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A373, Upper Mesa Falls, Caribou
Cervus
Cervus
tarandus (Linnaeus, 1758)The reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), also known as the caribou in North America,[3] is a species of deer with circumpolar distribution, native to Arctic, sub-Arctic, tundra, boreal and mountainous regions of northern Europe, Siberia
Siberia
and North America.[2] This includes both sedentary and migratory populations. Rangifer herd size varies greatly in different geographic regions. The Taimyr herd of migrating Siberian tundra reindeer (R. t. sibiricus) in Russia
Russia
is the largest wild reindeer herd in the world,[4][5] with numbers varying between 400,000 and 1,000,000. What was once the second largest herd is the migratory boreal woodland caribou (R. t. caribou) George River herd in Canada, with former variations between 28,000 and 385,000
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Reindeer (other)
Reindeer
Reindeer
(Rangifer tarandus) is a deer from Arctic and Subarctic North America and Eurasia; it may refer to: Reindeer
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Sedentism
In cultural anthropology, sedentism (sometimes called sedentariness; compare sedentarism[1]) is the practice of living in one place for a long time. As of 2018[update], the majority of people belong to sedentary cultures. In evolutionary anthropology and archaeology, sedentism takes on a slightly different sub-meaning, often applying to the transition from nomadic society to a lifestyle that involves remaining in one place permanently
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Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
Linnaeus
(/lɪˈniːəs, lɪˈneɪəs/;[1][2] 23 May[note 1] 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné[3] (Swedish pronunciation: [kɑːɭ fɔn lɪˈneː] ( listen)), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist, who formalised the modern system of naming organisms called binomial nomenclature. He is known by the epithet "father of modern taxonomy".[4] Many of his writings were in Latin
Latin
and his name is rendered in Latin
Latin
as Carolus Linnæus (after 1761 Carolus a Linné). Linnaeus
Linnaeus
was born in the countryside of Småland, in southern Sweden. He received most of his higher education at Uppsala University
Uppsala University
and began giving lectures in botany there in 1730
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North America
North America
North America
is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.[3][4] It is bordered to the north by the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, and to the southeast by South America
South America
and the Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea. North America
North America
covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers (9,540,000 square miles), about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface
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Eurasia
Eurasia
Eurasia
/jʊəˈreɪʒə/ is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.[3][4][5] The term is a portmanteau of its constituent continents ( Europe
Europe
and Asia)
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Synonym (taxonomy)
In scientific nomenclature, a synonym is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name,[1] although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature.[2] For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name (under the currently used system of scientific nomenclature) to the Norway spruce, which he called Pinus abies. This name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name which is Picea abies. Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms are not equals, but have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription, position, and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time (this correct name is to be determined by applying the relevant code of nomenclature)
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Species
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition. Scientists and conservationists need a species definition which allows them to work, regardless of the theoretical difficulties. If as Linnaeus
Linnaeus
thought, species were fixed, there would be no problem, but evolutionary processes cause species to change continually, and to grade into one another. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which two individuals can produce fertile offspring, typically by sexual reproduction. While this definition is often adequate, when looked at more closely it is problematic. For example, with hybridisation, in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies, or in a ring species, the boundaries between closely related species become unclear
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Circumpolar Distribution
A circumpolar distribution is any range of a taxon that occurs over a wide range of longitudes but only at high latitudes; such a range therefore extends all the way around either the North Pole
North Pole
