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Abdullah Ibn Al-Muqaffa
Abū Muhammad ʿAbd Allāh Rūzbih ibn Dādūya (Persian: ابو محمد عبدالله روزبه ابن دادویه‎), original Persian name Rōzbih pūr-i Dādōē روزبه پور دادویه, known as Ibn al-Muqaffaʿ (Arabic: ابن المقفع‎), (died c. 756/759), was an ethnic Persian translator, author and thinker who wrote in the Arabic language.

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Firuzabad, Fars
Firuzabad (Persian: فيروزآباد‎ also Romanized as Fīrūzābād; Middle Persian: Gōr or Ardashir-Khwarrah, literally "The Glory of Ardashir"; also Shahr-e Gūr شهر گور) is a city and capital of Firuzabad County, Fars Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 58,210, in 12,888 families. Firuzabad is located south of Shiraz. The city is surrounded by a mud wall and ditch. The original ancient city of Gor, dating back to the Achaemenid period, was destroyed by Alexander the Great. Centuries later, Ardashir I, the founder of the Sassanian Empire, revived the city before it was ransacked during the Arab Muslim invasion of the seventh century
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Mazdak
Mazdak (Persian: مزدک‎, Middle Persian: Mazdak.png, also Mazdak the Younger; died c. 524 or 528) was a Zoroastrian mobad (priest), Iranian reformer, prophet and religious activist who gained influence during the reign of the Sasanian emperor Kavadh I. He claimed to be a prophet of Ahura Mazda and instituted communal possessions and social welfare programs
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Ibn Qutayba
Abū Muhammad Abd-Allāh ibn Muslim ibn Qutayba al-Dīnawarī al-Marwazī or simply Ibn Qutaybah (Arabic: ابن قتيبة‎, translit. Ibn Qutaybah; 828 – 13 November 889 CE / 213 – 15 Rajab 276 AH) was a renowned Islamic scholar of Persian origin
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Ibn Al-Nadim
Muḥammad ibn Ishāq al-Nadīm (Arabic: ابوالفرج محمد بن إسحاق النديم‎) known as Abū al-Faraj Muḥammad ibn Abī Ya'qūb Ishāq ibn Muḥammad ibn Ishāq al-Warrāq (d. 17 September 995 or 998 CE) was a Muslim scholar and bibliographer Al-Nadīm was the tenth century bibliophile who compiled the encyclopedic catalogue known as 'Kitāb al-Fihrist'. This important source of medieval Islāmic culture and scholarship, from his own and various ancient civilizations, preserves many names of authors, book titles and accounts that would otherwise be entirely lost. Al-Fihrist evidences Al-Nadīm's voracious thirst and curiosity for all forms of knowledge and learning, and captures a glimpse into an exciting sophisticated milieu of Baghdad's intellectual elite
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Divination
Divination (from Latin divinare "to foresee, to be inspired by a god", related to divinus, divine) is the attempt to gain insight into a question or situation by way of an occultic, standardized process or ritual. Used in various forms throughout history, diviners ascertain their interpretations of how a querent should proceed by reading signs, events, or omens, or through alleged contact with a supernatural agency. Divination can be seen as a systematic method with which to organize what appear to be disjointed, random facets of existence such that they provide insight into a problem at hand. If a distinction is to be made between divination and fortune-telling, divination has a more formal or ritualistic element and often contains a more social character, usually in a religious context, as seen in traditional African medicine. Fortune-telling, on the other hand, is a more everyday practice for personal purposes
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Physiognomy
Physiognomy (from the Gk. physis meaning "nature" and gnomon meaning "judge" or "interpreter") is the assessment of character or personality from a person's outer appearance, especially the face. The term can also refer to the general appearance of a person, object, or terrain without reference to its implied characteristics—as in the physiognomy of an individual plant (see plant life-form) or of a plant community (see vegetation). Credence of such study has varied from time to time. The practice was well accepted by the ancient Greek philosophers, but fell into disrepute in the Middle Ages when practised by vagabonds and mountebanks
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Polo
Polo is a team sport played on horseback. The objective is to score goals against an opposing team. Players score by driving a small hard white ball into the opposing team's goal using a long-handled wooden mallet. The modern sport of polo is played on a grass field of 300 by 160 yards (270 by 150 m). Each polo team consists of four riders and their polo ponies. Arena polo has three players per team and the game usually involves more maneuvering and shorter plays at lower speeds due to space limitations of arenas. Arena polo is played with a small air-filled ball, similar to a small football. The modern game usually lasts one to two hours and is divided into periods called chukkas (or "chukkers"). Polo is played professionally in 16 countries
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Khosrau I
Khosrow I (also known as Chosroes I and Kisrā in classical sources; 501–579, most commonly known in Persian as Anushiruwān (Persian: انوشيروان‎, "the immortal soul"; also known as Anushiruwan the Just (انوشيروان دادگر, Anushiruwān-e Dādgar), was the King of Kings (Shahanshah) of the Sasanian Empire from 531 to 579. He was the successor of his father Kavadh I (488–531). Khosrow I was the twenty-second Sasanian Emperor of Persia, and one of its most celebrated emperors. He laid the foundations of many cities and opulent palaces, and oversaw the repair of trade roads as well as the building of numerous bridges and dams. His reign is furthermore marked by the numerous wars fought against the Sassanid's neighboring archrivals, the Roman-Byzantine Empire, as part of the already centuries-long lasting Roman-Persian Wars
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Khosrau II
Khosrow II (Chosroes II in classical sources; Middle Persian: Husrō(y)), entitled "Aparvēz" ("The Victorious"), also Khusraw Parvēz (New Persian: خسرو پرویز), was the last great king of the Sasanian Empire, reigning from 590 to 628. He was the son of Hormizd IV (reigned 579–590) and the grandson of Khosrow I (reigned 531–579). He was the last king of Persia to have a lengthy reign before the Muslim conquest of Iran, which began five years after his death by execution
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Ardashir I
Ardashir I or Ardeshir I (Middle Persian:ArdashirPahlaviName.png, New Persian: اردشیر بابکان, Ardashir-e Bābakān), also known as Ardashir the Unifier (180–242 AD), was the founder of the Sasanian Empire. After defeating the last Parthian shahanshah Artabanus V on the Hormozdgan plain in 224, he overthrew the Parthian dynasty and established the Sasanian dynasty. Afterwards, Ardashir called himself "shahanshah" and began conquering the land that he called Iran. There are various historical reports about Ardashir's lineage and ancestry. According to Al-Tabari's report, Ardashir was son of Papak, son of Sasan
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Castilian Spanish
In English, Castilian Spanish sometimes refers to the variety of Peninsular Spanish spoken in northern and central Spain or as the language standard for radio and TV speakers. In Spanish, the term castellano (Castilian) usually refers to the Spanish language as a whole, or to the medieval Old Spanish language, a p
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Quranic
The Quran (/kɔːrˈɑːn/ kor-AHN; Arabic: القرآنal-Qurʾān,