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Abies Alba 02
See textFirs (Abies) are a genus of 48–56 species of evergreen coniferous trees in the family Pinaceae. They are found through much of North and Central America, Europe, Asia, and North Africa, occurring in mountains over most of the range. Firs are most closely related to the genus Cedrus
Cedrus
(cedar). Douglas firs are not true firs, being of the genus Pseudotsuga. They are large trees, reaching heights of 10–80 m (33–262 ft) tall with trunk diameters of 0.5–4 m (1 ft 8 in–13 ft 1 in) when mature
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FIR (other)
A fir is a type of evergreen coniferous tree. Fir, FIR
FIR
or F.I.R.
F.I.R.
may also refer to:F.I.R., a Taiwanese pop music group
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Abies Alba
Abies alba, the European silver fir or silver fir,[3] is a fir native to the mountains of Europe, from the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
north to Normandy, east to the Alps
Alps
and the Carpathians, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Serbia
Serbia
and south to Italy, Bulgaria
Bulgaria
and northern Greece.[1]Silver fir trunk and bark of a tree in Vallombrosa State Forest (Italy)Illustration of several parts of the Abies albaImmature cone of Abies albaSeedlings of Abies albaContents1 Description 2 Ecology 3 Chemistry and pharmacology 4 Uses 5 Etymology 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksDescription[edit] Abies alba
Abies alba
is a large evergreen coniferous tree growing to 40–50 m (130–160 ft) (exceptionally 60 m (200 ft)) tall and with a trunk diameter up to 1.5 m (4 ft 11 in)
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North America
North America
North America
is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.[3][4] It is bordered to the north by the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, and to the southeast by South America
South America
and the Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea. North America
North America
covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers (9,540,000 square miles), about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface
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Central America
Central America
Central America
(Spanish: América Central, Centroamérica) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with the South American continent on the southeast. Central America is bordered by Mexico
Mexico
to the north, Colombia
Colombia
to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea
Caribbean Sea
to the east, and the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
to the west. Central America
Central America
consists of seven countries: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama
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Europe
Europe
Europe
is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe
Europe
is most commonly considered as separated from Asia
Asia
by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits.[5] Though the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity
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Asia
Metropolitan areas of Asia List of cities in AsiaList Bangkok Beijing Busan Chittagong Delhi Dhaka Doha Dubai Guangzhou Hanoi Ho Chi Minh Hong Kong Istanbul Jakarta Karachi Kuala Lumpur Manila Mumbai Osaka Pyongyang Riyadh Shanghai Shenzhen Singapore Seoul Taipei[4] Tehran Tokyo Ulaanbaatar Asia
Asia
(/ˈeɪʒə, ˈeɪʃə/ ( listen)) is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres. It shares the continental landmass of Eurasia with the continent of Europe
Europe
and the continental landmass of Afro- Eurasia
Eurasia
with both Europe
Europe
and Africa
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North Africa
North Africa
Africa
is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries situated in the northern-most region of the African continent. The term "North Africa" has no single accepted definition. It is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic
Atlantic
shores of Morocco
Morocco
in the west, to the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
and the Red Sea
Red Sea
in the east. Others have limited it to the countries of Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia, a region known by the French during colonial times as “Afrique du Nord” and by the Arabs
Arabs
as the Maghreb
Maghreb
(“West”). The most commonly accepted definition includes Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia, as well as Libya
Libya
and Egypt
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Cedrus
See text Cedrus
Cedrus
(common English name cedar) is a genus of coniferous trees in the plant family Pinaceae
Pinaceae
(subfamily Abietoideae). They are native to the mountains of the western Himalayas
Himalayas
and the Mediterranean region, occurring at altitudes of 1,500–3,200 m in the Himalayas
Himalayas
and 1,000–2,200 m in the Mediterranean.[1]Contents1 Description 2 Taxonomy2.1 Species and subspecies3 Ecology 4 Uses 5 Etymology 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksDescription[edit]Foliage of Atlas cedar Cedrus
Cedrus
trees can grow up to 30–40 m (occasionally 60 m) tall with spicy-resinous scented wood, thick ridged or square-cracked bark, and broad, level branches. The shoots are dimorphic, with long shoots, which form the framework of the branches, and short shoots, which carry most of the leaves
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Douglas Fir
Pseudotsuga
Pseudotsuga
menziesii, commonly known as Douglas fir, Douglas-fir and Oregon