or the South Pole.[1][2] Taxa that are also found in isolated high-mountain environments further from the poles are said to have arctic–alpine distributions.[3] Animals with circumpolar distributions include the reindeer,[1][2] polar bear,[4] Arctic fox,[1][5] snowy owl,[5] snow bunting,[5] king eider,[5] brent goose[5] and long-tailed skua[5] in the north, and the Weddell seal[1] and Adélie penguin[1] in the south. Plants with northern circumpolar distributions include Eutrema edwardsii (syn. Draba laevigata),[2] Saxifraga oppositifolia,[3] Persicaria vivipara[6] and Honckenya peploides.[7][8][9] References[edit]^ a b c d e Vladimir Kotlyakov & Anna Komarova (2006). Elsevier's Dictionary of Geography: in English, Russian, French, Spanish and German
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Arctic
The Arctic
Arctic
(/ˈɑːrktɪk/ or /ˈɑːrtɪk/)[1][Note 1] is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth. The Arctic
Arctic
consists of the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean, adjacent seas, and parts of Alaska
Alaska
(United States), Northern Canada
Northern Canada
(Canada), Finland, Greenland
Greenland
(Kingdom of Denmark), Iceland, Norway, Russia
Russia
and Sweden. Land within the Arctic region has seasonally varying snow and ice cover, with predominantly treeless permafrost (permanently frozen underground ice)-containing tundra. Arctic
Arctic
seas contain seasonal sea ice in many places. The Arctic
Arctic
region is a unique area among Earth's ecosystems
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Sub-Arctic
The subarctic is a region in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
immediately south of the true Arctic
Arctic
and covering much of Alaska, Canada, Iceland, the north of Scandinavia, Siberia, and the Shetland Islands. Generally, subarctic regions fall between 50°N and 70°N latitude, depending on local climates.Contents1 Climate and soils 2 Economy 3 See also 4 External linksClimate and soils[edit] Monthly temperatures are above 10 °C (50 °F) for at least one and at most three months of the year. Precipitation tends to be low due to the low moisture content of the cold air. Precipitation is typically greater in warmer months, with a summer maximum ranging from moderate in North America
North America
to extreme in the Russian Far East
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Tundra
In physical geography, tundra (/ˈtʌndrə, ˈtʊn-/) is a type of biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons. The term tundra comes through Russian тундра (tûndra) from the Kildin Sami word тӯндар (tūndâr) meaning "uplands", "treeless mountain tract".[1] There are three types of tundra: Arctic
Arctic
tundra,[2] alpine tundra,[2] and Antarctic tundra.[3] In tundra, the vegetation is composed of dwarf shrubs, sedges and grasses, mosses, and lichens. Scattered trees grow in some tundra regions. The ecotone (or ecological boundary region) between the tundra and the forest is known as the tree line or timberline.Contents1 Arctic1.1 Relationship with global warming2 Antarctic 3 Alpine 4 Climatic classification 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksArctic Arctic
Arctic
tundra occurs in the far Northern Hemisphere, north of the taiga belt
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Taiga
Taiga
Taiga
(/ˈtaɪɡə/; Russian: тайга́, IPA: [tɐjˈɡa]; from Turkic[1]), also known as boreal forest or snow forest, is a biome characterized by coniferous forests consisting mostly of pines, spruces and larches. The taiga is the world's largest biome apart from the oceans
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Animal Migration
Animal migration
Animal migration
is the relatively long-distance movement of individual animals, usually on a seasonal basis. It is the most common form of migration in ecology
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Charles Hamilton Smith
Lieutenant-Colonel Charles Hamilton Smith, KH (26 December 1776 in East Flanders, Belgium
Belgium
– 21 September 1859 in Plymouth) was an English artist, naturalist, antiquary, illustrator, soldier, and spy.Contents1 Military service 2 Antiquary, naturalist and illustrator 3 The Natural History of the Human Species 4 ReferencesMilitary service[edit] His military career began in 1787, when he studied at the Austrian academy for artillery and engineers at Mechelen
Mechelen
and Leuven
Leuven
in Belgium. Although his military service, which ended in 1820 and included the Napoleonic Wars, saw him travel extensively (including the West Indies, Canada, and United States), much of his time was spent at a desk job in Britain. One of his noteworthy achievements was an 1800 experiment to determine which colour should be used for military uniforms
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Reindeer In Russia
Reindeer
Reindeer
in Russia
Russia
include tundra and forest reindeer and are subspecies of Rangifer tarandus. Tundra reindeer include the Novaya Zemlya (R.t.pearsoni) and Lapland (R.t. tarandus) subspecies and the Siberian tundra reindeer (R.t
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