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AR Serrate Denarius Of C
The denarius (/deː.ˈnaː.rɪ.ʊs/, pl. dēnāriī, /deː.ˈnaː.rɪ.iː/) was the standard Roman silver coin from its introduction in the Second Punic War
Second Punic War
c. 211 BC[1] to the reign of Gordian III
Gordian III
(AD 238-244), when it was gradually replaced by the Antoninianus. It continued to be minted in very small quantities, likely for ceremonial purposes, until and through the tetrarchy (293-313).[2]:87 The word dēnārius is derived from the Latin
Latin
dēnī "containing ten", as its value was originally of 10 assēs.[note 1] The word for "money" descends from it in Italian (denaro), Slovene (denar), Portuguese (dinheiro), and Spanish (dinero)
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Roman Republic
The Roman Republic
Republic
(Latin: Res publica Romana; Classical Latin: [ˈreːs ˈpuːb.lɪ.ka roːˈmaː.na]) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire. It was during this period that Rome's control expanded from the city's immediate surroundings to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean
Mediterranean
world. Roman government was headed by two consuls, elected annually by the citizens and advised by a senate composed of appointed magistrates. As Roman society was very hierarchical by modern standards, the evolution of the Roman government was heavily influenced by the struggle between the patricians, Rome's land-holding aristocracy, who traced their ancestry to the founding of Rome, and the plebeians, the far more numerous citizen-commoners
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Centurion
A centurion (Latin: centurio; Greek: κεντυρίων, kentyríōn, or ἑκατόνταρχος, hekatóntarkhos) was a professional officer of the Roman army
Roman army
after the Marian reforms
Marian reforms
of 107 BC. Most centurions commanded groups of centuries of around 80 legionaries [5] but senior centurions commanded cohorts or took senior staff roles in their legion. Centurions were also found in the Roman navy
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Carolingian Empire
The Carolingian Empire
Empire
(800–888) was a large empire in western and central Europe
Europe
during the early Middle Ages. It was ruled by the Carolingian dynasty, which had ruled as kings of the Franks
Franks
since 751 and as kings of the Lombards
Lombards
of Italy
Italy
from 774. In 800, the Frankish king Charlemagne
Charlemagne
was crowned emperor in Rome
Rome
by Pope Leo III in an effort to revive the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the west during a vacancy in the throne of the eastern Roman Empire. After a civil war (840–43) following the death of Emperor Louis the Pious, the empire was divided into autonomous kingdoms, with one king still recognised as emperor, but with little authority outside his own kingdom
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Offa
Offa was King of Mercia, a kingdom of Anglo-Saxon England, from 757 until his death in July 796. The son of Thingfrith
Thingfrith
and a descendant of Eowa, Offa came to the throne after a period of civil war following the assassination of Æthelbald. Offa defeated the other claimant, Beornred. In the early years of Offa's reign, it is likely that he consolidated his control of Midland peoples such as the Hwicce
Hwicce
and the Magonsæte. Taking advantage of instability in the kingdom of Kent
Kent
to establish himself as overlord, Offa also controlled Sussex by 771, though his authority did not remain unchallenged in either territory. In the 780s he extended Mercian supremacy over most of southern England, allying with Beorhtric
Beorhtric
of Wessex, who married Offa's daughter Eadburh, and regained complete control of the southeast
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Pennyweight
A pennyweight (abbreviated dwt, from denarius weight) is a unit of mass that is equal to 24 grains, ​1⁄20 of a troy ounce, ​1⁄240 of a troy pound, approximately 0.054857 avoirdupois ounce [1] and exactly 1.55517384 grams.[2]Contents1 History 2 Usage 3 Uses unrelated to weight 4 Conversion 5 ReferencesHistory[edit] In the Middle Ages, a British penny's weight was literally, as well as monetarily, ​1⁄20 of an ounce and ​1⁄240 of a pound of sterling silver. At that time, the pound in use was the Tower pound, equal to 7,680 Tower grains (also known as wheat grains). The medieval English pennyweight was thus equal to 32 Tower grains
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Seigniorage
Seigniorage /ˈseɪnjərɪdʒ/, also spelled seignorage or seigneurage (from Old French
Old French
seigneuriage "right of the lord (seigneur) to mint money"), is the difference between the value of money and the cost to produce and distribute it
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Saxon Pound
The pound was a unit of account in Anglo-Saxon England, equal to 240 silver pennies and equivalent to one pound weight of silver. According to the Daily Telegraph it came into use around 775.[1] It evolved into the modern British currency, the pound sterling. The accounting system of 12 pence = 1 shilling, 20 shillings = 1 pound was adopted from that introduced by Pepin or even earlier to the Frankish kingdom (see French livre). King Offa of Mercia
Offa of Mercia
is credited with causing the widespread adoption of the silver penny and the pound as a unit of account. Thomas Snelling writes that the division of the pound into 12 ounces was in use with the Romans, and the division of ounces into 20 pennyweights was introduced into France by Charlemagne, and then brought to England
England
by William the Conqueror.[2] The Latin word for "pound" is libra. The £ or ₤ is a stylised writing of the letter L, a short way of writing libra
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Troy Pound
Troy weight
Troy weight
