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AMAX
AMAX is an American certification program developed by the Electronic Industries Association (EIA) and the National Association of Broadcasters (NAB) in 1993. This quality control program addressed both consumer receiver developments and air chains of broadcast AM transmission stations. Tuners and receivers offering AMAX Stereo were designed to capture the widest audio frequency response and stereo separation of AM stereo broadcasts, where available. PREREQUISITES AMAX Stereo products are not widely available to the public
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Narrowband
In radio, NARROWBAND describes a channel in which the bandwidth of the message does not significantly exceed the channel's coherence bandwidth . In the study of wired channels , narrowband implies that the channel under consideration is sufficiently narrow that its frequency response can be considered flat. The message bandwidth will therefore be less than the coherence bandwidth of the channel. That is, no channel has perfectly flat fading , but the analysis of many aspects of wireless systems is greatly simplified if flat fading can be assumed. Narrowband can also be used with the audio spectrum to describe sounds which occupy a narrow range of frequencies. In telephony , narrowband is usually considered to cover frequencies 300–3400 Hz. CONTENTS * 1 Two-way radio narrowband * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links TWO-WAY RADIO NARROWBANDTwo-Way Radio Narrowbanding refers to a U.S
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Hertz
The HERTZ (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second . It is named for Heinrich Rudolf Hertz
Hertz
, the first person to provide conclusive proof of the existence of electromagnetic waves . Hertz
Hertz
are commonly expressed in multiples : kilohertz (103 Hz, kHz), megahertz (106 Hz, MHz), gigahertz (109 Hz, GHz), and terahertz (1012 Hz, THz). Some of the unit's most common uses are in the description of sine waves and musical tones , particularly those used in radio - and audio-related applications. It is also used to describe the speeds at which computers and other electronics are driven
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Bandwidth (signal Processing)
BANDWIDTH is the difference between the upper and lower frequencies in a continuous set of frequencies. It is typically measured in hertz , and may sometimes refer to passband bandwidth, sometimes to baseband bandwidth, depending on context. PASSBAND BANDWIDTH is the difference between the upper and lower cutoff frequencies of, for example, a band-pass filter , a communication channel , or a signal spectrum . In the case of a low-pass filter or baseband signal , the bandwidth is equal to its upper cutoff frequency. Bandwidth in hertz is a central concept in many fields, including electronics , information theory , digital communications , radio communications , signal processing , and spectroscopy and is one of the determinants of the capacity of a given communication channel. A key characteristic of bandwidth is that any band of a given width can carry the same amount of information , regardless of where that band is located in the frequency spectrum
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Amplitude Modulation
AMPLITUDE MODULATION (AM) is a modulation technique used in electronic communication, most commonly for transmitting information via a radio carrier wave . In amplitude modulation, the amplitude (signal strength) of the carrier wave is varied in proportion to the waveform being transmitted. That waveform may, for instance, correspond to the sounds to be reproduced by a loudspeaker , or the light intensity of television pixels. This technique contrasts with frequency modulation , in which the frequency of the carrier signal is varied, and phase modulation , in which its phase is varied. AM was the earliest modulation method used to transmit voice by radio. It was developed during the first two decades of the 20th century beginning with Landell de Moura and Reginald Fessenden
Reginald Fessenden
's radiotelephone experiments in 1900
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Wideband
In communications , a system is WIDEBAND when the message bandwidth significantly exceeds the coherence bandwidth of the channel . Some communication links have such a high data rate that they are forced to use a wide bandwidth ; other links may have relatively low data rates, but deliberately use a wider bandwidth than "necessary" for that data rate in order to gain other advantages; see spread spectrum . A wideband antenna is one with approximately or exactly the same operating characteristics over a very wide Passband
Passband
. It is distinguished from broadband antennas, where the passband is large, but the antenna gain and/or radiation pattern need not stay the same over the passband
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National Radio Systems Committee
The NATIONAL RADIO SYSTEMS COMMITTEE (NRSC) is an organization sponsored by the Consumer Electronics Association
Consumer Electronics Association
(CEA) and the National Association of Broadcasters
National Association of Broadcasters
(NAB). Its main purpose is to set industry technical standards for radio broadcasting in the United States . While regulatory authority rests with the FCC , it usually adopts NRSC recommendations, such as RBDS
RBDS
and spectral masks . For U.S
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Motorola
MOTOROLA, INC. (/ˌmoʊtəˈroʊlə/ ) was an American multinational telecommunications company founded on September 25, 1928, based in Schaumburg, Illinois . After having lost $4.3 billion from 2007 to 2009, the company was divided into two independent public companies, Motorola Mobility
