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AMAX
AMAX is an American certification program developed by the Electronic Industries Association (EIA) and the National Association of Broadcasters (NAB) in 1993. This quality control program addressed both consumer receiver developments and air chains of broadcast AM transmission stations. Tuners and receivers offering AMAX Stereo were designed to capture the widest audio frequency response and stereo separation of AM stereo
AM stereo
broadcasts, where available. Prerequisites[edit] AMAX Stereo products are not widely available to the public
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Amplitude Modulation
Amplitude
Amplitude
modulation (AM) is a modulation technique used in electronic communication, most commonly for transmitting information via a radio carrier wave. In amplitude modulation, the amplitude (signal strength) of the carrier wave is varied in proportion to that of the message signal being transmitted. The message signal is, for example, a function of the sound to be reproduced by a loudspeaker, or the light intensity of pixels of a television screen
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Photosynthetic Capacity
Photosynthetic capacity (Amax) is a measure of the maximum rate at which leaves are able to fix carbon during photosynthesis. It is typically measured as the amount of carbon dioxide that is fixed per metre squared per second, for example as μmol m−2 sec−1. Limitations[edit] Photosynthetic capacity is limited by carboxylation capacity and electron transport capacity. For example, in high carbon dioxide concentrations or in low light, the plant is not able to regenerate ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate fast enough (also known RUBP, the acceptor molecule in photosynthetic carbon reduction). So in this case, photosynthetic capacity is limited by electron transport of the light reaction, which generates the NADPH and ATP required for the PCR (Calvin) Cycle, and regeneration of RUBP
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Motorola
Motorola, Inc. (/ˌmoʊtəˈroʊlə/[4]) was an American multinational telecommunications company founded on September 25, 1928, based in Schaumburg, Illinois. After having lost $4.3 billion from 2007 to 2009, the company was divided into two independent public companies, Motorola Mobility
Motorola Mobility
and Motorola Solutions
Motorola Solutions
on January 4, 2011.[5] Motorola Solutions
Motorola Solutions
is generally considered to be the direct successor to Motorola, as the reorganization was structured with Motorola Mobility being spun off.[6] Motorola Mobility
Motorola Mobility
was sold to Google
Google
in 2012, and acquired by Lenovo
Lenovo
in 2014.[7] Motorola
Motorola
designed and sold wireless network equipment such as cellular transmission base stations and signal amplifiers
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Noise Blanker
In the design of radio receivers, a noise blanker is a circuit intended to reduce the effect of certain kinds of radio noise on a received signal. A noise blanker is a common feature on broadcast shortwave receivers or communications receivers and some types of two-way radio transceivers. The noise blanker is only effective on impulse-type noise such as from lightning or from automotive ignition systems, and cannot improve performance on wideband continuous background noise, or interfering signals on the same frequency.[1] In cases where there are strong signals on frequencies near to the desired frequency, a noise blanker circuit may be ineffective and may reduce the quality of the received signal. [2] Implementation[edit] Typically this is a network in the intermediate frequency section of the receiver; when a pulse of noise passes through the IF amplifiers, it is usually of greater amplitude than the desired signal
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De-emphasis
Typically, prior to some process, such as transmission over cable, or recording to phonograph record or tape, the input frequency range most susceptible to noise is boosted. This is referred to as "pre-emphasis" – "pre-" the process the signal will undergo. Later, when the signal is received, or retrieved from recording, the reverse transformation is applied ("de-emphasis") so that the output accurately reproduces the original input. Any noise added by transmission or record/playback, to the frequency range previously boosted, is now attenuated in the de-emphasis stage. The high-frequency signal components are emphasized to produce a more equal modulation index for the transmitted frequency spectrum, and therefore a better signal-to-noise ratio for the entire frequency range. Emphasis is commonly used in FM broadcasting and vinyl (e.g
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Attenuate
In physics, attenuation or, in some contexts, extinction is the gradual loss of flux intensity through a medium. For instance, dark glasses attenuate sunlight, lead attenuates X-rays, and water and air attenuate both light and sound at variable attenuation rates. Hearing protectors
Hearing protectors
help reduce acoustic flux from flowing into the ears. This phenomenon is called acoustic attenuation and is measured in decibels (dBs). In electrical engineering and telecommunications, attenuation affects the propagation of waves and signals in electrical circuits, in optical fibers, and in air
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National Radio Systems Committee
The National Radio Systems Committee (NRSC) is an organization sponsored by the Consumer Technology Association (CTA) and the National Association of Broadcasters (NAB). Its main purpose is to set industry technical standards for radio broadcasting in the United States. While regulatory authority rests with the FCC, it usually adopts NRSC recommendations, such as RBDS and spectral masks
