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Arpanet
The ADVANCED RESEARCH PROJECTS AGENCY NETWORK (ARPANET) was an early packet switching network and the first network to implement the protocol suite TCP/IP
TCP/IP
. Both technologies became the technical foundation of the Internet
Internet
. ARPANET
ARPANET
was initially funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) of the United States Department of Defense . The packet switching methodology employed in the ARPANET
ARPANET
was based on concepts and designs by Americans Leonard Kleinrock , Paul Baran , Lawrence Roberts and British scientist Donald Davies
Donald Davies

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Datagram
A DATAGRAM is a basic transfer unit associated with a packet-switched network . Datagrams are typically structured in header and payload sections. Datagrams provide a connectionless communication service across a packet-switched network. The delivery, arrival time, and order of arrival of datagrams need not be guaranteed by the network. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Definition * 3 Structure * 4 Examples * 4.1 Internet Protocol
Internet Protocol
* 5 See also * 6 References HISTORYThe term datagram appeared first within the project CYCLADES
CYCLADES
, a packet-switched network created in the early 1970s, and was coined by Louis Pouzin by combining the words data and telegram. CYCLADES
CYCLADES
was the first network to make the hosts responsible for the reliable delivery of data, rather than the network itself, using unreliable datagrams and associated end-to-end protocol mechanisms
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Packet (information Technology)
A NETWORK PACKET is a formatted unit of data carried by a packet-switched network. Computer communications links that do not support packets, such as traditional point-to-point telecommunications links , simply transmit data as a bit stream . When data is formatted into packets, packet switching is possible and the bandwidth of the communication medium can be better shared among users than with circuit switching . A packet consists of control information and user data, which is also known as the payload . Control information provides data for delivering the payload, for example: source and destination network addresses , error detection codes, and sequencing information. Typically, control information is found in packet headers and trailers
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Post Box
A POST BOX ( British English
British English
; also written POSTBOX), also known as a COLLECTION BOX, MAILBOX, LETTER BOX or DROP BOX ( American English
American English
) is a physical box into which members of the public can deposit outgoing mail intended for collection by the agents of a country's postal service . The term post box can also refer to a private letter box for incoming mail
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Computer Science
COMPUTER SCIENCE is the study of the theory, experimentation, and engineering that form the basis for the design and use of computers. It is the scientific and practical approach to computation and its applications and the systematic study of the feasibility, structure, expression, and mechanization of the methodical procedures (or algorithms ) that underlie the acquisition, representation, processing, storage, communication of, and access to, information. An alternate, more succinct definition of computer science is the study of automating algorithmic processes that scale. A computer scientist specializes in the theory of computation and the design of computational systems. Its fields can be divided into a variety of theoretical and practical disciplines
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Circuit Switching
CIRCUIT SWITCHING is a method of implementing a telecommunications network in which two network nodes establish a dedicated communications channel (circuit ) through the network before the nodes may communicate. The circuit guarantees the full bandwidth of the channel and remains connected for the duration of the communication session . The circuit functions as if the nodes were physically connected as with an electrical circuit. The defining example of a circuit-switched network is the early analog telephone network . When a call is made from one telephone to another, switches within the telephone exchanges create a continuous wire circuit between the two telephones, for as long as the call lasts. Circuit switching
Circuit switching
contrasts with packet switching which divides the data to be transmitted into packets transmitted through the network independently
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NSFNET
The NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NETWORK (NSFNET) was a program of coordinated, evolving projects sponsored by the National Science Foundation (NSF) beginning in 1985 to promote advanced research and education networking in the United States. NSFNET was also the name given to several nationwide backbone networks that were constructed to support NSF's networking initiatives from 1985 to 1995
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CSNET
The COMPUTER SCIENCE NETWORK (CSNET) was a computer network that began operation in 1981 in the United States. Its purpose was to extend networking benefits, for computer science departments at academic and research institutions that could not be directly connected to ARPANET
ARPANET
, due to funding or authorization limitations. It played a significant role in spreading awareness of, and access to, national networking and was a major milestone on the path to development of the global Internet
Internet

