and administrative headquarters of the Al-Madinah Region of Saudi Arabia. At the city's heart is al-Masjid an-Nabawi ("the Prophet's Mosque"), which is the burial place of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and is the second-holiest city in Islam after Mecca. Medina was Muhammad's destination of his Hijrah (migration) from Mecca, and became the capital of a rapidly increasing Muslim Empire, under Muhammad's leadership. It served as the power base of Islam in its first century where the early Muslim community developed. Medina is home to the three oldest mosques, namely the Quba Mosque, al-Masjid an-Nabawi,[1] and Masjid al-Qiblatayn ("the mosque of the two qiblas")
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Ansar (Islam)
Ansar (Arabic: الأنصار‎ al-Anṣār, "The Helpers") is an Islamic term for the local inhabitants of Medina
Medina
who took the Islamic Prophet Muhammad and his followers (the Muhajirun) into their homes when they emigrated from Mecca
Mecca
(hijra). They belonged to two main tribes of Azd, the Banu Khazraj
Banu Khazraj
and the Banu Aus
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Cauterization
Cauterization
Cauterization
(or cauterisation, or cautery) is a medical practice or technique of burning a part of a body to remove or close off a part of it. It destroys some tissue in an attempt to mitigate bleeding and damage, remove an undesired growth, or minimize other potential medical harm, such as infections when antibiotics are unavailable.[1] The practice was once widespread for treatment of wounds
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Surgical Instruments
A surgical instrument is a specially designed tool or device for performing specific actions or carrying out desired effects during a surgery or operation, such as modifying biological tissue, or to provide access for viewing it. Over time, many different kinds of surgical instruments and tools have been invented. Some surgical instruments are designed for general use in surgery, while others are designed for a specific procedure or surgery
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Urethra
In anatomy, the urethra (from Greek οὐρήθρα – ourḗthrā) is a tube that connects the urinary bladder to the urinary meatus for the removal of urine from the body
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Ear
The ear is the organ of hearing and, in mammals, balance. In mammals, the ear is usually described as having three parts—the outer ear, middle ear and the inner ear. The outer ear consists of the pinna and the ear canal. Since the outer ear is the only visible portion of the ear in most animals, the word "ear" often refers to the external part alone.[1] The middle ear includes the tympanic cavity and the three ossicles. The inner ear sits in the bony labyrinth, and contains structures which are key to several senses: the semicircular canals, which enable balance and eye tracking when moving; the utricle and saccule, which enable balance when stationary; and the cochlea, which enables hearing
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Europe
Europe
Europe
is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe
Europe
is most commonly considered as separated from Asia
Asia
by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits.[5] Though the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity
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Cannulae
A cannula (/ˈkænjʊlə/; from Latin "little reed"; plural cannulae or cannulas)[1] is a tube that can be inserted into the body, often for the delivery or removal of fluid or for the gathering of data. In simple terms, a cannula can surround the inner or outer surfaces of a trocar needle thus extending the effective needle length by at least half the length of the original needle. It is also called an intravenous (IV) cannula
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Wart
Warts are typically small, rough, and hard growths that are similar in color to the rest of the skin.[1][3] They typically do not result in symptoms except when on the bottom of the feet where they may be painful.[3] While they usually occur on the hands and feet they can also affect other locations.[1] One or many warts may appear.[3] They are not cancerous.[3] Warts are caused by infection with a type of human papillomavirus (HPV).[1] Factors that increase the risk include use of public showers, working with meat, eczema, and a low immune system.[1][3] The virus is believed to enter the body through skin that has been damaged slightly.[1] A number of types exist including: common warts, plantar warts, filiform warts, and genital warts.[3] Genital warts
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