Motorola Mobility
and Motorola Solutions on January 4, 2011. Motorola Solutions is generally considered to be the direct successor to Motorola, as the reorganization was structured with Motorola
Motorola
Mobility being spun off. Motorola Mobility
Motorola Mobility
was acquired by Lenovo
Lenovo
in 2014. Motorola
Motorola
designed and sold wireless network equipment such as cellular transmission base stations and signal amplifiers
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De-emphasis
Typically, prior to some process, such as transmission over cable, or recording to phonograph record or tape, the input frequency range most susceptible to noise is boosted. This is referred to as "pre-emphasis" – "pre-" the process the signal will undergo. Later, when the signal is received, or retrieved from recording, the reverse transformation is applied ("de-emphasis") so that the output accurately reproduces the original input. Any noise added by transmission or record/playback, to the frequency range previously boosted, is now attenuated in the de-emphasis stage. The high-frequency signal components are emphasized to produce a more equal modulation index for the transmitted frequency spectrum, and therefore a better signal-to-noise ratio for the entire frequency range . Emphasis is commonly used in FM broadcasting
FM broadcasting
and vinyl (e.g. LP ) records
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Attenuate
In physics , ATTENUATION or, in some contexts, EXTINCTION is the gradual loss of flux intensity through a medium . For instance, dark glasses attenuate sunlight , lead attenuates X-rays , and water and air attenuates both light and sound at variable attenuation rates. Hearing protectors help reduce acoustic flux from flowing into the ears. This phenomenon is called acoustic attenuation and is measured in decibels (dBs). In electrical engineering and telecommunications , attenuation affects the propagation of waves and signals in electrical circuits , in optical fibers , and in air. Electrical attenuators and optical attenuators are commonly manufactured components in this field
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Stereophonic Sound
STEREOPHONIC SOUND or, more commonly, STEREO, is a method of sound reproduction that creates an illusion of multi-directional audible perspective. This is usually achieved by using two or more independent audio channels through a configuration of two or more loudspeakers (or stereo headphones ) in such a way as to create the impression of sound heard from various directions, as in natural hearing. Thus the term "stereophonic" applies to so-called "quadraphonic " and "surround-sound " systems as well as the more common two-channel, two-speaker systems. It is often contrasted with monophonic , or "mono" sound, where audio is heard as coming from one position, often ahead in the sound field (analogous to a visual field ). In the 2000s, stereo sound is common in entertainment systems such as broadcast radio and TV, recorded music and the cinema
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Electronic Industries Association
The ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIES ALLIANCE (EIA; until 1997 ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIES ASSOCIATION) was a standards and trade organization composed as an alliance of trade associations for electronics manufacturers in the United States
United States
. They developed standards to ensure the equipment of different manufacturers was compatible and interchangeable. The EIA ceased operations on February 11, 2011, but the former sectors continue to serve the constituencies of EIA. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 EIA standards * 3 References * 4 External links HISTORYIn 1924 United States-based radio manufacturers formed a trade group called the Associated Radio Manufacturers. Later that same year, the group renamed itself the Radio Manufacturers Association (RMA)
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United States
Coordinates : 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of America Flag Great Seal MOTTO: " In God We Trust " Other traditional mottos * " E pluribus unum
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Photosynthetic Capacity
PHOTOSYNTHETIC CAPACITY (AMAX) is a measure of the maximum rate at which leaves are able to fix carbon during photosynthesis . It is typically measured as the amount of carbon dioxide that is fixed per metre squared per second, for example as μmol m−2 sec−1. LIMITATIONS Photosynthetic capacity is limited by carboxylation capacity and electron transport capacity. For example, in high carbon dioxide concentrations or in low light, the plant is not able to regenerate ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate fast enough (also known RUBP, the acceptor molecule in photosynthetic carbon reduction). So in this case, photosynthetic capacity is limited by electron transport of the light reaction, which generates the NADPH and ATP required for the PCR (Calvin) Cycle, and regeneration of RUBP
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National Association Of Broadcasters
The NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF BROADCASTERS (NAB) is a trade association and lobby group representing the interests of commercial and non-commercial over-the-air radio and television broadcasters in the United States
United States
. The NAB represents more than 8,300 terrestrial radio and television stations as well as broadcast networks . As of 2015, the president and CEO of the NAB is Gordon Smith , a former United States
United States
Senator from Oregon
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