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ARPANET
The Advanced Research Projects Agency
Advanced Research Projects Agency
Network (ARPANET) was an early packet switching network and the first network to implement the protocol suite TCP/IP. Both technologies became the technical foundation of the Internet
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Circuit Switching
Circuit switching
Circuit switching
is a method of implementing a telecommunications network in which two network nodes establish a dedicated communications channel (circuit) through the network before the nodes may communicate. The circuit guarantees the full bandwidth of the channel and remains connected for the duration of the communication session. The circuit functions as if the nodes were physically connected as with an electrical circuit. The defining example of a circuit-switched network is the early analog telephone network. When a call is made from one telephone to another, switches within the telephone exchanges create a continuous wire circuit between the two telephones, for as long as the call lasts. Circuit switching
Circuit switching
contrasts with packet switching, which divides the data to be transmitted into packets transmitted through the network independently
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Q32
The AN/FSQ-32
AN/FSQ-32
SAGE Solid State Computer (AN/FSQ-7A before December 1958,[6]:27 colloq. "Q-32") was a planned military computer central for deployment to Super Combat Centers in nuclear bunkers and to some above-ground military installations. In 1958, Air Defense Command planned to acquire 13 Q-32 centrals[5] for Air Divisions/Sectors at Ottawa, St Louis, San Antonio, Raleigh, Syracuse, Chicago, Spokane, Minot, Portland, Phoenix, Miami (above-ground), Albuquerque (above-ground), and Shreveport (above-ground)
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Supercomputer
A supercomputer is a computer with a high level of performance compared to a general-purpose computer. Performance of a supercomputer is measured in floating-point operations per second (FLOPS) instead of million instructions per second (MIPS)
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United States
Coordinates: 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of AmericaFlagGreat SealMotto:  "In God
God
We Trust"[1][fn 1]Other traditional mottos  "E pluribus unum" (Latin) (de facto) "Out of many, one" "Annuit cœptis" (Latin) "H
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Computer Science
Computer science
Computer science
is the study of the theory, experimentation, and engineering that form the basis for the design and use of computers. It is the scientific and practical approach to computation and its applications and the systematic study of the feasibility, structure, expression, and mechanization of the methodical procedures (or algorithms) that underlie the acquisition, representation, processing, storage, communication of, and access to, information. An alternate, more succinct definition of computer science is the study of automating algorithmic processes that scale. A computer scientist specializes in the theory of computation and the design of computational systems.[1] Its fields can be divided into a variety of theoretical and practical disciplines
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J. C. R. Licklider
Joseph Carl Robnett Licklider (/ˈlɪklaɪdər/; March 11, 1915 – June 26, 1990), known simply as J. C. R. or "Lick", was an American psychologist[2] and computer scientist who is considered one of the most important figures in computer science and general computing history. He is particularly remembered for being one of the first to foresee modern-style interactive computing and its application to all manner of activities; and also as an Internet
Internet
pioneer with an early vision of a worldwide computer network long before it was built
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Bolt, Beranek And Newman
BBN Technologies
BBN Technologies
(originally Bolt, Beranek and Newman) is an American high-technology company which provides research and development services. BBN is based next to Fresh Pond in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. It is a military contractor, primarily for DARPA, and also known for its 1978 acoustical analysis for the House Select Committee on the assassination of John F. Kennedy.[1] BBN of the 1950s and 1960s has been referred to by two of its alumni as the "third university" of Cambridge, after MIT and Harvard.[2] In 1966, the Franklin Institute awarded the firm the Frank P. Brown Medal. Ray Tomlinson
Ray Tomlinson
of BBN Technologies
BBN Technologies
is widely credited as having invented email in 1971. [3] [4] BBN Technologies
BBN Technologies
registered the bbn.com domain on April 24, 1985, making it the second oldest domain name on the internet
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Intergalactic Computer Network
Intergalactic Computer Network
Intergalactic Computer Network
or Galactic Network[1] was a computer networking concept similar to today's Internet. J.C.R
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Ivan Sutherland