is a system of units of mass customarily used for precious metals and gemstones. One troy ounce (abbreviated "t oz" or "oz t") is equal to 7001311034768000000♠31.1034768 grams, (or about 1.0971 oz. avoirdupois, the "avoirdupois" ounce being the most common definition of an "ounce" in the US).[1] There are only 12 troy ounces per troy pound, rather than the 16 ounces per pound found in the more common avoirdupois system. However, the avoirdupois pound has 7000 grains whereas the troy pound has only 5760 grains (i.e. 12 × 480 grains). Both systems use the same grain defined by the international yard and pound agreement of 1959 as 6998647989100000000♠0.06479891 grams. Therefore, the troy ounce is 480 grains or 31.10 grams, compared with the avoirdupois ounce, which is 437.5 grains or 28.35 grams. The troy ounce, then, is about 10% heavier (ratio 192/175) than the avoirdupois ounce
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Domitilla The Elder
Flavia Domitilla Major (Major, Latin for the elder) Flavia Domitilla the Elder or Domitilla the Elder
Domitilla the Elder
(died before 69, perhaps c. 65) was the wife of the Roman Emperor Vespasian.[1]Contents1 Life 2 Notes 3 Bibliography 4 See also 5 External linksLife[edit] Flavia Domitilla was born in Sabratha
Sabratha
to Italian colonists who had moved there during the reign of Augustus. She was a daughter of Flavius Liberalis, a humble quaestor’s clerk. Before her marriage, she was a formal mistress to an equestrian.Roman denarius depicting Flavia Domitilla Minor Vespasian
Vespasian
married her around 38 AD. She was the mother of Domitilla the Younger and of the emperors Titus
Titus
and Domitian
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Titus
Titus
Titus
(/ˈtaɪtəs/; Latin: Titus
Titus
Flavius Caesar Vespasianus Augustus;[a] 30 December 39 – 13 September 81 AD) was Roman emperor from 79 to 81. A member of the Flavian dynasty, Titus
Titus
succeeded his father Vespasian
Vespasian
upon his death, thus becoming the first Roman emperor to come to the throne after his own biological father. Prior to becoming emperor, Titus
Titus
gained renown as a military commander, serving under his father in Judea during the First Jewish–Roman War. The campaign came to a brief halt with the death of emperor Nero
Nero
in 68, launching Vespasian's bid for the imperial power during the Year of the Four Emperors. When Vespasian
Vespasian
was declared Emperor on 1 July 69, Titus
Titus
was left in charge of ending the Jewish rebellion
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Domitian
14 September 81 – 18 September 96 (15 years)Predecessor TitusSuccessor NervaBorn (51-10-24)24 October 51 RomeDied 18 September 96(96-09-18) (aged 44) RomeBurial RomeWife Domitia Longina
Domitia Longina
(70–96)Issue son (80–83)Full name Titus
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Julius Caesar
Gaius Julius Caesar[a] (/ˈsiːzər/; 12 or 13 July 100 BC[1] – 15 March 44 BC),[2] usually called Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
and the rise of the Roman Empire. He is also known as a notable author of Latin
Latin
prose. In 60 BC, Caesar, Crassus
Crassus
and Pompey
Pompey
formed a political alliance that dominated Roman politics
Roman politics
for several years. Their attempts to amass power as Populares were opposed by the Optimates within the Roman Senate, among them Cato the Younger
Cato the Younger
with the frequent support of Cicero
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Grain (measure)
A grain is a unit of measurement of mass, and in the troy weight, avoirdupois, and Apothecaries' system, equal to exactly 7001647989100000000♠64.79891 milligrams. It is nominally based upon the mass of a single virtual ideal seed of a cereal. From the Bronze Age into the Renaissance the average masses of wheat and barley grains were part of the legal definitions of units of mass
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Pepin The Short
Pepin the Short[a] (German: Pippin der Kurze, French: Pépin le Bref, c. 714 – 24 September 768) was the King of the Franks
King of the Franks
from 751 until his death. He was the first of the Carolingians to become king.[b][2] The younger son of the Frankish prince Charles Martel
Charles Martel
and his wife Rotrude, Pepin's upbringing was distinguished by the ecclesiastical education he had received from the monks of St. Denis. Succeeding his father as the Mayor of the Palace in 741, Pepin reigned over Francia jointly with his elder brother Carloman. Pepin ruled in Neustria, Burgundy, and Provence, while his brother Carloman established himself in Austrasia, Alemannia
Alemannia
and Thuringia. The brothers were active in suppressing revolts led by the Bavarians, Aquitanians, Saxons, and the Alemanni
Alemanni
in the early years of their reign
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Troy Ounce
Troy weight
Troy weight
is a system of units of mass customarily used for precious metals and gemstones. One troy ounce (abbreviated "t oz" or "oz t") is equal to 7001311034768000000♠31.1034768 grams, (or about 1.0971 oz. avoirdupois, the "avoirdupois" ounce being the most common definition of an "ounce" in the US).[1] There are only 12 troy ounces per troy pound, rather than the 16 ounces per pound found in the more common avoirdupois system. However, the avoirdupois pound has 7000 grains whereas the troy pound has only 5760 grains (i.e. 12 × 480 grains). Both systems use the same grain defined by the international yard and pound agreement of 1959 as 6998647989100000000♠0.06479891 grams. Therefore, the troy ounce is 480 grains or 31.10 grams, compared with the avoirdupois ounce, which is 437.5 grains or 28.35 grams. The troy ounce, then, is about 10% heavier (ratio 192/175) than the avoirdupois ounce
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