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ACARS
In aviation, ACARS
ACARS
(/ˈeɪkɑːrz/; an acronym for aircraft communications addressing and reporting system) is a digital datalink system for transmission of short messages between aircraft and ground stations via airband radio or satellite. The protocol was designed by ARINC
ARINC
and deployed in 1978,[1] using the Telex
Telex
format
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Aviation
Aviation
Aviation
is the practical aspect or art of aeronautics, being the design, development, production, operation and use of aircraft, especially heavier-than-air aircraft.Contents1 Etymology 2 History2.1 Early beginnings 2.2 Lighter than air 2.3 Heavier than air3 Operations of aircraft3.1 Civil aviation3.1.1 Air transport 3.1.2 General aviation3.2 Military aviation3.2.1 Types of military aviation3.3 Air safety4
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SELCAL
In international aviation, SELCAL or SelCal is a selective-calling radio system that can alert an aircraft's crew that a ground radio station wishes to communicate with the aircraft. SELCAL uses a ground-based encoder and radio transmitter to broadcast an audio signal that is picked up by a decoder and radio receiver on an aircraft. The use of SELCAL allows an aircraft crew to be notified of incoming communications even when the aircraft's radio has been muted. Thus, crewmembers need not devote their attention to continuous radio listening.Contents1 Use 2 Code registration 3 Limitations 4 See also 5 ReferencesUse[edit] SELCAL operates on the high frequency (HF) or very high frequency (VHF) radio frequency bands used for aircraft communications. HF radio often has extremely high levels of background noise and can be difficult or distracting to listen to for long periods of time
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Acronym
An acronym is a word or name formed as an abbreviation from the initial components in a phrase or a word, usually individual letters (as in NATO
NATO
or laser) and sometimes syllables (as in Benelux). There are no universal standards of the multiple names for such abbreviations and of their orthographic styling. In English and most other languages, such abbreviations historically had limited use, but they became much more common in the 20th century
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Ping (networking Utility)
Ping is a computer network administration software utility used to test the reachability of a host on an Internet Protocol
Internet Protocol
(IP) network. It measures the round-trip time for messages sent from the originating host to a destination computer that are echoed back to the source. The name comes from active sonar terminology that sends a pulse of sound and listens for the echo to detect objects under water,[1] although it is sometimes interpreted as a backronym to packet Internet groper.[2] Ping operates by sending Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) echo request packets to the target host and waiting for an ICMP echo reply. The program reports errors, packet loss, and a statistical summary of the results, typically including the minimum, maximum, the mean round-trip times, and standard deviation of the mean. The command-line options of the ping utility and its output vary between the numerous implementations
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Minimum-shift Keying
In digital modulation, minimum-shift keying (MSK) is a type of continuous-phase frequency-shift keying that was developed in the late 1950s and 1960s.[1] Similar to OQPSK, MSK is encoded with bits alternating between quadrature components, with the Q component delayed by half the symbol period. However, instead of square pulses as O QPSK
QPSK
uses, MSK encodes each bit as a half sinusoid. This results in a constant-modulus signal (constant envelope signal), which reduces problems caused by non-linear distortion. In addition to being viewed as related to OQPSK, MSK can also be viewed as a continuous phase frequency shift keyed (CPFSK) signal with a frequency separation of one-half the bit rate. In MSK the difference between the higher and lower frequency is identical to half the bit rate
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Line-of-sight Propagation
Line-of-sight propagation
Line-of-sight propagation
is a characteristic of electromagnetic radiation or acoustic wave propagation which means waves travel in a direct path from the source to the receiver. Electromagnetic transmission includes light emissions traveling in a straight line. The rays or waves may be diffracted, refracted, reflected, or absorbed by the atmosphere and obstructions with material and generally cannot travel over the horizon or behind obstacles. In contrast to line-of-sight propagation, at low frequency (below approximately 3 MHz) due to diffraction radio waves can travel as ground waves, which follow the contour of the Earth. This enables AM radio stations to transmit beyond the horizon
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Petaluma
Petaluma /pɛtəˈluːmə/ is a city in Sonoma County, California, part of the North Bay sub-region of the San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay Area, located 37 mi (60 km) north of San Francisco. Its population was 57,941 according to the 2010 Census.[6] The Rancho Petaluma Adobe, located in Petaluma, is a National Historic Landmark. Its construction started in 1836 by order of General Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo, then Commandant of the San Francisco
