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Abdominal Aortic Plexus
The abdominal aortic plexus (not to be confused with the thoracic aortic plexus) is formed by branches derived, on either side, from the celiac plexus and ganglia, and receives filaments from some of the lumbar ganglia. It is situated upon the sides and front of the aorta, between the origins of the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries. From this plexus arise part of the spermatic, the inferior mesenteric, and the hypogastric plexuses; it also distributes filaments to the inferior vena cava. Additional images[edit]The right sympathetic chain and its connections with the thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic plexuses.Abdominal portion of the sympathetic trunk, with the celiac and hypogastric plexuses.Lower half of right sympathetic cord.References[edit] This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 987 of the 20th edition of
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Pharyngeal Nerve
The pharyngeal nerve is a small branch arising from the posterior part of the pterygopalatine ganglion. It passes through the palatovaginal canal with the pharyngeal branch of the maxillary artery, and is distributed to the mucous membrane of the nasal part of the pharynx, behind the auditory tube. See also[edit]Pharyngeal branch of vagus nerveReferences[edit] This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 893 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy
Gray's Anatomy
(1918) External links[edit]v t eThe trigeminal nerveophth
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Inferior Vena Cava
The inferior vena cava (or IVC) is a large vein that carries deoxygenated blood from the lower and middle body into the right atrium of the heart. Its walls are rigid and has valves so the blood does not flow down via gravity. It is formed by the joining of the right and the left common iliac veins, usually at the level of the fifth lumbar vertebra. The inferior vena cava is the lower ("inferior") of the two venae cavae, the two large veins that carry deoxygenated blood from the body: the inferior vena cava carries blood from the lower half of the body whilst the superior vena cava carries blood from the upper half of the body. It is a large retroperitoneal vein that lies posterior to the abdominal cavity and runs along the right side of the vertebral column. It enters the right atrium at the lower right, back side of the heart
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Medial Superior Posterior Nasal Branches Of Maxillary Nerve
One branch of the pterygopalatine ganglion (Trigeminal nerve, Maxillary branch), longer and larger than the others, is named the nasopalatine nerve (sometimes called the long sphenopalatine nerve). It enters the nasal cavity through the sphenopalatine foramen, passes across the roof of the nasal cavity below the orifice of the sphenoidal sinus to reach the septum, and then runs obliquely downward and forward between the periosteum and mucous membrane of the lower part of the septum. It descends to the roof of the mouth through the incisive canal and communicates with the corresponding nerve of the opposite side and with the greater palatine nerve. It supplies the palatal structures around the maxillary anterior teeth (central incisors, lateral incisors, and the canines). It also furnishes a few filaments to the mucous membrane of the nasal septum. The medial superior posterior nasal branches of maxillary nerve usually branches from the nasopalatine nerve. It was first discovered by Dom
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Nasopalatine Nerve
One branch of the pterygopalatine ganglion (Trigeminal nerve, Maxillary branch), longer and larger than the others, is named the nasopalatine nerve (sometimes called the long sphenopalatine nerve). It enters the nasal cavity through the sphenopalatine foramen, passes across the roof of the nasal cavity below the orifice of the sphenoidal sinus to reach the septum, and then runs obliquely downward and forward between the periosteum and mucous membrane of the lower part of the septum. It descends to the roof of the mouth through the incisive canal and communicates with the corresponding nerve of the opposite side and with the greater palatine nerve. It supplies the palatal structures around the maxillary anterior teeth (central incisors, lateral incisors, and the canines). It also furnishes a few filaments to the mucous membrane of the nasal septum. The medial superior posterior nasal branches of maxillary nerve usually branches from the nasopalatine nerve. It was first discovered by Dom
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Lesser Palatine Nerve
The lesser palatine nerve (posterior palatine nerve) is one of two palatine nerves that descends through the greater palatine canal, and emerges by the lesser palatine foramen
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Inferior Posterior Nasal Branches Of Greater Palatine Nerve
The Inferior posterior nasal branches of greater palatine nerve are small nerves which largely supply the posterior aspect of the nasal cavity. They pass through small foramina in the palatine canal to supply the lateral walls of the nasal cavity - including the superior, middle, and inferior nasal concha
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Greater Palatine Nerve
The greater palatine nerve (anterior palatine nerve) is a branch of the pterygopalatine ganglion that carries both general sensory fibres from the maxillary nerve and parasympathetic fibers from the nerve of the pterygoid canal
