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AS-101 (spacecraft)
AS-101 (also designated SA-6) was the sixth flight of the Saturn I launch vehicle, which carried the first boilerplate Apollo spacecraft into low Earth orbit.[2][3] The test took place on May 28, 1964, lasting for four orbits (about six hours). The spacecraft and its upper stage completed a total of 54 orbits before reentering the atmosphere and crashing in the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
on June 1, 1964. The flight experienced a single anomaly: one of the eight first-stage Saturn I
Saturn I
engines shut down early, but the guidance system compensated by burning the remaining seven engines longer
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NASA
The National Aeronautics
Aeronautics
and Space Administration ( NASA
NASA
/ˈnæsə/) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.[note 1] President Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
established NASA
NASA
in 1958[10] with a distinctly civilian (rather than military) orientation encouraging peaceful applications in space science
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Boilerplate (spaceflight)
A boilerplate spacecraft, also known as a mass simulator, is a nonfunctional craft or payload that is used to test various configurations and basic size, load, and handling characteristics of rocket launch vehicles. It is far less expensive to build multiple, full-scale, non-functional boilerplate spacecraft than it is to develop the full system (design, test, redesign, and launch). In this way, boilerplate spacecraft allow components and aspects of cutting-edge aerospace projects to be tested while detailed contracts for the final project are being negotiated
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H-1 (rocket Engine)
The Rocketdyne
Rocketdyne
H-1 is a 205,000 lbf (910 kN) thrust liquid-propellant rocket engine burning LOX
LOX
and RP-1. The H-1 was developed for use in the S-I and S-IB
S-IB
first stages of the Saturn I
Saturn I
and Saturn IB
Saturn IB
rockets, respectively, where it was used in clusters of eight engines. After the Apollo program, surplus H-1 engines were rebranded and reworked as the Rocketdyne
Rocketdyne
RS-27
RS-27
engine with first usage on the Delta 2000
Delta 2000
series in 1974.[1][2]Contents1 History1.1 Early engines 1.2 X-1 1.3 Saturn and H-12 Description 3 Specifications 4 References4.1 BibliographyHistory[edit] Early engines[edit] The H-1 is one of a series of engines developed from the wartime V-2 ballistic missile
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Turbopump
A turbopump is a propellant pump with two main components: a rotodynamic pump and a driving gas turbine, usually both mounted on the same shaft, or sometimes geared together. The purpose of a turbopump is to produce a high-pressure fluid for feeding a combustion chamber or other use.An axial turbopump designed and built for the M-1 rocket engineThere are two types of turbopumps: a centrifugal pump, where the pumping is done by throwing fluid outward at high speed, or an axial-flow pump, where alternating rotating and static blades progressively raise the pressure of a fluid. Axial-flow pumps have small diameters but give relatively modest pressure increases. Although multiple compression stages are needed, axial flow pumps work well with low-density fluids
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Pacific Ocean
The Pacific Ocean
Ocean
is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean
Arctic Ocean
in the north to the Southern Ocean
Southern Ocean
(or, depending on definition, to Antarctica) in the south and is bounded by Asia
Asia
and Australia
Australia
in the west and the Americas
Americas
in the east. At 165,250,000 square kilometers (63,800,000 square miles) in area (as defined with an Antarctic
Antarctic
southern border), this largest division of the World Ocean—and, in turn, the hydrosphere—covers about 46% of Earth's water surface and about one-third of its total surface area, making it larger than all of Earth's land area combined.[1] Both the center of the Water Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere
Western Hemisphere
are in the Pacific Ocean
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Kanton Island
Kanton Island
Kanton Island
(also known as Canton Island or Abariringa Island), alternatively known as "Mary Island", "Mary Balcout's Island" or "Swallow Island", is the largest, northernmost, and as of 2007[update], the sole inhabited island of the Phoenix Islands, in the Republic of Kiribati. It is an atoll located in the South Pacific Ocean roughly halfway between Hawaii
Hawaii
and Fiji
Fiji
at 2°50′S 171°40′W / 2.833°S 171.667°W / -2.833; -171.667. The island is a narrow ribbon of land enclosing a lagoon with an area of 40 square kilometers. Kanton's closest neighbor is the uninhabited island of Enderbury, 63 km to the south. The capital of Kiribati, South Tarawa, lies 1,765 km to the west
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Theodolite
An optical theodolite, manufactured in the Soviet Union in 1958 and used for topographic surveyingA theodolite /θiːˈɒdəlaɪt/ is a precision instrument for measuring angles in the horizontal and vertical planes. Theodolites are used mainly for surveying applications, and have been adapted for specialized purposes such as meteorology and rocket launch.[1] A modern theodolite consists of a movable telescope mounted within two perpendicular axes: the horizontal or trunnion axis and the zenith axis. A theodolite measures vertical angles as angles between the zenith, forwards or plunged—typically approximately 90 and 270 degrees. When the telescope is pointed at a target object, the angle of each of these axes can be measured with great precision, typically to milliradian or seconds of arc. A theodolite may be either transit or non-transit