San Francisco
Presidio. It was the center of a 66,000 acre (270-km²) ranch stretching from Petaluma River
Petaluma River
to Sonoma Creek
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Flight Recorder
A flight recorder is an electronic recording device placed in an aircraft for the purpose of facilitating the investigation of aviation accidents and incidents. Flight
Flight
recorders are also known by the misnomer black box—they are actually bright orange to aid in their recovery after accidents. The flight data recorder (FDR) is a device that preserves the recent history of the flight through the recording of dozens of parameters collected several times per second. The cockpit voice recorder (CVR) preserves the recent history of the sounds in the cockpit, including the conversation of the pilots. The two recorders give an accurate testimony, narrating the aircraft's flight history, to assist in any later investigation. The FDR and CVR may be combined in a single unit
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Doppler Effect
The Doppler effect
Doppler effect
(or the Doppler shift) is the change in frequency or wavelength of a wave for an observer who is moving relative to the wave source.[1] It is named after the Austrian physicist Christian Doppler, who described the phenomenon in 1842. A common example of Doppler shift is the change of pitch heard when a vehicle sounding a horn approaches and recedes from an observer. Compared to the emitted frequency, the received frequency is higher during the approach, identical at the instant of passing by, and lower during the recession.[2] The reason for the Doppler effect
Doppler effect
is that when the source of the waves is moving towards the observer, each successive wave crest is emitted from a position closer to the observer than the previous wave.[2][3] Therefore, each wave takes slightly less time to reach the observer than the previous wave
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FAA
The Federal Aviation Administration
Federal Aviation Administration
(FAA) of the United States is a national authority with powers to regulate all aspects of civil aviation. These include the construction and operation of airports, air traffic management, the certification of personnel and aircraft, and the protection of U.S. assets during the launch or re-entry of commercial space vehicles.Contents1 Major functions 2 Organizations 3 Regions and Aeronautical Center Operations 4 History 5 21st century5.1 FAA reauthorization and air traffic control reform6 Criticism6.1 Conflicting roles 6.2 Changes to air traffic controller application process7 List of FAA Administrators 8 FAA process8.1 Designated Engineering Representative 8.2 Designated Airworthiness Representative (DAR)9 See also 10 References 11 External linksMajor functions[edit] The FAA's roles include:Regulating U.S
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Air Traffic Control
Air traffic control
Air traffic control
(ATC) is a service provided by ground-based air traffic controllers who direct aircraft on the ground and through controlled airspace, and can provide advisory services to aircraft in non-controlled airspace. The primary purpose of ATC worldwide is to prevent collisions, organize and expedite the flow of air traffic, and provide information and other support for pilots.[1] In some countries, ATC plays a security or defensive role, or is operated by the military. To prevent collisions, ATC enforces traffic separation rules, which ensure each aircraft maintains a minimum amount of empty space around it at all times. Many aircraft also have collision avoidance systems, which provide additional safety by warning pilots when other aircraft get too close. In many countries, ATC provides services to all private, military, and commercial aircraft operating within its airspace
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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Meteorological Instrumentation
Meteorological instruments are the equipment used to sample the state of the atmosphere at a given time. Each science has its own unique sets of laboratory equipment. However, meteorology is a science which does not use much lab equipment but relies more on on-site observation and remote sensing equipment. In science, an observation, or observable, is an abstract idea that can be measured and for which data can be taken. Rain was one of the first quantities to be measured historically. Two other accurately measured weather-related variables are wind and humidity. Many attempts had been made prior to the 15th century to construct adequate equipment to measure atmospheric variables.Contents1 History 2 Types 3 Weather
Weather
stations 4 Surface weather observations 5 See also 6 ReferencesHistory[edit] Devices used to measure these three sprang up in the mid-15th century and were respectively the rain gauge, the anemometer, and the hygrometer
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Anemometer
An anemometer is a device used for measuring the speed of wind, and is also a common weather station instrument. The term is derived from the Greek word anemos, which means wind, and is used to describe any wind speed measurement instrument used in meteorology
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