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Request For Quotation
A REQUEST FOR QUOTATION (RFQ) is a standard business process whose purpose is to invite suppliers into a bidding process to bid on specific products or services . RFQ generally means the same thing as IFB (Invitation For Bid) . An RFQ typically involves more than the price per item. Information like payment terms, quality level per item or contract length may be requested during the bidding process . To receive correct quotes , RFQs often include the specifications of the items/services to make sure all the suppliers are bidding on the same item/service. Logically, the more detailed the specifications , the more accurate the quote will be and comparable to the other suppliers. Another reason for being detailed in sending out an RFQ is that the specifications could be used as legal binding documentation for the suppliers
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Networking Protocol
In telecommunications , a COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL is a system of rules that allow two or more entities of a communications system to transmit information via any kind of variation of a physical quantity . The protocol defines the rules syntax , semantics and synchronization of communication and possible error recovery methods . Protocols may be implemented by hardware , software , or a combination of both. Communicating systems use well-defined formats (protocol) for exchanging various messages. Each message has an exact meaning intended to elicit a response from a range of possible responses pre-determined for that particular situation. The specified behavior is typically independent of how it is to be implemented . Communications protocols have to be agreed upon by the parties involved. To reach agreement, a protocol may be developed into a technical standard
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Supercomputer
A SUPERCOMPUTER is a computer with a high level of computing performance compared to a general-purpose computer . Performance of a supercomputer is measured in floating-point operations per second ( FLOPS ) instead of million instructions per second (MIPS). As of 2015, there are supercomputers which can perform up to quadrillions of FLOPS, measured in P(eta)FLOPS. The majority of supercomputers today run Linux
Linux
-based operating systems
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J. C. R. Licklider
JOSEPH CARL ROBNETT LICKLIDER (/ˈlɪklaɪdər/ ; March 11, 1915 – June 26, 1990), known simply as J. C. R. or "LICK", was an American psychologist and computer scientist who is considered one of the most important figures in computer science and general computing history . He is particularly remembered for being one of the first to foresee modern-style interactive computing and its application to all manner of activities; and also as an Internet
Internet
pioneer with an early vision of a worldwide computer network long before it was built. He did much to actually initiate this by funding research which led to much of it, including today's canonical graphical user interface , and the ARPANET , the direct predecessor to the Internet
Internet

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Bolt, Beranek And Newman
BBN TECHNOLOGIES (originally BOLT, BERANEK AND NEWMAN) is an American high-technology company which provides research and development services. BBN is based next to Fresh Pond in Cambridge , Massachusetts , USA . It is a military contractor , primarily for DARPA
DARPA
, and also known for its 1978 acoustical analysis for the House Select Committee on the assassination of John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
. BBN of the 1950s and 1960s has been referred to by two of its alumni as the "third university" of Cambridge, after MIT and Harvard. In 1966, the Franklin Institute awarded the firm the Frank P. Brown Medal . Ray Tomlinson of BBN Technologies is widely credited as having invented email in 1971. BBN Technologies registered the bbn.com domain on April 24, 1985, making it the second oldest domain name on the internet
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Project Genie
PROJECT GENIE was a computer research project started in 1964 at the University of California, Berkeley
University of California, Berkeley
. It produced an early time-sharing system including the Berkeley Timesharing System , which was then commercialized as the SDS 940 . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links HISTORY Project Genie was funded by J. C. R. Licklider
J. C. R. Licklider
, the head of DARPA
DARPA
at that time. The project was a smaller counterpart to MIT 's Project MAC . The system that Scientific Data Systems (SDS, later XDS) would call the 940 was created by modifying an SDS 930 24-bit commercial computer so that it could be used for timesharing. The work was funded by ARPA and directed by Melvin W. Pirtle at and Wayne Lichtenberger at UC Berkeley
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NPL Network
The NATIONAL PHYSICAL LABORATORY NETWORK (NPL NETWORK or NPL DATA COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK) was a computer network operated by a team from the National Physical Laboratory in England. Following a pilot experiment during 1967, elements of the first version of the network, Mark I, became operational during 1969 then fully operational in 1970, and the Mark II version operated from 1973 until 1986. The NPL network, followed by ARPANET
ARPANET
in the United States, were the first two computer networks that implemented packet switching , and were interconnected in the early 1970s
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Multics
MULTICS (MULTIPLEXED INFORMATION AND COMPUTING SERVICE) is an influential early time-sharing operating system , based around the concept of a single-level memory . Virtually all modern operating systems are heavily influenced by Multics; often through Unix
Unix
, either directly ( Linux
Linux
, macOS ) or indirectly ( Microsoft Windows
Microsoft Windows
). CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Novel ideas * 3 Project history * 4 Retrospective observations * 5 Current status * 6 Influence on other projects * 6.1 Unix
Unix
* 6.2 Other operating systems * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 9.1 Technical details * 9.2 Security * 10 External links OVERVIEWInitial planning and development for Multics
Multics
started in 1964, in Cambridge, Massachusetts
Cambridge, Massachusetts

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