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Liquid Oxygen
Liquid oxygen—abbreviated LOx, LOX or Lox in the aerospace, submarine and gas industries—is one of the physical forms of elemental oxygen.Contents1 Physical properties 2 Uses2.1 In rocket propellant3 History 4 See also 5 ReferencesPhysical properties[edit] Liquid oxygen
Liquid oxygen
has a pale blue color and is strongly paramagnetic: it can be suspended between the poles of a powerful horseshoe magnet.[1]
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International Designator
The International Designator, also known as COSPAR designation, and in the United States as NSSDC ID, is an international naming convention for satellites. It consists of the launch year, a 3-digit incrementing launch number of that year and up to a 3-letter code representing the sequential identifier of a piece in a launch.[citation needed] For example, 1990-037A is the Space Shuttle Discovery
Space Shuttle Discovery
on mission STS-31, which carried the Hubble Space Telescope
Hubble Space Telescope
(1990-037B) into space. This launch was the 37th known successful launch worldwide in 1990. The number reveals that it was launched in 1990 and that it was the 37th launch made that year
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Eberhard Rees
Eberhard Friedrich Michael Rees (April 28, 1908 – April 2, 1998) was a German-American (by becoming a naturalized citizen of the United States) rocketry pioneer and the second director of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center.[2] Biography[edit] Rees was born in Trossingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
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Wernher Von Braun
Wernher Magnus Maximilian Freiherr
Freiherr
von Braun (March 23, 1912 – June 16, 1977) was a German, later American, aerospace engineer,[3] and space architect. He was the leading figure in the development of rocket technology in Germany and the father of rocket technology and space science in the United States.[4] In his twenties and early thirties, von Braun worked in Nazi Germany's rocket development program. He helped design and develop the V-2 rocket at Peenemünde
Peenemünde
during World War II. Following the war, von Braun was secretly moved to the United States, along with about 1,600 other German scientists, engineers, and technicians, as part of Operation Paperclip. He worked for the United States Army
United States Army
on an intermediate-range ballistic missile (IRBM) program and he developed the rockets that launched the United States' first space satellite Explorer 1
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Boilerplate (spacecraft)
A boilerplate spacecraft, also known as a mass simulator, is a nonfunctional craft or payload that is used to test various configurations and basic size, load, and handling characteristics of rocket launch vehicles. It is far less expensive to build multiple, full-scale, non-functional boilerplate spacecraft than it is to develop the full system (design, test, redesign, and launch). In this way, boilerplate spacecraft allow components and aspects of cutting-edge aerospace projects to be tested while detailed contracts for the final project are being negotiated
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Jupiter-C
The Jupiter-C
Jupiter-C
was an American research and development vehicle[1][2] developed from the Jupiter-A. Jupiter-C
Jupiter-C
was used for three sub-orbital spaceflights in 1956 and 1957 to test re-entry nosecones that were later to be deployed on the more advanced PGM-19 Jupiter
PGM-19 Jupiter
mobile missile. A member of the Redstone rocket family, Jupiter-C
Jupiter-C
was designed by the U.S
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Launch Escape System
A launch escape system is a crew safety system connected to a space capsule, used to quickly separate the capsule from its launch vehicle rocket in case of a launch abort emergency, such as an impending explosion. Such systems are usually of two types:A solid-fueled rocket, mounted above the capsule on a tower, which delivers a relatively large thrust for a brief period of time to send the capsule a safe distance away from the launch vehicle, at which point the capsule's parachute recovery system can be used for a safe landing on ground or water. The tower and rocket are jettisoned from the space vehicle in a normal flight at the point where it is either no longer needed, or cannot be effectively used to abort the flight. These have been used on the Mercury, Apollo, and Soyuz capsules. The crew are seated in ejection seats as used in military aircraft; each crewmember returns to Earth with an individual parachute
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Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center
The Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
Space Center (JSC) is the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Manned Spacecraft Center, where human spaceflight training, research, and flight control are conducted. It was built and leased to NASA
NASA
by Joseph L. Smith & Associates, Inc.[2] It was renamed in honor of the late U.S. president and Texas native, Lyndon B. Johnson, by an act of the United States Senate
United States Senate
on February 19, 1973. It consists of a complex of one hundred buildings constructed on 1,620 acres (660 hectares) in the Clear Lake Area
Clear Lake Area
of Houston, which acquired the official nickname "Space City" in 1967. The center is home to NASA's astronaut corps, and is responsible for training astronauts from both the U.S. and its international partners
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