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Wideband
In communications, a system is wideband when the message bandwidth significantly exceeds the coherence bandwidth of the channel. Some communication links have such a high data rate that they are forced to use a wide bandwidth; other links may have relatively low data rates, but deliberately use a wider bandwidth than "necessary" for that data rate in order to gain other advantages; see spread spectrum. A wideband antenna is one with approximately or exactly the same operating characteristics over a very wide Passband. It is distinguished from broadband antennas, where the passband is large, but the antenna gain and/or radiation pattern need not stay the same over the passband. The term Wideband Audio or (also termed HD Voice or Wideband Voice) denotes a telephony using a wideband codec, which uses a greater frequency range of the audio spectrum than conventional voiceband telephone calls, resulting in a clearer sound
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Narrowband
In radio, narrowband describes a channel in which the bandwidth of the message does not significantly exceed the channel's coherence bandwidth. In the study of wired channels, narrowband implies that the channel under consideration is sufficiently narrow that its frequency response can be considered flat. The message bandwidth will therefore be less than the coherence bandwidth of the channel. That is, no channel has perfectly flat fading, but the analysis of many aspects of wireless systems is greatly simplified if flat fading can be assumed. Narrowband can also be used with the audio spectrum to describe sounds which occupy a narrow range of frequencies. In telephony, narrowband is usually considered to cover frequencies 300–3400 Hz.Contents1 Two-way radio narrowband 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksTwo-way radio narrowband[edit] Two-Way Radio Narrowbanding refers to a U.S
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Hertz
The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.[1] It is named for Heinrich Rudolf Hertz, the first person to provide conclusive proof of the existence of electromagnetic waves. Hertz
Hertz
are commonly expressed in multiples: kilohertz (103 Hz, kHz), megahertz (106 Hz, MHz), gigahertz (109 Hz, GHz), and terahertz (1012 Hz, THz). Some of the unit's most common uses are in the description of sine waves and musical tones, particularly those used in radio- and audio-related applications
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Bandwidth (signal Processing)
Bandwidth is the difference between the upper and lower frequencies in a continuous band of frequencies. It is typically measured in hertz, and depending on context, may specifically refer to passband bandwidth or baseband bandwidth. Passband
Passband
bandwidth is the difference between the upper and lower cutoff frequencies of, for example, a band-pass filter, a communication channel, or a signal spectrum
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Fidelity
Fidelity
Fidelity
is the quality of faithfulness or loyalty. Its original meaning regarded duty in a broader sense than the related concept of fealty. Both derive from the Latin
Latin
word fidēlis, meaning "faithful or loyal". In the City of London
City of London
financial markets it has traditionally been used in the sense encompassed in the motto "My word is my bond".Contents1 Audio and electronics 2 Scientific modelling
Scientific modelling
and simulation 3 Program evaluation 4 ReferencesAudio and electronics[edit] "Low fidelity" redirects here. For the aesthetic, see Lo-fi music. See also: Sound recording and reproduction In audio, "fidelity" denotes how accurately a copy reproduces its source
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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Stereophonic Sound
Stereophonic sound
Stereophonic sound
or, more commonly, stereo, is a method of sound reproduction that creates an illusion of multi-directional audible perspective. This is usually achieved by using two or more independent audio channels through a configuration of two or more loudspeakers (or stereo headphones) in such a way as to create the impression of sound heard from various directions, as in natural hearing.[1] Thus the term "stereophonic" applies to so-called "quadraphonic" and "surround-sound" systems as well as the more common two-channel, two-speaker systems. It is often contrasted with monophonic, or "mono" sound, where audio is heard as coming from one position, often ahead in the sound field (analogous to a visual field). In the 2000s, stereo sound is common in entertainment systems such as broadcast radio, TV, recorded music, and cinema.How stereophonic & duophonic sound systems work
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Frequency Response
Frequency
Frequency
response is the quantitative measure of the output spectrum of a system or device in response to a stimulus, and is used to characterize the dynamics of the system. It is a measure of magnitude and phase of the output as a function of frequency, in comparison to the input. In simplest terms, if a sine wave is injected into a system at a given frequency, a linear system will respond at that same frequency with a certain magnitude and a certain phase angle relative to the input. Also for a linear system, doubling the amplitude of the input will double the amplitude of the output. In addition, if the system is time-invariant (so LTI), then the frequency response also will not vary with time
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