Oregon
pine, is an evergreen conifer species native to western North America. One variety, the coast Douglas fir, grows along the Pacific Ocean from central British Columbia
British Columbia
south to central California. A second variety, the Rocky Mountain Douglas fir, grows in the Rocky Mountains from British Columbia
British Columbia
south to Mexico. The tree is dominant in western Washington and Oregon. It is extensively used for timber, worldwide.Contents1 Naming 2 Description 3 Distribution 4 Ecology 5 Uses 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External linksNaming[edit] The common name honors David Douglas, a Scottish botanist and collector who first reported the extraordinary nature and potential of the species
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Pseudotsuga
See text Pseudotsuga
Pseudotsuga
/ˌsjuːdoʊˈtsuːɡə/[1] is a genus of evergreen coniferous trees in the family Pinaceae
Pinaceae
(subfamily Laricoideae). Common names include Douglas fir, Douglas-fir, Douglas tree, and Oregon
Oregon
pine. Pseudotsuga menziesii
Pseudotsuga menziesii
is widespread in western North America and is an important source of timber. The number of species has long been debated, but two in western North America
North America
and two to four in eastern Asia
Asia
are commonly acknowledged.[2][3] Nineteenth-century botanists had problems in classifying Douglas-firs, due to the species' similarity to various other conifers better known at the time; they have at times been classified in Pinus, Picea, Abies, Tsuga, and even Sequoia
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Leaf
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem.[1] The leaves and stem together form the shoot.[2] Leaves are collectively referred to as foliage, as in "autumn foliage".[3][4]Diagram of a simple leaf.Apex Midvein (Primary vein) Secondary vein. Lamina. Leaf
Leaf
margin Petiole Bud StemAlthough leaves can be seen in many different shapes, sizes and textures, typically a leaf is a thin, dorsiventrally flattened organ, borne above ground and specialized for photosynthesis. In most leaves, the primary photosynthetic tissue, the palisade mesophyll, is located on the upper side of the blade or lamina of the leaf[1] but in some species, including the mature foliage of Eucalyptus,[5] palisade mesophyll is present on both sides and the leaves are said to be isobilateral
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Conifer Cone
A cone (in formal botanical usage: strobilus, plural strobili) is an organ on plants in the division Pinophyta
Pinophyta
(conifers) that contains the reproductive structures. The familiar woody cone is the female cone, which produces seeds. The male cones, which produce pollen, are usually herbaceous and much less conspicuous even at full maturity. The name "cone" derives from the fact that the shape in some species resembles a geometric cone. The individual plates of a cone are known as scales. The male cone (microstrobilus or pollen cone) is structurally similar across all conifers, differing only in small ways (mostly in scale arrangement) from species to species. Extending out from a central axis are microsporophylls (modified leaves). Under each microsporophyll is one or several microsporangia (pollen sacs). The female cone (megastrobilus, seed cone, or ovulate cone) contains ovules which, when fertilized by pollen, become seeds
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Wax
Waxes are a diverse class of organic compounds that are lipophilic, malleable solids near ambient temperatures. They include higher alkanes and lipids, typically with melting points above about 40 °C (104 °F), melting to give low viscosity liquids. Waxes are insoluble in water but soluble in organic, nonpolar solvents
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Tree
In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated stem, or trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a tree may be narrower, including only woody plants with secondary growth, plants that are usable as lumber or plants above a specified height. Trees are not a taxonomic group but include a variety of plant species that have independently evolved a woody trunk and branches as a way to tower above other plants to compete for sunlight. Trees tend to be long-lived, some reaching several thousand years old. In looser definitions, the taller palms, tree ferns, bananas and bamboos are also trees. Trees have been in existence for 370 million years. It is estimated that there are just over 3 trillion mature trees in the world.[1] A tree typically has many secondary branches supported clear of the ground by the trunk
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Stoma
In botany, a stoma (plural "stomata"), also called a stomate (plural "stomates")[1] (from Greek στόμα, "mouth"[2]), is a pore, found in the epidermis of leaves, stems, and other organs, that facilitates gas exchange. The pore is bordered by a pair of specialized parenchyma cells known as guard cells that are responsible for regulating the size of the stomatal opening. The term is usually used collectively to refer to the entire stomatal complex, consisting of the paired guard cells and the pore itself, which is referred to as the stomatal aperture.[3] Air enters the plant through these openings by gaseous diffusion, and contains carbon dioxide and oxygen, which are used in photosynthesis and respiration, respectively. Oxygen
Oxygen
produced as a by-product of photosynthesis diffuses out to the atmosphere through these same openings
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