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Abu Abdallah Al-Qaim
Abu Abdallah al-Qaim bi Amrillah of Tagmadert
Tagmadert
in the Draa River valley, a claimed descendant of Fatimah, was the ancestor of the Saadi Dynasty of Morocco, who ruled the Sous
Sous
in Southern Morocco
Morocco
from 1509 to 1517.[1] The Sharifian movement on which the Saadi Dynasty
Saadi Dynasty
was to be built began when Abu Abdallah, during a visit to Medina, dreamed of two lions entering a tower with a crowd of people close behind
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Taroudannt
Taroudant
Taroudant
(Berber languages: Tarudant, ⵜⴰⵔⵓⴷⴰⵏⵜ; Arabic: تارودانت‎) is a city in the Sous Valley
Sous Valley
in southern Morocco. It is situated east of Agadir
Agadir
on the road to Ouarzazate
Ouarzazate
and the Sahara desert
Sahara desert
and south of Marrakesh. The town is known as the "Grandmother of Marrakesh" because it looks like a smaller Marrakesh with its surrounding ramparts. In the sixteenth century, the Saadi dynasty briefly used Taroudant
Taroudant
as a capital before it moved its royal seat onwards to Marrakesh
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Masmuda
The Masmuda is a Berber tribal confederacy of Morocco
Morocco
and one of the largest in the Maghreb, along with the Zanata
Zanata
and the Sanhaja.[1] They were composed of several sub-tribes: Berghouatas, Ghomaras (Ghomarids), Hintatas (Hafsids), Tin Malel, Hergha, Genfisa, Seksiwa, Gedmiwa, Hezerdja, Urika, Guerouanes, Bni M'tir, Hezmira, Regraga, Haha les Banou Maghus, Gilawa and others. Today, the Masmuda confederacy largely corresponds to the speakers of the Shilha (Tachelhit) Berber variety, whereas other clans, such as Regraga and Doukkala, have adopted Arabic. History[edit] The Masmuda settled large parts of Morocco, and were largely sedentary and practised agriculture. The residence of the Masmuda aristocracy was Aghmat
Aghmat
in the High Atlas
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Fes, Morocco
Fez
Fez
(Arabic: فاس‎ Fas, Berber languages: ⴼⴰⵙ Fas, French: Fès) is a city in northern inland Morocco
Morocco
and the capital of the Fès-Meknès
Fès-Meknès
administrative region. It is the second largest city of Morocco
Morocco
after Casablanca,[4] with a population of 1.1 million (2014). Located to the northeast of Atlas Mountains, Fez
Fez
is situated at the crossroad of the important cities of all regions; 206 km (128 mi) from Tangier
Tangier
to the northwest, 246 km (153 mi) from Casablanca, 169 km (105 mi) from Rabat
Rabat
to the west, and 387 km (240 mi) from Marrakesh
Marrakesh
to the southwest which leads to the Trans-Saharan trade
Trans-Saharan trade
route
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Portugal
Portugal
Portugal
(Portuguese pronunciation: [puɾtuˈɣaɫ]), officially the Portuguese Republic
Republic
(Portuguese: República Portuguesa [ʁɛˈpuβlikɐ puɾtuˈɣezɐ]),[note 1] is a sovereign state located mostly on the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost country of mainland Europe, bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
and to the north and east by Spain
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Agadir
Agadir
Agadir
(Berber: Agadir, ⴰⴳⴰⴷⵉⵔ, Arabic: أكادير or أݣادير or أغادير) is a major city in mid-southern Morocco. Agadir
Agadir
is located on the shore of the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
near the foot of the Atlas Mountains, just north of the point where the Sus River flows into the ocean. It is 508 km south of Casablanca. It is the capital of the Agadir
Agadir
Ida-U-Tanan Prefecture and of the Sus-Massa economic region
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Jihad
Jihad
Jihad
(English: /dʒɪˈhɑːd/; Arabic: جهاد‎ jihād [dʒɪˈhaːd]) is an Arabic
Arabic
word which literally means striving or struggling, especially with a praiseworthy aim.[1][2][3][4] It can have many shades of meaning in an Islamic context, such as s
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Draa River
The Draa (Berber languages: ⴰⵙⵉⴼ ⵏ ⴷⵔⴰ 'asif n dra', Moroccan Arabic: واد الدرعة‎, translit. wad dərʿa; also spelled Dra or Drâa, in older sources mostly Darha or Dara) is Morocco's longest river, at 1,100 kilometres (680 mi). It is formed by the confluence of the Dadès River
Dadès River
and Imini River. It flows from the High Atlas
High Atlas
mountains, initially south-eastward to Tagounite, and from Tagounite mostly westwards to its mouth in the Atlantic Ocean somewhat north of Tan-Tan. Most of the year the part of the Draa after Tagounite falls dry. The water from the Draa is used to irrigate palm groves and small horticulture along the river
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Berbers
