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Abolitionism In The United Kingdom
Abolitionism
Abolitionism
in the United Kingdom was the movement in the late 18th and early 19th centuries to end the practice of slavery, whether formal or informal, in the United Kingdom, the British Empire
British Empire
and the world, including ending the Atlantic slave trade. It was part of a wider abolitionism movement in Western Europe and the Americas. The buying and selling of slaves was made illegal across the British Empire in 1807, but owning slaves was permitted until it was outlawed completely in 1833, beginning a process where from 1834 slaves became indentured "apprentices" to their former owners until emancipation was achieved for the majority by 1840 and for remaining exceptions by 1843
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William Murray, 1st Earl Of Mansfield
William Murray, 1st Earl of Mansfield, PC, SL (2 March 1705 – 20 March 1793) was a British barrister, politician and judge noted for his reform of English law. Born to Scottish nobility, he was educated in Perth, Scotland, before moving to London at the age of 13 to take up a place at Westminster School. He was accepted into Christ Church, Oxford, in May 1723, and graduated four years later. Returning to London from Oxford, he was called to the Bar by Lincoln's Inn
Lincoln's Inn
on 23 November 1730, and quickly gained a reputation as an excellent barrister. He became involved in politics in 1742, beginning with his election as a Member of Parliament for Boroughbridge, and appointment as Solicitor General
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Barbary Pirates
The Barbary pirates, sometimes called Barbary corsairs or Ottoman corsairs, were Ottoman pirates and privateers who operated from North Africa, based primarily in the ports of Salé, Rabat, Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli. This area was known in Europe
Europe
as the Barbary Coast, a term derived from the name of its Berber inhabitants. Their predation extended throughout the Mediterranean, south along West Africa's Atlantic
Atlantic
seaboard and even South America,[1] and into the North Atlantic
Atlantic
as far north as Iceland, but they primarily operated in the western Mediterranean
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Impressment
Impressment, colloquially, "the press" or the "press gang", refers to the act of taking men into a military or naval force by compulsion, with or without notice. Navies of several nations used forced recruitment by various means. The large size of the British Royal Navy in the Age of Sail
Age of Sail
meant impressment was most commonly associated with Britain. It was used by the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
in wartime, beginning in 1664 and during the 18th and early 19th centuries as a means of crewing warships, although legal sanction for the practice can be traced back to the time of Edward I of England. The Royal Navy
Royal Navy
impressed many merchant sailors, as well as some sailors from other, mostly European, nations. People liable to impressment were "eligible men of seafaring habits between the ages of 18 and 55 years"
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Child Labour
Child labour
Child labour
refers to the employment of children in any work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and that is mentally, physically, socially or morally dangerous and harmful.[3] This practice is considered exploitative by many international organisations
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Conscription
Military
Military
service National service Conscription
Conscription
crisis Conscientious objector Alternative civilian service Conscription
Conscription
by countryv t eConscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.[5] Conscription
Conscription
dates back to antiquity and continues in some countries to the present day under various names. The modern system of near-universal national conscription for young men dates to the French Revolution in the 1790s, where it became the basis of a very large and powerful military
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Wage Slavery
Wage
Wage
slavery is a term used to draw an analogy between slavery and wage labor by focusing on similarities between owning and renting a person. It is usually used to refer to a situation where a person's livelihood depends on wages or a salary, especially when the dependence is total and immediate.[1][2] The term "wage slavery" has been used to criticize exploitation of labour and social stratification, with the former seen primarily as unequal bargaining power between labor and capital (particularly when workers are paid comparatively low wages, e.g
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Mamluk
Mamluk
Mamluk
(Arabic: مملوك mamlūk (singular), مماليك mamālīk (plural), meaning "property", also transliterated as mamlouk, mamluq, mamluke, mameluk, mameluke, mamaluke or marmeluke) is an Arabic designation for slaves
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Penal Labour
Penal labour
Penal labour
is a generic term for various kinds of unfree labour which prisoners are required to perform, typically manual labour. The work may be light or hard, depending on the context. Forms of sentence involving penal labour have included involuntary servitude, penal servitude and imprisonment with hard labour. The term may refer to several related scenarios: labour as a form of punishment, the prison system used as a means to secure labour, and labour as providing occupation for convicts
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Aztec Slavery
Aztec slavery, within the structure of the Mexica
Mexica
society, produced many slaves, known by the Nahuatl
Nahuatl
word, tlacotin. Within Mexica society, slaves constituted an important class.Contents1 Description1.1 Aztecs as Slaveowners 1.2 Aztecs as Slaves2 Superstitions 3 Collared Slaves 4 ReferencesDescription[edit] Slavery
Slavery
was not a station one was born into, but a state entered into as a form of punishment, out of financial desperation, or as a captive.[1] The practice consisted of two systems: 1) slavery, in the strictest sense of the term, and 2) indentured servitude. Aztecs as Slaveowners[edit] Slaveowners were required to provide food and shelter for their slaves.[1] Women slave owners exerted much in the way of choice, in regard to slaves
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Blackbirding
Blackbirding
Blackbirding
is the coercion of people through trickery and kidnapping to work as labourers. From the 1860s, blackbirding ships in the Pacific sought workers to mine the guano deposits on the Chincha Islands in Peru.[2] In the 1870s, the blackbirding trade focused on supplying labourers to plantations, particularly the sugar cane plantations of Queensland
Queensland
and Fiji.[3][4] The first documented practice of a major blackbirding industry for sugar cane labourers occurred between 1842 and 1904. Those "blackbirded" were recruited from the indigenous populations of nearby Pacific islands
Pacific islands
or northern Queensland
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Slavery In The Byzantine Empire
Slavery
Slavery
in the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
was widespread and common throughout its history.[1] Slavery
Slavery
was already common in Classical Greece and in the earlier Roman Empire
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Coolie
The word coolie (also spelled koelie, kuli, cooli, cooly and quli), meaning a labourer, has a variety of other implications and is sometimes regarded as offensive or a pejorative, depending upon the historical and geographical context
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Corvée
Corvée
Corvée
(French: [kɔʁve] ( listen)) is a form of unpaid, unfree labour, which is intermittent in nature and which lasts limited periods of time: typically only a certain number of days' work each year. Statute labour is a corvée imposed by a state for the purposes of public works.[1] As such it represents a form of levy (taxation). Unlike other forms of levy, such as a tithe, a corvée does not require the population to have land, crops or cash. It was thus favored in historical economies in which barter was more common than cash transactions or circulating money was in short supply. The obligation for tenant farmers to perform corvée work for landlords on private landed estates has been widespread throughout history, before the Industrial Revolution. The term is most typically used in reference to medieval and early modern Europe, where work was often expected by a feudal landowner (of their vassals), or by a monarch of their subjects
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