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Sensory Root Of Ciliary Ganglion
Sensory fibers from the eyeball (the cornea, iris, and ciliary body) run posteriorly through the short ciliary nerves and pass through the ciliary ganglion without forming synapses. They leave the ciliary ganglion in the sensory root of ciliary ganglion, which joins the nasociliary nerve -- a branch of the ophthalmic nerve. From there, the signal travels back through the ophthalmic nerve to the trigeminal nerve and back into specific nuclei in the thalamus where they are relayed to areas in the cerebral cortex. Variability[edit] The exact distribution of sensory fibers, like the distribution of sympathetic fibers, is anatomically variable. There are alternate pathways to the eye for both sympathetic and sensory fibers, and the precise anatomy varies from person to person
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Deep Petrosal Nerve
The deep petrosal nerve (large deep petrosal nerve) is given off from the internal carotid plexus, and runs through the carotid canal lateral to the internal carotid artery. It then enters the cartilaginous substance which fills the foramen lacerum, and joins with the greater superficial petrosal nerve to form the nerve of the pterygoid canal, also known as the Vidian nerve. It carries postsynaptic sympathetic nerve fibers to the pterygopalatine ganglion, also known as the sphenopalatine ganglion. These fibers innervate blood vessels and mucous glands of the head and neck. Additional images[edit]Sympathetic connections of the sphenopalatine and superior cervical ganglia.References[edit] This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 892 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy
Gray's Anatomy
(1918) External links[edit]"7-17". Cranial Nerves. Yale School of Medicine
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Long Ciliary Nerves
The long ciliary nerves, two or three in number, are given off from the nasociliary nerve as it crosses the optic nerve. They accompany the short ciliary nerves from the ciliary ganglion, pierce the posterior part of the sclera, and running forward between it and the choroid, are distributed to the iris and cornea. The long ciliary nerves provide sensory innervation to the eyeball, including the cornea
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Human Head
In human anatomy, the head is the upper portion of the human body. It supports the face and is maintained by the skull, which itself encloses the brain.Contents1 Structure1.1 Blood supply 1.2 Nerve supply2 Function 3 Society and culture3.1 Clothing 3.2 Anthropometry4 See also 5 References 6 Further readingStructure[edit] Cryosection
Cryosection
through the male headAnatomy of the human headThe human head consists of a fleshy outer portion surrounding the bony skull, within which sits the brain. The head rests on the neck, and is provided bony support for movement by the seven cervical vertebrae. The face is the anterior part of the head, containing the sensory organs the eyes, nose and mouth. The cheeks, on either side of the mouth, provide a fleshy border to the oral cavity. To either side of the head sit the ears. Blood supply[edit] The head receives blood supply through the internal and external carotid arteries
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Neck
The neck is the part of the body, on many vertebrates, that separates the head from the torso. It contains blood vessels and nerves that supply structures in the head to the body. These in humans include part of the esophagus, the larynx, trachea, and thyroid gland, major blood vessels including the carotid arteries and jugular veins, and the first part of the spinal cord. In anatomy, the neck is also called by its Latin
Latin
names, cervix or collum, although when used alone, in context, the word cervix more often refers to the uterine cervix, the neck of the uterus
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Public Domain
The legal term public domain refers to works whose exclusive intellectual property rights have expired,[1] have been forfeited,[2] have been expressly waived, or are inapplicable.[3] For example, the works of Shakespeare
Shakespeare
and Beethoven, and most early silent films are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired.[1] Some works are not covered by copyright, and are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes,[4] and all computer software created prior to 1974.[5] Other works are actively dedicated
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Gray's Anatomy
Gray's Anatomy
Gray's Anatomy
is an English-language textbook of human anatomy originally written by Henry Gray
Henry Gray
and illustrated by Henry Vandyke Carter. Earlier editions were called Anatomy: Descriptive and Surgical and Gray's Anatomy: Descriptive and Applied, but the book's name is commonly shortened to, and later editions are titled, Gray's Anatomy. The book is widely regarded as an extremely influential work on the subject, and has continued to be revised and republished from its initial publication in 1858 to the present day
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Hypogastrium
In anatomy, the hypogastrium (also called the hypogastric region or suprapubic region) is a region of the abdomen located below the umbilical region. The pubis bone constitutes its lower limit
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