Berbers
Berbers
or Amazighs (Berber languages: ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵏ Imaziɣen; singular: ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖ Amaziɣ / Amazigh) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, primarily inhabiting the Maghreb. They are distributed in an area stretching from the Atlantic Ocean to the Siwa Oasis
Siwa Oasis
in Egypt, and from the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the Niger
Niger
River in West Africa. Historically, they spoke Berber languages, which together form the Berber branch of the Afroasiatic family. Since the Muslim conquest
Muslim conquest
of North Africa
North Africa
in the seventh century, a large number of Berbers
Berbers
inhabiting the Maghreb
Maghreb
(Tamazgha) have in varying degrees used as lingua franca the other languages spoken in North Africa
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Mahdi
— Events —Death Resurrection Last JudgementJewishMessianismBook of Daniel KabbalahTaoistLi HongZoroastrianFrashokereti SaoshyantInter-religiousEnd times Apocalypticism2012 phenomenonMillenarianism Last Judgment Resurrection
Resurrection
of the deadGog and Magog Messianic Agev t eThe name of
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Moral Authority
Moral authority is authority premised on principles, or fundamental truths, which are independent of written, or positive, laws. As such, moral authority necessitates the existence of and adherence to truth. Because truth does not change, the principles of moral authority are immutable or unchangeable, although as applied to individual circumstances the dictates of moral authority for action may vary due to the exigencies of human life
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Sheikh
Sheikh
Sheikh
(pronounced /ʃeɪk/ SHAYK or /ʃiːk/ SHEEK; Arabic: شيخ‎ šayḫ [ʃæjx], mostly pronounced [ʃeːx/ʃejx], plural شيوخ šuyūḫ [ʃuju:x])—also transliterated Sheik, Shykh, Shaik, Shayk, Shaykh, Cheikh, Shekh, and Shaikh—is an honorific title in the Arabic
Arabic
language. It commonly designates the ruler of a tribe, who inherited the title from his father. "Sheikh" is given to a royal male at birth, whereas the related title "Sheikha" is given to a royal female at birth.Contents1 Etymology and meaning 2 Sufi term 3 Regional usage3.1 Arabian Peninsula 3.2 Lebanon 3.3 Maghreb 3.4 Horn of Africa 3.5 West Africa 3.6 South Asia 3.7 Southeast Asia4 For women 5 See also 6 Notes 7 External linksEtymology and meaning[edit]Kurdish sheikhs, 1895The word in Arabic
Arabic
stems from a triliteral root connected with age and aging: ش-ي-خ, shīn-yā'-khā'
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Sufi
Sufism
Sufism
or Taṣawwuf[1] (Arabic: الْتَّصَوُّف; personal noun: صُوفِيّ ṣūfiyy/ṣūfī, مُتَصَوّف mutaṣawwuf), which is often defined as " Islamic
Islamic
mysticism",[2] "the inward dimension of Islam",[3][4] or "the phenomenon of mysticis
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Medina
Medina
Medina
(/məˈdiːnə/; Arabic: المدينة المنورة‎, al-Madīnah al-Munawwarah, "the radiant city"; or المدينة, al-Madīnah (Hejazi pronunciation: [almaˈdiːna]), "the city"), also transliterated as Madīnah, is a city in the Hejaz
Hejaz
region of the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
and administrative headquarters of the Al-Madinah Region of Saudi Arabia. At the city's heart is al-Masjid an-Nabawi ("the Prophet's Mosque"), which is the burial place of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and is the second-holiest city in Islam
Islam
after Mecca. Medina
Medina
was Muhammad's destination of his Hijrah (migration) from Mecca, and became the capital of a rapidly increasing Muslim
Muslim
Empire, under Muhammad's leadership
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Sharifian Caliphate
The Sharifian Caliphate
Caliphate
(Arabic: خلافة شريفية‎) was an Arab caliphate proclaimed by the Sharifian rulers of Hejaz
Hejaz
in 1924, in lieu of the Ottoman Caliphate.[need quotation to verify]Contents1 History 2 Last attempt 3 References 4 BibliographyHistory[edit] The idea of the Sharifian Caliphate
Caliphate
had been floating around since at least the 15th century.[1]:42 Toward the end of the 19th century, it started to gain importance due to the decline of the Ottoman Empire, which was heavily defeated in the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878). There is little evidence, however, that the idea of a Sharifian Caliphate
Caliphate
ever gained wide grassroots support in the Middle East or anywhere else for that matter.[1]:43–44 The Ottoman sultanate was abolished on 1 November 1922, in the midst of the Turkish War of Independence
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