Ivan Edward Sutherland (born May 16, 1938)[1] is an American computer scientist and Internet pioneer, widely regarded as the "father of computer graphics."[2] His early work in computer graphics as well as his teaching with David C. Evans in that subject at the University of Utah in the 1970s was pioneering in the field. Sutherland, Evans, and his students from that era invented several foundations of modern computer graphics. He received the Turing Award
Turing Award
from the Association for Computing Machinery in 1988 for the invention of Sketchpad, an early predecessor to the sort of graphical user interface that has become ubiquitous in personal computers. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering, as well as the National Academy of Sciences among many other major awards
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System Development Corporation
System Development Corporation (SDC), based in Santa Monica, California, was considered the world's first computer software company.[1] SDC started in 1955 as the systems engineering group for the SAGE air defense ground system at the RAND Corporation. RAND spun off the group in 1957 as a non-profit organization that provided expertise for the United States
United States
military in the design, integration, and testing of large, complex, computer-controlled systems. SDC became for-profit in 1969. With that change, it began to offer its services to all comers rather than only to the American military. In 1980, SDC was sold by its board of directors to Burroughs Corporation. In 1986, Burroughs merged with the Sperry Corporation
Sperry Corporation
to form Unisys, and SDC was folded into Unisys
Unisys
Defense Systems
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Santa Monica
Santa Monica
Santa Monica
is a beachfront city in western Los Angeles
Los Angeles
County, California, United States. Situated on Santa Monica
Santa Monica
Bay, it is bordered on three sides by the city of Los Angeles
Los Angeles
– Pacific Palisades to the north, Brentwood on the northeast, West Los Angeles on the east, Mar Vista on the southeast, and Venice on the south. The Census Bureau population for Santa Monica
Santa Monica
in 2010 was 89,736. Due in part to an agreeable climate, Santa Monica
Santa Monica
became a famed resort town by the early 20th century. The city has experienced a boom since the late 1980s through the revitalization of its downtown core, significant job growth and increased tourism
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Wesley A. Clark
Wesley Allison Clark (April 10, 1927 – February 22, 2016) was an American physicist who is credited for designing the first modern personal computer.[1] He was also a computer designer and the main participant, along with Charles Molnar, in the creation of the LINC computer, which was the first minicomputer and shares with a number of other computers (such as the PDP-1) the claim to be the inspiration for the personal computer. Clark was born in New Haven, Connecticut, and grew up in Kinderhook, New York, and in northern California. His parents, Wesley Sr. and Eleanor Kittell, moved to California, and he attended the University of California, Berkeley, where he graduated with a degree in physics in 1947.[1] Clark began his career as a physicist at the Hanford Site. In 1981, Clark received the Eckert–Mauchly Award for his work on computer architecture
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Project Genie
Project Genie was a computer research project started in 1964 at the University of California, Berkeley. It produced an early time-sharing system including the Berkeley Timesharing System, which was then commercialized as the SDS 940.Contents1 History 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksHistory[edit] Project Genie was funded by J. C. R. Licklider, the head of DARPA
DARPA
at that time. The project was a smaller counterpart to MIT's Project MAC. The system that Scientific Data Systems
Scientific Data Systems
(SDS, later XDS) would call the 940 was created by modifying an SDS 930 24-bit commercial computer so that it could be used for timesharing. The work was funded by ARPA and directed by Melvin W. Pirtle at and Wayne Lichtenberger at UC Berkeley. Butler Lampson, Chuck Thacker, and L
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Queueing Theory
Queueing theory
Queueing theory
is the mathematical study of waiting lines, or queues.[1] A queueing model is constructed so that queue lengths and waiting time can be predicted.[1] Queueing theory
Queueing theory
is generally considered a branch of operations research because th
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MULTICS
Multics
Multics
(Multiplexed Information and Computing Service) is an influential early time-sharing operating system, based around the concept of a single-level memory.[4][5] Virtually all modern operating systems were heavily influenced by Multics, often through Unix, which had been created by the people who had worked on Multics—either directly (Linux, macOS) or indirectly (Microsoft Windows NT).Contents1 Overview 2 Novel ideas 3 Project history3.1 Current status4 Retrospective observations 5 Influence on other projects5.1 Unix 5.2 Other operating systems6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading8.1 Technical details 8.2 Security9 External linksOverview[edit] Initial planning and development for Multics
Multics
started in 1964, in Cambridge, Massachusetts
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